HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
A Level Health & Social Care/Schemes of work/Version 1.0
Unit Title HSC10: Diagnosis, Treatment and Preventative Strategies (Optional)
This unit aims to introduce a variety of diagnostic techniques and the principles and key points of practice of a range of common medical
treatments. This unit also looks into ways in which common diseases and disorders can be prevented.
Method of assessment – written examination
Topic
3.10.1
Diagnosing
disease
Learning objectives / understanding
Key terms /
definitions
Understand that diagnosis is the identification
by a health care professional of a disease
process that is causing a person’s ill health or
other complaint, and that this is essential in
order to begin appropriate treatment. This will
include identifying both the disease process
and the agent responsible. There are several
steps to the process and these may include:
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Role play a GP taking
a medical history
(could link to effective
communication from
HSC01)
Resources
“AQA A2 Health and Social Care”
by Richard Smithson
YouTube
Blood pressure monitor
YouTube clips on use
of a stethoscope,
percussion etc.
Taking the medical history which
includes a patient’s own account of the
illness and asking questions to clarify the Medical history
situation and make a provisional
Diagnosis
diagnosis.
Conducting a physical examination to
determine symptoms and reduce the list
of possible diseases and move towards
a definite diagnosis. Know the scientific
principles and basic method of common
Suggested activities
Physical
1
Use blood pressure
monitor to demonstrate
taking a blood
pressure reading
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
elements of physical examination,
including visual examination, use of a
stethoscope, palpation, testing reflexes,
percussion, taking temperature and
blood pressure.
examination
Stethoscope
Palpation
Testing reflexes

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Conducting special tests using
diagnostic techniques to confirm the
diagnosis;
The use of computers to inform the
medical professional of the full range of
possible diagnoses for a particular set of
symptoms.
Percussion
Temperature
Blood pressure
Diagnostic
techniques
2
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
3.10.2
Diagnostic
techniques
Know that following some screening tests
further diagnostic testing may be used.
Understand how dysfunctions can be tested
and monitored using:
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YouTube clips of the
different types of
scanning
YouTube
Diagnostic imaging to include the
principles of and use of x-rays, contrast
x-rays, CT/PET scanning, radionuclide
scanning, MRI and ultrasound scanning;
X-ray
Tissue biopsy, i.e. removal of a tissue or
a cell sample which is then examined
under a microscope and/or subjected to
biochemical tests.
PET scan
Contrast x-ray
CT scan
Radionuclide
scanning
MRI scan
Electrocardiography, including
Ultrasound
attachment of electrodes to the chest,
wrists and ankles to display the electrical
Tissue biopsy
activity of the heart as a trace on a
moving graph or screen;
ECG
Body fluid sampling to include the
removal of blood samples.
“AQA A2 Health and Social Care”
by Richard Smithson
Body fluid
sampling
3
Flow charts illustrating
the procedures
involved in the different
types of imaging
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
3.10.3
Diagnostic
techniques to
include
screening
tests
Screening tests
Screening
Understand that early detection of a disease or
disorder, often in presymptomatic stages, will
allow treatment to be more effective. Screening
tests may be suitable for the whole population
or for specific groups of people at special risk,
e.g. people over a certain age, people with a
family history of a particular disorder or people
employed in hazardous occupations.
Presymptomatic
Antenatal
Genetic
Down’s
syndrome
Know who the client group is, how each test is
performed, what is being looked for and how
positive or negative results are recognised. The
tests to be covered are:
Cystic fibrosis
Antenatal screening tests:
Sickle cell
anaemia


Amniocentesis for genetic disorder
Down’s syndrome, spina bifida and
sickle cell anaemia
Chorionic villus sampling for genetic
disorder cystic fibrosis and muscular
dystrophy and sickle cell anaemia
Blood tests for anaemia and blood
groupings to include the rhesus factor.
“AQA A2 Health and Social Care”
by Richard Smithson
www.immunisation.nhs.uk
Know that there are different screening tests for Spina bifida
different client groups and their importance and
success rates in the UK.
Sickle cell
anaemia
Know that following some screening, further
tests may be needed to make a diagnosis.
CVS

YouTube clip of
amniocentesis, CVS
etc. being performed
Muscular
dystrophy
Anaemia
Rhesus factor
PKU
Caries
4
Macmillan cancer
information – how to
perform a personal
check on breasts /
testicles
www.patient.co.uk
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
Snellen chart
Infant and child screening tests:

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Blood test for phenylketonuria (PKU)
Dental examination for caries
Eye tests for visual defects using a
Snellen chart and behavioural response
test for colour blindness
Hearing tests for deafness using
audiograms and behavioural response
tests
Physical examination for hip dislocation
Adult screening tests:

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Blood pressure for hypertension
Eye tests for glaucoma using tonometry
and other visual defects include shortsightedness and long-sightedness
Smear test for cervical cancer
Mammography for breast cancer
Physical examination for testicular
cancer
Behavioural
response test
Audiogram
Hip dislocation
Blood pressure
Hypertension
Glaucoma
Short-sighted
Long-sighted
Smear test
Cervical cancer
Mammography
Testicular
cancer
5
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
3.10.4
Strategies to
Prevent
Disease:
Immunisation
Understand how different dangerous diseases
can be avoided through immunisation, i.e. the
artificial creation of immunity against infection.
The difference between active and passive
immunity must also be understood. Understand
how immunisation works by attacking invading
micro-organisms through the use of antibodies.
Immunisation
www.nhs.uk
Active immunity
www.netdoctor.co.uk
Passive
immunity
www.rcn.org.uk
Antibody
Understand that infants and children are
immunised against:

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Diphtheria
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Tetanus
Measles, mumps, rubella (triple MMR
vaccine).
The following vaccinations are recommended
for people of any age who travel to different
countries which have specific health risks.
Common examples include protection against:

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Cholera
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Typhoid
Rabies
For each of the vaccinations know about the:


Disease which the vaccine protects
against
Causes of the disease, i.e. an organism,
e.g. bacteria or virus and its name
Diphtheria
Whooping
cough
Tetanus
MMR
Cholera
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Typhoid
Rabies
Bacteria
Virus
Mode of
transmission
6
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
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3.10.5
Treating
disease
Mode of transmission of the disease
Symptoms and progression of the
disease
Risks of the disease to the person long
and short term
Risk of having the vaccine, side-effects.
Symptom
Progression
Side effect
Understand that many illnesses and injuries are
not serious and most clear up without any
treatment being necessary. Self-treatment may
be required in other cases to relieve symptoms
and help the person feel more comfortable.
Self-treatment includes bed rest, drinking plenty
of fluids and/or taking over-the-counter
medications for common diseases such as
coughs and colds. Understand, however, that
where symptoms persist, a health care
professional should be consulted and this may
lead to treatments of different kinds.
Self- treatment
Understand the principles of home nursing for
sick people and of hospital nursing including
intensive care.
Chemical name
Drug treatment
Brand name
This is the use of a chemical substance that
alters the function of one or more body organs
or changes the process of disease. Each drug
normally has three names, i.e. a detailed
descriptive chemical name, a shorter generic
name (official medical name) and a specific
brand name chosen by the manufacturer.
Genetic
engineering
Over-thecounter
Bed rest
Medication
Prescription
Drug
Generic name
Method of
administration
Operative
7
Examination of
medication packaging
to identify the three
types of names
“AQA A2 Health and Social Care”
by Richard Smithson
www.nhs.uk
www.boots.com
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
Drugs are either licensed for prescription or
available over-the-counter and may be from
naturally occurring substances or artificially
produced, sometimes by genetic engineering.
surgery
Know that drugs are classified, firstly according
to chemical make-up, secondly to the disorder
treated and thirdly by their specific effects on
the body.
Aseptic
techniques
All new drugs are tested for efficacy and safety.
The different methods of administering drugs,
i.e. by mouth, injection, creams, suppositories
or sprays should be known, and the reasons for
administration in each case. Appreciate that
drugs can produce adverse side-effects and a
drug is only useful if its overall benefit
outweighs any risk and severity of these sideeffects.
Surgical treatment as a minor or major
direct physical intervention
Operative surgery involves incision and the
inspection and removal of diseased tissues or
organs and/or replacement or redirection of
body channels and/or implantation of electronic
or medical devices.
Understand the broad principles of transplant
surgery including the need for aseptic
techniques and general/local anaesthesia. The
broad principles of endoscopic surgery,
microsurgery and laser surgery should also be
understood.
Endoscopic
surgery
Surgical
treatment
Electronic/medic
al devices
General
anaesthesia
Local
anaesthesia
Microsurgery
Laser surgery
Radiotherapy
Dialysis
Lithotripsy
8
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
Radiotherapy is the treatment of cancer and
other diseases using ionising radiation to
destroy or slow down abnormal cell growth.
Understand that this is sometimes used on its
own and sometimes in conjunction with surgical
techniques. Radiotherapy can be administered
from a machine outside the body or by
introducing radioactive material into the body.
Understand that the relative benefits of using
this treatment must be weighed against the
side-effects it produces.
Other techniques
Other techniques, including the broad principles
of dialysis and lithotripsy in relation to the
kidney.
3.10.6
Factors
affecting
treatment
Understand that individuals may be affected
differently by a particular treatment and may
wish to make other choices about treatment
and quality of life. Appreciate the
consequences of delayed treatment and
understand that ethical issues are associated
with the treatment of disease and dysfunction,
e.g. where lifestyle choices relating to physical
exercise, diet, alcohol consumption and
smoking may reduce the effectiveness of
treatment.
Quality of life
Lifestyle factors
Effectiveness
Ethical issues
9
“AQA A2 Health and Social Care”
by Richard Smithson
HSC10 Scheme of Work V1
3.10.7 Assessment
You will be assessed on your knowledge, understanding and skills relating to diagnosis and treatment through a written examination of two
hours.
There will be four compulsory structured questions which will include a mixture of short item and free response items. These will require you to
demonstrate and apply your knowledge, understanding and skills of diagnosis and treatment.
You will also be required to analyse relevant data, including numerical data, relating to diagnosis and treatment and to evaluate the evidence,
make judgements and draw conclusions.
The questions will be drawn from the following four areas of the unit:
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diagnosing disease
diagnostic techniques to include screening tests
strategies to prevent disease – immunisation
treating disease
To gain high marks in your written examination you should ensure that:
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your answers show a good level of detail, depth relevance and accuracy
you apply knowledge, understanding and skills top the material presented in the questions successfully
data analysis is thorough and produces clear, logical reasoning and judgements;
suggestions and opinions are supported by the data and the material covered in all areas of the unit
conclusions are consistent with the data and level of detail.
10