VANAF PAGINA 38 VAN DIT DOCUMENT MINISAMENVATTINGEN (ELK ARTIKEL OP 1 A4)
Guidelines for Selecting or Modifying Logos (Henderson & Cote, 1998)
Abstract
High-recognition logos should be very natural, very harmonious, and moderately elaborate. Low-investment logos should be less
natural and very harmonious. High image logos must be moderately elaborate and natural.
Theory
Logos typically are selected from a pool of designs by the marketing manager, or the chief executive officer. It is possible that
desired responses are not achieved because selected logos have designs that are difficult to store or access in memory, are not
likable, or fail to create any sense of meaning.
We begin by highlighting some important logo decisions and the need for selection guidelines. We then examine the
experimental aesthetics, Gestalt psychology, graphic design, and logo strategy literature to identify the important responses to and
visual characteristics of logos. We empirically examine the degree to which visual characteristics influence initial responses to logos.
We close by developing and illustrating a set of logo selection guidelines.
Logo Selection
Logo:
graphic design that a company uses, with or without its name, to identify itself or its products.
The logo selection/modification decision might occur only once or twice in the career of the marketing manager. Proper selection is
critical because logos are one of the main vehicles for communicating image, cutting through clutter to gain attention, and speeding
recognition of the product or company. Selecting good logos also makes sense financially. Costs include initial design, managers'
time in selection process, and placing/replacing logo on everything from business cards to signage on buildings, vehicles, and
packaging.
What Makes a Good Logo?
Logos should be recognizable, familiar, elicit a consensually held meaning in the target market, and evoke positive affect.
Correct and False Recognition
2 levels:
1. Correct recognition:
2. Recall:
remember seeing the logo.
remind consumers of the brand or company name.
Affect
Research provides evidence that evaluations of logos can influence evaluations of companies. Positive affect can develop over time
with increased exposure but also can be evoked by the initial design of the logo. Most noteworthy examples have been the transfer
of negative affect due to the strategy or meaning associated with a symbol.
Meaning
If a logo has a clear meaning, it can be linked more easily to the company or product.
Subjective Familiarity:
a logo evoking a familiar meaning or design being similar to well-known symbols.
Method
This study is complex by the examination of multiple dependent variables (e.g., recognition, affect, meaning consensus) and
multiple independent variables (e.g., design characteristics such as complexity and depth). The analysis is conducted in three
phases. First, we identify underlying response dimensions (dependent variables) using factor analysis. Second, we use factor
analysis to identify underlying design dimensions (independent variables). Third, the design dimensions are regressed against the
response dimensions.
Results
Identifying Underlying Dimensions
Response dimensions—dependent variables.
4 factors generated by factor analysis:
1. Affect:
evaluative emotional reaction created by a logo
(and is comprised of 5 measures: good, liking, quality, interesting,
and distinctive)
2. Familiar meaning:
stimuli that easily evoke consensually held and therefore familiar
meanings within a culture or subculture.
3. Correct recognition:
remember seeing the logo to which they have been
exposed.
High
Low
High
4.
False recognition:
Low
when people believe they have seen the logo when they really
have not.
Design dimensions—independent variables.
7 factors were extracted:
1. Natural:
degree to which the design depicts commonly experienced objects.
(which combines…)

Representative:
degree of realism

2.
and Organic:
Harmony:
congruent pattern or arrangement of parts that combines symmetry and
balance and captures good design from a Gestalt perspective.
(which combines…)

Symmetric:

3.
and Balance:
Elaborate:
natural shapes such as irregular curves.
reflections along one or more axis. Elements on one side of the
axis are identical to elements on other side.
that there is a center of suspension between two weights or
portions of the design.
concept of design richness and ability to use simple lines to capture the
essence of something
(which combines…

Complexity:

Active:
many different design features such as irregularity in the
arrangement of elements, increases in number of elements,
heterogeneity in nature of elements.
impression of motion or flow.

and Depth:
appearance of perspective or a three-dimensional design.
4.
Remaining four factors each represent a single design characteristic, namely
Parallel:
multiple lines or elements that appear adjacent to each other.
5.
Round:
primarily curved lines and circular elements.
6.
Proportion:
relationship between horizontal and vertical dimensions.
Best known example: the golden section.
7.
Repetition:
when parts of the design are similar to one another.
General Findings
Creating Positive Affect
Results show that two forms of affective response, liking and interest, are highly correlated for logos.
Which Type of Recognition?
A question of resources
If a company has…
they want…
…a small budget
 …a logo that creates a sense of recognition in the absence of heavy exposure
false recognition.
…adequate resources
 …to ensure that its logo is correctly recognized and not confused with other marks, so that it
benefits more from the extensive exposure for which it spends so much money
correct recognition.
Clear, Familiar Meaning
We find that meaning, as and subjective familiarity go hand in hand, loading onto a single dimension, which we call familiar meaning.
Familiar meaning can be maximized by selecting a unique, but easily interpreted, design of a familiar object. Findings further
indicate that one of the benefits of selecting logos with familiar meanings is that they improve correct recognition.
Selection Guidelines
What constitutes a "good" logo depends on the situation and objectives for that logo. Traditionally, good logos are recognizable
(correct), meaningful, and affectively positive. Altematively, a company with a small advertising budget might prefer a logo that
evokes a sense of recognition, such as occurs with false recognition. Finally, some companies do not care about recognition but
simply want a logo that gives a professional look and creates a positive image. Therefore,
3 different strategic objectives for logos:
those selected to create…
1. High-recognition logos:
…high correct recognition, low false recognition, and high positive affect;
2. Low-investment logos:
…false recognition and positive affect;
3. High-image logos:
…strong positive affect without thought to recognition.
High-Recognition Logos
Guidelines: high in natural and harmony, moderately high elaborateness, repeated elements combined with extensive exposure to
create company recall)
Natural
++
high correct recognition, low false recognition, and high positive affect
Harmony
++
Elaborateness
+
2 examples of logos that achieve the high-recognition designation:
Both accomplish all desired goals  high on correct recognition, affect, and familiar meaning and low on false recognition.
Designs also closely follow suggested guidelines  high on natural, high in harmony, and close to optimal on elaborate and
exhibiting repeated elements.
Low-Investment Logos
Guidelines: below average on natural, high harmony, moderately high elaborateness, parallel lines, and good proportion.
Focus on achieving false recognition and positive affect.
Natural
false recognition and positive affect
Harmony
++
Elaborateness
+
3 examples, all high on affect and false recognition, also high on harmony and exhibit some parallel lines. Finally, low on natural.
High Image Logos
Guidelines: moderately high elaborateness and naturalness, high harmony.
Natural
+
strong positive affect without thought to recognition
Harmony
++
Elaborateness
+
Create very positive affect. Important is moderately high elaborateness. In addition, logos should be high on natural and harmony.
Examples
Almost all logos shown previously achieve high affect, only exception the pinecone (dennenappel), which is too high on
elaborateness.
(pinecone, dennenappel)
Applying the Guidelines to Different Types of Logos
Abstract Logos  low in natural, generally poorly recognized
Recognition, affect, and familiar meaning  can be improved  making abstract logos more meaningful, natural,
elaborate, and harmonious.
Examples: Nike and Coca-Cola symbols  more meaningful by being named (swoosh and wave). Nike symbol is linked
to the company, as it communicates speed or motion, whereas Coca-Cola symbol has been used in slogans such as
"Catch the Wave." These linkages improve recognition and recall.
Logos Using Characters  tend to be well recognized but can hurt image. Part of the problem might be that they are too elaborate
and too natural.
Well-rated character logo  KFC logo. It represents the Colonel's face in simple lines and adds a more contemporary
look by incorporating parallel, angular lines.
In contrast, Jolly Green Giant and Land O' Lakes logos  too detailed, without enough clean, crisp lines to simplify.
Recommendation,  improve character logos  using simple lines to reduce elaborateness and adding more
geometric or abstract detail to reduce slightly how natural logo is.
Pictorial Logos  well recognized and contributed positively to image.
Buick logo fits our guidelines fairly well and scored highly in the Interbrand Schechter study. It is more elaborate than
many logos, has repeated elements, is harmonious (has some sense of balance but not perfect symmetry), and more
natural (not purely geometric).
In contrast, the Travelers logo did not contribute positively to image, perhaps because it is too simple.
Recommendation  to ensure that pictorials are sufficiently elaborate and natural. Repeat elements and introduce
interesting harmony (balance and symmetry) in elements when possible.
How corporate visual identity supports reputation (van den Bosch, de Jong & Elving, 2005)
Abstract
Corporate visual identity (CVI):
all symbols and graphical elements that express the essence of an organization
(the essence  corporate identity  historical roots, culture, strategy and structure).
This article aims to explore the relationship between CVI and 5 dimensions of reputation: visibility, distinctiveness, authenticity,
transparency, consistency.
Theory
Corporate visual identity (CVI):
a name, symbol/logo, typography, colour, slogan and additional graphical elements.
CVI elements are used on buildings, vehicles and corporate clothing. CVI provides recognizability. Every major change in a CVI
requires time, stressing the presence of the (new) organisation and emphasizing ways in which it differs from others. CVIs often
changed as a result of repositioning, mergers, acquisitions, or privatisation.
Corporate reputation:
“a perceptual representation of a company’s past actions and future prospects that describes the
firm’s overall appeal to all its key constituents when compared to other leading rivals”
/ the distinctive attributes of the organisation.
This paper explores the relationship between corporate visual identity and reputation. Our exposition of this relationship is based on
the framework about 5 dimensions of reputation established by Fombrun and Van Riel (2004):
V Visibility
D Distinctiveness
A Authenticity
T Transparency
C Consistency
Visibility:
measure of prominence of the brand in minds of customers.
CVI supports visibility by emphasizing the presence of the organisation and it also influences reputation, either in a positive or in a
negative way.
2 positive examples:
1. McDonald’s golden arches placed alongside highways to give motorists the idea to turn off at the next exit and eat at the
restaurant.
2. The Ronald McDonald trust. The name of this institution corresponds with the organization behind it and thus supports the
reputation of the owner.
2 negative examples:
1. CVI on trucks in poor condition not only draws attention to the organisation behind the truck, but also to the way the
organisation is apparently taking care of its fleet and personnel.
2. When turned out that Ahold had misled shareholders by overstating its earnings. The crown in the Ahold symbol was
damaged, conveying a visual metaphor for the precarious situation of the company. Customers stayed away from Albert
Heijn partly due to earnings of the new CEO, which were seen as exorbitant.
CVI supports visibility through name and/or visual cues such as the logo on buildings, vehicles and exposure in the media, both paid
and non-paid. The logo (alongside other visual cues) can come to symbolise reputation.
Distinctiveness:
unique position of the organisation in minds of customers and other stakeholders.
4 examples:
1. Intel’s marketing campaign, which encourages PC manufacturers to use the Intel Inside logo in their ads. The logo
became distinctive via these manufacturers, referring to Intel’s technology as it is used in personal computers.
2. Fombrun and Van Riel (2004) mention a number of distinctive trademarks, logos and visual elements – swoosh of Nike,
swan of KLM, logo of Akzo Nobel.
3. Another good example is Shell. Shell did not feel the need to change their organisation’s name – which referred to the
company’s most important trade end nineteenth century (importation of shells into the UK) – when oil became more
important. Nowadays few would associate oil with shells, but the logo nevertheless “works”.
4. Some design agencies also create business cards for customer-facing personnel. The front is standard, but the back
displays a visual created especially by each member of staff. This puts individuals within the agency in the spotlight.
CVI is influenced by a lot more than just a logo; additional visual elements also help build up the company’s image among
stakeholders. Distinctiveness of the design requires considerable creativity and it must match the organisation’s strategy. A
distinctive design that is both emotionally appealing and surprising can attract free publicity. Once the strategy is known, the CVI
helps to fix it in memory and the organisation becomes distinctive (top of mind).
Authenticity:
process of discovery in order to create a convincing constructed identity, followed by a process of internal
expression and finally by external expression.
4 lessons in which the challenge of authenticity is formulated by Fombrun and Van Riel:
1. clarify who you are
2. develop a broad consensus within the organization
3. express your identity clearly
4. remain true to that identity
Authenticity is often not directly related to CVI, but there are examples that go back to the roots of a company.
1 example:
1. Pharmachemie, a manufacturer of generic medicines uses microscopic images of raw materials of medicines such as
paracetamol (crystals) in six different letterheads and six business cards. Handing over one of their six business cards
creates an opportunity to tell the story of the crystals, the organisation and its business. Employees know this story, they
like it and – most important– they want to talk about it. This is a good example of discovery, followed by internal and
external expression.
Pilditch (1970) stressed the importance of establishing a close correspondence between design of the CVI and the organisation.
The story of CVI helps employees understand what their organisation stands for and gives them the material they need to enhance
the corporate image among external stakeholders. CVI can clearly be of assistance in developing authenticity.
Transparency:
increases trust and reduces uncertainty.
5 main domains of transparency by Fombrun and Van Riel:
1. products and services
2. vision and leadership
3. financial performance,
4. social responsibility
5. the workplace environment
In our view another domain can be added to these, namely transparency created by…
6. an organisation’s visual identity.
2 examples:
1. Unilever - The Unilever logo was only used by the holding. Recently the number of product brands was reduced from
1,600 to 400 and to help position Unilever in the minds of customers, a new logo was designed, which will be displayed
on all packaging. Besides supporting visibility, the new CVI will increase transparency about who is the manufacturer of all
these products.
2. The FSC trademark, a certification logo distributed by the Forest Stewardship Council A.C., whose aim it is to protect
indigenous forests and to promote wood obtained from sustainable forests.
2 ways in which CVI can provide transparency:
1. through an identity architecture that includes corporate and endorsed brands.
2. through a special logo that can be used as certification or quality label for organisations that meet a certain standard and
thus provide customers with background information on their products and services.
Consistency:
the way brands and graphic elements are used on carriers over a longish period of time.
1 example:
1. Coca Cola - The use by Coca-Cola of a standard wave, the same colours and the same typeface. Wherever we are in the
world, we recognise signs, billboards, and products bearing this brand – even if they are written in a script we’ve never
seen before.
CVI proves to be a useful tool for integrating all types of businesses, applications and communication utterances. It supports the
organisation’s reputation by establishing consistency and CVI guidelines can certainly enhance that consistency.
Discussion and conclusion
In this paper, we explore the role of CVI in reputation management. We used Fombrun and Van Riel’s reputation model and
connected CVI to its five dimensions: visibility, distinctiveness, authenticity, transparency and consistency. Our conclusion is that
CVI can support these dimensions and that all of them are interrelated. There is convincing evidence that transparency and
consistency in CVI increases an organization’s visibility. CVI needs careful attention and it must be well managed. CVI is more than
just a logo. It not only represents an organisation, its products and services, but it’s also a visual expression that can be associated
with reputation. CVI can clearly support reputation through impressive design, effective application on a range of identity carriers,
and the condition of these carriers. CVI must therefore be considered a useful tool that can be successfully applied to managing the
reputation of any organization.
Managing Brand Portfolios: Why Leaders Do What They Do (Laforet & Saunders, 1999)
Abstract
This study examines the rationale behind brand strategies, first, by seeing what the proponents of alternative approaches say and,
secondly, by asking managers why they do what they do. Results show that branding strategies are not only market driven.
Theory
Brand strategies:
the ways firms mix and match their corporate, house, and individual brand names on their
products.
Brand Structures
Olins (1989) and Murphy (1987) present a simple brand hierarchy/brand architecture (BA) that focuses on brands and corporate
names.
Corporate dominant approach to branding occurred on only
House dominant brand structures account for
Dual brands:
give two or more brand names equal prominence.
Most common. Used on
5% of grocery products.
11% of brands.
38,5% of products
Endorsed brands: brand names dominate but are endorsed by a small
representation of a corporate or house name.
Occurred on
Brand dominant approaches accounts for
Makers reveal names on stand-alone brands but not in a prominent position
(part of an address).
Furtive brands:
similar to standalone brands, but in these cases name of
owner does not appear.
Occurred on
13.5% of products.
19% of the products examined.
13% of products
THE DETERMINANTS OF BRAND STRATEGY
Depth interviews with managers and review of literature suggested
7 subheadings / forces of brand structures that became hypotheses: 1. History, 2. Centralization, 3. Company philosophy, 4.
Strategy, 5. Markets, 6. Segmentation, 7. Product range.
Most literature on brand structure is managerial and anecdotal  unsurprising that hypotheses do not all agree. Nevertheless,
hypotheses suggest conceptual framework
 3 forces that shape brand strategy (Figure 2):
1. Standardization: dominated by tradition and pride of tightly controlled business operating with a relatively small
portfolio of products of uniform, high quality in homogeneous markets.
Corporate branding is close to this pole
2. Differentiation:
dominated by diversification, with the inherent need to manage a large portfolio of products across
divergent markets. Furtive brands are closest to this pole.
House brands lie between the standardization and differentiation poles.
3. Symbiosis:
biological term meaning a close, prolonged relationship between two or more different species that
may benefit each member. Using a beneficial relationship between two brand names company tries
to span multiple targets, or gain promotional efficiency.
Dual brands are closest to the symbiosis pole.
METHODOLOGY
Data gathered by questionnaires covering reasons for using the 7 brand strategies (Figure 1).
Developing a research instrument involved:
1. Specifying a construct domain by reviewing relevant literature, the construct being the determinants f branding structures.
2. Generating items that capture the domain specified.
3. Discussions with 10 key personnel from leading consumer nondurable companies and advertising agencies. Construct’s
domain was defined as consisting of 7 determinants and 55 subdeterminants. These became the hypotheses for brand
structures covering 1. History, 2. Centralization, 3. Company philosophy, 4. Strategy, 5. Markets, 6. Segmentation, 7.
Product range. These formed a conceptual framework (Figure 2)
The emergent framework (see Figure 3) based on hypotheses supported and revealed significant relationships, retains much of the
detail from the original conceptual framework (Figure 2).
Few parameters at the (1.) standardization pole change.
Failure of the results to support several hypotheses for brand dominance reduces the number of parameters at the (2.)
differentiation pole.
Factors explaining (3.) symbiotic forces are similarly few. Symbiosis shares the benefit of promotional efficiency with the corporatedominant approach but also allows subbrands to be carried under an existing brand name and helps gain shelf space and market
share.
CONCLUSIONS
This study offers mixed support for past views on appropriateness and benefits of the range of brand strategies that exist (see
Figure 1).
Evidence supports supposed benefits of corporate-dominant branding, many of which flow from the economy and simplicity of
standardization (see Figures 2 and 2).
Many proposed benefits of brand-dominant strategies, largely flow from differentiation, are supported although much evidence flows
from unexpectedly strong associations with furtive branding.
Proposed benefits of mixed branding were originally sparse and become even more so after testing.
Main contribution of this study is the development of the emergent framework that views branding strategies as 3 forces:
for the efficiency of standardization, the individuality of differentiation, and the synergy of symbiosis (Figure 3).
Results support many proposed justifications for corporate branding, provide some support for proposed benefits of
brand dominance, but reveal little evidence in support of ideas for mixed branding (Figure 1).
Since most of the hypotheses for mixed branding were not supported, and few new relationships found, mixed and endorsed brands
need further study.
The Brand Relationship Spectrum: THE KEY TO THE BRAND ARCHITECTURE CHALLENGE (Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000)
Brand architecture:
organizing structure of the brand portfolio that specifies brand roles and the nature of relationships
between brands.
The brand relationship spectrum (Figure 1) is related to the driver role that brands play.
The driver role:
degree to which a brand drives the purchase decision and use experience.
At the top, in the house of brands, each brand has its own driver role. With an endorsed brand, the endorser usually plays a
relatively minor driver role. With subbrands, the master brand shares the driver role with subbrands. At the bottom, in the branded
house, the master brand generally has the driver role and any descriptive subbrand has little or no driver responsibility.
The brand relationship spectrum recognizes a continuum that involves 4 strategies and 9 substrategies. The
position on the spectrum reflects the degree to which brands are separated in strategy execution and, ultimately, in the customer's
minds.
One must understand the 4 strategies and 9 substrategies:
1. A House of Brands:
independent set of stand-alone brands, each maximizing the impact on a market.
Procter & Gamble is a house of brands that operates over 80 major brands.
The house of brands strategy allows firms…

…to clearly position brands on functional benefits and to dominate niche segments.
P&G's brand strategy in the hair care category illustrates the house of brands strategy. Head and Shoulders dominates
the dandruff control shampoo category. Pert Plus targets the market for a combined conditioner and shampoo product.
Pantene ("for hair so healthy it shines") focuses on the segment concerned with enhancing hair vitality.
4 additional reasons for using a house of brands strategy:
1. Avoiding brand association that would be incompatible with an offering –
Budweiser association with beer taste would prevent the success of Budweiser Cola.
2. Signaling breakthrough advantages of new offerings –
GM decided to create the Saturn brand with no cormection to any existing GM nameplate so that the Saturn
message, "a different kind of company, a different kind of car," would not be diluted.
3. Owning a new product class association by using a powerful name that reflects a key benefit
4. Avoiding or minimizing channel conflict L'Oreal reserves the Lancome brand for department and specialty stores that would not support a brand
available in drug and discount stores.
1.a Not connected
(staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
1.b Shadow endorser:
brand that is not connected visibly to the endorsed brand, but many consumers ,
know about the link.
1 advantage:
o
having a known organization backing the brand, while minimizing any association contamination.
Examples are Lexus (Toyota), Dockers (Levi-Strauss) and Touchstone (Disney).
2.
Endorsed brands:
(such as Polo Jeans by Ralph Lauren) are independent, but also endorsed by another
brand. Endorsement by established brand provides credibility and substance to the offering
and usually plays only a minor driver role.
Another motivation for endorsing a brand is to provide some useful associations for the endorser.
1 example:

When Nestle bought Kit-Kat, a leading chocolate brand in the UK, a strong Nestle endorsement was added.
The purpose was not so much to help Kit-Kat as to enhance Nestle's image in the UK by associating it with
quality and leadership in chocolate.
2.a Token endorser:
usually a master brand involved in several product-market contexts, which is
substantially less prominent than the endorsed brand.
Can be a logo such as the GE light bulb, a statement such as "a Sony
Company," or another device.
The role of the token endorser is to provide some reassurance and credibility while still allowing the endorsed
brands maximum freedom to create their own associations.
4 situations when token endorsement will have more impact: if endorser…
1. …is well known already
2. …is consistently presented
3. …has a visual metaphor symbol
4. …appears on a family of products that are well-regarded
common mistake  to exaggerate the impact of a token endorsement when endorser is not well known and well
regarded or when endorsed brand is well regarded and established in its own right and thus does not need the
reassurance of an endorser.
2.b Linked brand name:
a name with common elements creates a family of brands with implicit or implied
endorser.
McDonald's, for example, has Egg McMuffin, Big Mac, Chicken McNuggets and
so on. That "Mc" links to McDonald's in effect creates an implied McDonald's
endorsement.
A linked name…

provides the benefits of a separate name without having to establish a second name from scratch and link it to a
master brand.
2.c Strong endorsement
(staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
3.
Subbrands:
brands connected to a master or parent brand and augment or modify associations of that
master brand. Master brand is the primary frame of reference.
Examples: Microsoft Office, Sony Walkman, Audi TT.
Link between subbrands and master brand is closer than like between endorsers and endorsed brands. Because of this
closeness, a subbrand has potential to affect associations of master brand, which can be both a risk and an opportunity.
If Revolutionary Lipcolor is a subbrand to Revlon rather than an endorsed brand (Revolutionary Lipcolor from Revlon), it
will have less freedom to create a distinct brand image.
3.a Subbrand as a co-driver:
When both master brand and subbrand have major driver roles.
Example: customers buy and use both Gillette and Mach3.
Unless two brands stand for comparable quality, the association might tarnish the more prestigious brand.
3.b Master Brand as driver
(staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
4.
A Branded House:
master brand moves from being a primary driver to a dominant driver role across a multiple
offerings.
Examples: Sony, Adidas, and Disney.
2 disadvantages:

difficult to maintain a cool image or quality position with a large market share.

can limit firm's ability to target specific groups
1 advantage:

enhances clarity, synergy, and leverage  should be default brand architecture option.
(Branded house architecture, such as Virgin's, maximizes clarity because customer knows exactly what is being offered.
Virgin Rail, for example, is a railroad run by the Virgin organization. It could not be simpler from a branding perspective. A
single brand is much easier to understand and recall than a dozen individual brands each with its own associations.
Branded house usually maximizes synergy. At Virgin, innovations in one business enhance the brand in other businesses.
Branded house provides leverage - master brand works harder in more contexts. Virgin brand, for example, is harnessed
and employed in numerous of contexts.)
4.a Different identity
4.b Same identity
(wordt alleen genoemd in één paragraaf ‘Same Brands but with
Different Identities’)
Same Brands but with Different Identities’
One of 2 implicit assumptions is usually made when same brand is used:
1. there can be different brand identities, in every context despite common brand name. The use of dozens of
brand identities, however, creates brand anarchy and is a recipe for ineffective brand building.
2.
there is a single identity and position everywhere even thought imposition of single brand identity risks a
mediocre compromise that is ineffective in many contexts. There usually needs to be a limited number of
identities that share common elements but have distinctions as well. Example, GE Capital requires certain
associations that are inappropriate for GE appliances.
Positive answers to questions at the left will suggest movement toward a branded house, while positive answers to questions on the
right imply movement toward a house of brands.
Does the master brand contribute to the offering by adding…:
…Associations Enhancing the Value Proposition
Does master brand make product more appealing in eyes of customer? Do positive associations of master brand transfer to new
product context, and are these relevant and appropriate?  Yes?  Brand equity can be leveraged in new context. Example:
Calvin Klein fragrances enhanced by associations of authoritative designer with provocative, sexy clothes and vivid user imagery.
…Credibility with Organizational Associations
2 tasks a (new) brand has:
1. relevant, compelling value proposition needs to be created.
2. value proposition needs to be made credible  most difficult with compelling value proposition that breaks new ground and
involves consumer risk (e.g., battery-powered car or solar home). By attaching brand with strong organizational associations,
credibility challenge can be reduced.
Most important organizational associations are:
• Quality—HP home computers
• Globalness— AT&T news channel
…Visibility
Existing brand as CitiGroup may already have visibility - problem is how to link it to new business arena (such as brokerage
service). In contrast, establishing visibility for new entrant (such as Mega Brokers) that is not linked to visible established brand can
be expensive and difficult.
…Communication Efficiencies
When a brand enters new brand context prior brand-building efforts can be adapted or used directly. More important is the
synergy created by media spillover into adjacent markets. Ads for GE jet engines and GE appliances are seen by potential buyers of
both product lines, giving GE advantage over more focused rivals.
Potential synergy will tend to he higher under the following conditions:
•
When collective communication budget supporting a brand playing a driver role is significant. Budget for a
brand used as an endorser will have fewer effects.
•
When media vehicles work across the brand contexts. (Olympic sponsorship, for example, may need to be
spread over multiple business contexts to be feasible.)
•
When there is a meaningful brand-building budget.
Will the master brand be strengthened?
Brand extension or endorsement should enhance key master brand associations.
Sunkist products communicate health, vitality, and vitamin C. When brand is placed on candy or soda  risk is that customers will
not separate in their minds Sunkist candy or soda with an orange flavor from other Sunkist products that imply real orange
ingredients.
Is there a compelling need for a separate brand because it will…?
Using an established brand will reduce investment required and lead to enhanced synergy and clarity. A separate brand should be
developed only when a compelling need can be demonstrated. Organizational discipline is required to make sure that any new
brand is justified.
… Create and own an association
to own a key association for a product class is one rationale for a new brand. Pantene ("for hair so healthy it shines") would not be
successful under Head & Shoulders/Pert brands because unique benefit of Pantene could not emerge under shadow of existing
associations. When offering has potential to dominate a functional benefit (as is the case for many P&G brands), a distinct
brand is justifiable.
… Represent a new, different offering
A new brand name should represent a significant advance in technology and function. (For instance Viper, Taurus, and Neon all
merited new names because their new designs and personalities represented a radical departure from alternative offerings.)
… Avoid an association
Any hint of a connection between Clorox, makers of bleach, and its Hidden Valley Ranch salad dressings would raise specter of
salad dressing tasting like bleach. Thus the label states dressing's owner is HVR Company, and there is no mention of Clorox.
Gap has a house of brands with Banana Republic at the high end. Gap in the middle, and Old Navy at the value end.
Old Navy offers stylish clothes sold at affordable prices. Initial efforts to brand the concept as the Gap Warehouse threatened
damage to the Gap brand. It would associate Gap with lower-priced clothing.
… Retain/capture customer/brand bond
When firm buys another brand  issue whether purchased brand name should be retained. Following conditions would make brand
equity transfer difficult:

resources required to change, acquired name are not available.

associations of acquired brand are strong and would be dissipated with a brand name change.

there is an emotional bond, that may be difficult to transfer.

there is a fit problem.
Nestle usually retains acquired brand names, although Nestle endorsement is sometimes added.
HP has made hundreds of acquisitions and consistently changed the name to HP. It is not clear that HP policy
generated the right decision in all cases, but strong associations of HP and advantages of branded house provided defensible
reasons.
…Deal with channel conflict
Channel conflict problem usually is twofold.
1. existing channel may be motivated to stock a brand because it has some degree of exclusivity.
2. existing channel will support higher price because it provides higher level of service. If brand became available in value channel,
brand's ability to retain high-margin channel would be in jeopardy.
L'Oreal has Lancome, L'Oreal, and Maybelline Cosmetics brands for different channels.
Will the business support a new brand bame?
If business is too small  new brand name will simply not be feasible. Too often in excitement of a new brand, unrealistic
assumptions are made about ability and will to fund it adequately. The "will" is particularly important;
Core value-based corporate brand building (Urde, 2001)
Abstract
Aim of this article  to introduce framework for corporate brand building process based on core values.
Distinction is made between 3 groups of values: organisational values, core values, and added values.
Theory
Purpose of this article is to introduce framework for core value-based corporate brand building, to illustrate and explore the nature,
role and function of core values. Volvo is used as an illustration.
Methodology
The role of Urde (author) was as a researcher.
International benchmarking  interviews with 40 managers at corporate level within the truck, bus, construction equipment, aircraft
engine, marine engine, automobile, and after sales divisions.
Additional 20 interviews with managers representing Volvo and its partners.
A brand building process based on core values
Value-creating processes take place in parallel. Internally, i.e. within the organisation, and externally, i.e. in the awareness of
customers (Figure 2); together they generate corporate brand equity.
In this article, we are primarily discussing the internal value-creating process;
Internal brand building process:
to describe relationship between organisation and brand.
Objective  to get the organisation to live its brands.
External brand building process:
concerned with relations and interactions between brand and customer.
Objective  to create value and relationships, with customer’s identity as basis.
Framework builds on idea that brand’s identity is developed as a continual and ongoing interaction between identity of organisation
and customer.
Core value-based brand building – the case of Volvo
The mission – commitment to the overarching task
Brand mission:
brand’s fundamental reason for existence. Often important means for gaining internal and external commitment.
Also the case at Volvo  thoughts of the founders in Volvo brand management policy:
“An automobile is made by and for people. The basic principle for all manufacturing is and must remain: safety . . . On this
point, we are proud to be conservative. And even in the future this will remain our guiding light.”
In Volvo’s mission safety reappears: “Volvo creates value by providing transportation related products and services with superior
quality, safety and environmental care to demanding customers in selected segments”.
Mission is often seen as standing alone, without ties to organisation’s daily operations. By integrating core values with mission
statement, core values naturally assume a prominent role.
The vision – inspiration for goals and a stimulus to development
Brand vision:
what an organisation wishes to accomplish with the brand over next few years.
Volvo’s 3 core values of safety, quality, and concern for the environment are clearly linked to the vision:
“Based on consumer-perceived quality and achievements, Volvo will distinctly, decisively and consistently sustain and
develop its brand position as a recognized leader in safety and be ranked as a leader in terms of environmental care
among the world’s top producers of automotive and transport products, equipment and systems.”
Organisational values – the foundation of the core values
Organisational values:
values that are internally regarded as important within an organisation.
At Volvo, organisational values are intimately related  mission and vision provide a basis for the core values. Corporate culture at
Volvo is characterised by the organisational values of, for example, care for people, responsibility, integrity, and honesty.
3 areas in which organisational values of Volvo can be divided:
(1) product development:
what is internally considered to be a product one can be proud of.
Volvo’s involvement in racing  example of subject that attracted much internal debate, because not seen as agreeing
with core values.
(2) way of doing business:
behaviour that members of organization feel should distinguish organization. / emotional dimension of
the brand.
(3) feel of the organization:
overarching purpose and what people want to achieve.
Core values – the common thread of the brand building process
3 core values that Volvo’s brand statement is based on:
1. Quality:
Part of Volvo’s corporate culture. Despite the fact that quality is not differentiating, it is Volvo’s
interpretation of quality that makes the concept unique and distinguishing. Quality not only relates to
the product, but also to relations and communication.
2. Safety:
Volvo’s primary and most differentiating core value. Concept of safety has over time been given a
deeper and broader significance. It has been broadened from safe products to include personal
safety, safety for all passengers, safety for others in the traffic environment and safety in relation to
the environment.
3. “Concern for
the environment”:
Disputed since the products that Volvo manufactures undeniably have a negative environmental
impact. This core value is not yet clearly associated with Volvo by customers, but in its own
circles it is truly established.
Brand architecture (BA) – orchestration of roles and relationships based on core values
Important relationship between core values and identity that affects the potential that a given BA provides.
4 basic BA’s (example, figure 4)
(1) corporate brand;
(2) product brands;
(3) corporate and product brands;
(4) product brands and corporate brand.
In Volvo’s BA core values are shared by different products, and there is an overall brand identity. In practice, Volvo’s BA meant that
5 different product companies could aim at different target groups under widely varying market conditions. Core values played
decisive role in co-ordinating brand building process. Way of describing the logic is to create distinction between: corporate brand
and product brand (see Figure 5). 2 levels linked to 3 core values, and thus constitute the basis for corporate brand building and
product brand building.
To increase flexibility for product companies, extended core values are used that supplement the corporate core values. Volvo Car
has, for example, “attractive design” as extended core value. Although all brand building must be based on corporate core values,
they can be complemented with extended core values.
Product attributes – building the core values into the product
Goal  to make the product *exude brand’s identity.
*uitstralen
Core value of safety can be attributed to the Volvo founders and their view.
Core value can also be traced to physical products, i.e. product programme, -development, and -design.
Examples: reinforced passenger compartment (1944), seat belts for the back seats (1967), air bags for side windows (1998).
Safety is a way of thinking at Volvo. Instead of product development steering brand development, brand development generally
steers product development. Despite that other car manufacturers adopt most product innovations that Volvo introduces, Volvo has
often been first to strengthen the link between Volvo and safety. Core value of safety as part of organisation’s approach and its
association in minds of customers are more difficult to imitate.
Although competing brands have the same core value, its interpretation and expression are decisive. Example, Mercedes has safety
as one of its core values. Its definition of safety focuses on physical product’s technical safety. At Volvo, in contrast, safety is
described as “care for man”. (This encompass more than the car and concern about its passengers. Example, Volvo is sponsor of
research projects dealing with traffic injuries etc.)
Brand personality – human traits that reflect the core values
Brand personality:
choice of core values and how they are expressed.
At Volvo, people strive to create feeling of “this is my kind of company” with the target groups. Important role for corporate brand
therefore becomes  creation of trust.
Example how former CEO of Volvo, handled environmental debate. CEO sent personal letter to the media to defend company’s
actions. Arguments appealed to readers’ feelings. This illustrates how defence of a core value becomes expression of brand
personality. In this case, ultimately a question of creating sympathy and trust.
Brand positioning – defining the category based on core values
Positioning:
efficient way of communicating brand’s image.
Role of core values in brand building process differs from positioning by being more enduring and deeply rooted in organisation’s
value foundation.
In 1972 in Washington, Volvo displayed a safety concept car that attracted media attention. This was a breakthrough for Volvo’s
positioning. Attitude in auto industry was that safety could not be used as argument for selling cars. As far as Volvo was concerned,
this meant that without direct competition – Volvo could focus on safety  a first-mover advantage. Volvo introduced new way of
evaluating cars  created new category and position around concept of safety.
Communication strategy – core values as a themes
Task of communication becomes translating core values into messages that interest and appeal to customers.
When safety became a theme for Volvo Car results of crash tests and descriptions of safety details of designs became recurring
elements of communication[2]. The sign-off was: “Drive Safely. Volvo”.
“When did you last hear a car salesman speak about safety?” example of headline in ad by Volvo that targeted low interest in safety
among car industry.
Core values are not intended to be used directly in external communication. It is the meaning of core values that should be
communicated so that they are not reduced to meaningless words. Ideally, core values will be experienced by customers who
understand their meaning as result of prior experiences with company’s products, behaviour, communication, and so on.
Internal brand identity – the core values as a mind-set
Important that everyone understands what the core values are and what each core value represents. Goal is for organisation to live
its core values, and thus its brand.
Volvo formed Core Value Group in 1995. Representatives for various product areas were appointed to the group. Most important
task  to work for development of corporate brand and, at same time, ensure that its core values and identity are protected.
(Example from core value group:
“The Brand building process must be an evolution not a revolution. At one stage, an
international advertising agency attempted to push through a change to our brand identity that can, at best, be described as a
revolution. Their suggestion laid far too much weight on the current market situation so the core value group said stop, that is
enough, and decided to promote a style that would reflect the history and soul of Volvo.”)
Conclusions and implications
In an era where it is becoming increasingly important to sustain a competitive advantage, corporate brands can no longer “just
stand there, they must stand for something”. This article, offers a framework on which to build a corporate brand’s value, contributes
to research into nature, role and function of the core value.
Core values:
all-embracing terms that sum up identity of the brand as well as being guiding principles for all
internal and external brand building processes.
 dynamic rather than inactive  must be continually be adapted and developed.
It isn’t possible to choose core value that is not already firmly established in organisation; if this is not the case they are just empty
words. Not a requirement of core value to be unique, but it is a requirement that interpretation and expression are.
Purpose of core value-based brand building  to establish a unifying common thread. Reason for talking about 3 core values is
to ensure that functional, emotional and symbolic dimensions of corporate brand are all included. Another way to say that 3 core
values must persuade through use of logos (logical argument), ethos (character and personality) and pathos (feelings).
Core values influence continuity, consistency and credibility in building a corporate brand. Core value can also work as link between
A corporate brand and product brands.
Implications
Challenge 
Goal 
to organise company’s resource base and internal processes in manner that strengthens and differentiates core
value.
to ensure that core values are expressed as added values that customer experiences as useful and unique; must be
difficult for competitors to imitate.
Consumer perceptions of rebranding: The case of logo changes (Alshebil, 2007)
Focus  specific type of rebranding – logo changes.
Model developed that focused on how exposure to logo change puts consumer into coping process through expressions of
Skepticism, curiosity and resistance toward logo change.
2 elements proposed to govern coping processes of rebranding:
1) Perceived degree of logo change
2) Perceived valence (i.e. favorability) of logo change.
IN SHEETS: Effects on resistance
Perceived degree of logo change
Skepticism towards logo change
Source: Alshebil (2007)
Perceived valence of logo change
Curiosity towards logo change
Resistance to logo change
Brand attitude after logo change
Page 1-10
“2 kinds of rebranding from CEO’s perspective”
1. “have to”
necessity
real
2. “want to.”
luxury
cosmetic
Rebranding:
“practice of building new name that’s representative of differentiated position in mind frame of stakeholders and a
distinctive identity from competitors” (Muzellec, 2003)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
 updating or changing image of brand in minds of different stakeholders involved (Alshebil, 2007). (NIET IN
AHONEN)
3 levels in which rebranding in organization can take place:
(OOK IN AHONEN)
1. corporate level  most critical  represents company’s identity as a whole
2. business unit level
3. product level
3 types of changes in rebranding continuum of Daly and Moloney (2004)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
focus on…
1. minor changes
…aesthetics and “varies from simple face left, to restyling, to revitalizing brand appearance
which may have dated and be in need of change.”
2. intermediate changes
…repositioning and uses “marketing tactics to favourably reposition existing brand name,
thus giving it new image”
3. complete change
…getting new name and brand and all necessary marketing communications involved to
make all stakeholders aware of change.
5 types of rebranding: (DOOR STUART EN MUZELLEC EN
1. new name
2. new name and logo
3. new logo (only)
4. new logo and slogan
5. new slogan (only)
OOK IN AHONEN)
4 reasons/drivers of rebranding, change in…: (Muzellec & lambkin, 2006)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
1. …ownership structure  most frequent cause as well as most compelling reason (with mergers and acquisitions at the top)
2. …corporate strategy
3. …competitive position
4. …external environment
Logo Changes:
Logos:
“When products are difficult to differentiate, symbol can be central element of brand equity,
 key differentiating characteristic of a brand” (Aaker, 1991)
Page 18-28
2 types of logo changes, “if logo is changed, change should be made in…
(1) …content, when warranted by shift in brand strategy, or
(2) …style, when need for update is felt.”
Consumer skepticism toward advertising:
Page 84-99
IN ARTIKEL ZELF:
“tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims” (Obermiller and Spangenberg,
1998)
(LET OP!! Negatieve -.? en positieve .? correlaties)
*Deprivation curiosity = ontbering nieuwsgierigheid / *beroving, verlies, ontzetting, afzetting
Implications
Companies deciding to change their logos should think of their consumers and see their side of the picture.
2 elements to think about:
1. how big logo change would be, and
2. how better or worse off new logo would be compared to old logo, from consumer’s viewpoint.
Findings:

bigger perceived degree of logo change  likely to raise questions  more skeptical  more resistance.

Skepticism directly affects brand attitude after logo change.
 Solution: provide meaningful communication.
 announcing logo changes
 providing some rationale and more information
(Failing to do so  unanswered questions  skepticism  negative attitude toward the brand.)

more perceived valence of logo change  the less questions  less skepticism  less resistance.
 Solution: companies should get their customers say on it and not just surprise them.

perceived valence of logo change  more critical criterion than perceived degree of logo change.
 if new logo is viewed as more favorable than old logo consumers would be less questioning, less skeptical, and less
resistant when company decides to go for drastic logo change,
Corporate Re-Branding Process: A Preliminary Theoretical Framework (Ahonen, 2008)
Aim of this paper  to develop process model of corporate re-branding that explains…
-…how it happens;
-…how corporation adopts new name and
-…what influences the process.
Process:
nature, sequence and order of activities and events that corporation undergoes when it changes its name.
Often corporate re-branding is defined as:
“building new name that’s representative of differentiated position in mind frame
of stakeholders and a distinctive identity from competitors” (OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
 in reference  only name is changed.
3 levels of change in corporate brand:
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
1. Minor change:
aesthetics, from simple face lift to restyling brand.
2. Intermediate change: repositioning and use of marketing tactics (communication and customer service techniques) to
favorably reposition existing name, giving it a new image.
3. Complete change:
name is new to stakeholders and they don’t know what brand stands for. Values and image of
new brand are communicated to stakeholders through an integrated marketing communications
campaign.
Daly and Moloney (2004) call complete change  rebranding.
Continuum of corporate rebranding from…
evolutionary changes (slogan or logo only) to
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)

revolutionary change (incorporating elements of name, logo and slogan).
3 categories in which types of changes fall:
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)
1. Name change
2. Logo change
3. Slogan change.
5 permutations possible: a) name and logo, b) name, logo and slogan, c) logo only, d) logo and slogan, e) slogan only.
Paper based on 2 major sources: Daly and Moloney’s (2004) and Muzellec and Lambkin’s (2006).
5 stages corporate re-branding process has:
suggested by Daly and Moloney (2004)
Pre-campaign situation analysis
1. Stage one: partnership campaign
2. Stage two: vision and values
3. Stage three: interim/dual branding (brand naming)
4. Stage four: pre-launch
5. Stage five: launch.
Furthermore, they describe phases of analysis, planning and evaluation.
In contrast, Muzellec and Lambkin (2006)…
…concentrate on driving forces and reasons for corporate re-branding,
4 reasons/drivers for corporate re-branding, change in…:
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
1. …ownership structure
(mergers & acquistions, spin-offs, private to public ownership, sponsorship)
2. …corporate strategy
(diversification and divestment, internationalization and localization)
3. …competitive position
(erosion of market position, outdated image, reputation problems)
4. …external environment
(legal obligation, major crises or catastrophes).
…suggest model of re-branding process.
4 aspects of which rebranding consists…
Re-positioning:
objective-setting phase where decisions are taken to try to create a radically new position in the minds of its
customers, competitors and other stakeholders
Re-naming:
most discussed issue in corporate re-branding studies.
Brand name  core indicator  the basis for awareness
Choosing name is not easy task.
6 different kinds of corporate name types: descriptive, geographic, patronymic, acronym, associative and
freestanding.
Redesigning:
aesthetics of corporation are changed  could include all elements of CVI (corporate name, logo, color palette,
font type, corporate slogan, tagline and/or descriptor). (Even though corporate name is mentioned as
Re-launching:
well, here it differs from corporate re-naming. Re-naming is process in which new name is chosen, and at this
phase, visual layout of new corporate name is created.)
communicating new brand to stakeholders.
On basis of above a process description of corporate re-branding is presented in Figure 1.
Conclusions and Further Studies
This paper concentrated on creating framework for corporate re-branding as process.
3 levels in which corporate re-branding may occur in organizations revealed by studies;
1. corporate level,
2. business unit level, or
3. product level,
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
Corporate re-branding may vary from…
…minor, evolutionary changes
to 
(in position and aesthetics)
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)
revolutionary changes
(in corporate name, values, attributes and positioning.)
Main drivers for corporate re-branding:
decisions, events or processes causing change in company’s structure, strategy
or performance.
4 reasons for corporate re-branding, change in…:
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
1. …ownership structure (mergers & acquistions, spin-offs, private to public ownership, sponsorship)
2. …corporate strategy (diversification and divestment, internationalization and localization)
3. …competitive position (erosion of market position, outdated image, reputation problems)
4. …external environment (legal obligation, major crises or catastrophes).
4 phases that model distinguishes and consist with corporate re-branding: (MEEST BELANGRIJK, AHONEN ZELF)
1. A Analyzing:
antecedents and driving forces behind re-branding
(including decisions or processes causing change in company’s structure, strategy, or performance)
2. P Planning:
decisions about corporate repositioning, re-naming, re-structuring and re-designing
(pretesting/developing logo or new name under/with stakeholders)
3. I Implementation: launching the new corporate brand both internally (first) and externally (later)
4. E Evaluation:
measuring and analyzing success of re-branding process
(with regards of initial goals)
All phases are intertwined and overlap one another.
Practical implication  process description may give new insights for managers who are about to convey corporate re- branding
issues in their companies. It clarifies that corporate re-branding is holistic, complex and multilevel issue during which several
perspectives, processes, actions and actors need to be taken into account.
Corporate makeovers: can a hyena be rebranded? (Stuart & Muzellec, 2004)
In this paper concept of corporate rebranding is associated with changes in name, logo and slogan.
Rather than hyenas being ‘slobbering, mangy, stupid scavengers’ (kwijlende, schurftige, stomme aaseters), they are really ‘highly
intelligent with mental abilities and social skilss to match many a primate’. Number of websites supports this new view of hyenas as
beautiful misunderstood creatures which can and should be rebranded.
THE CONCEPT OF REBRANDING
Rebranding: brand is reborn.
Continuum in corporate rebranding:
From evolutionary change - logo or slogan only

revolutionary change - name, logo and slogan
MOTIVATIONS FOR CORPORATE REBRANDING
Overall motivation for corporate rebranding to send signal to marketplace, communicating to stakeholders that
something about organisation has changed.
5 other motivations:
1. Mergers, acquisitions and divestitures (desinvesteringen)
2. Shifts in marketplace (caused by (new/merged/acquired/divested) competitors and/or changed economic/legal conditions)
3. Feeling that image is outdated (symbol too abstract?)
4. New focus or vision for company (new CEO or earlier mentioned aspects)
5. Present new, more socially responsible image.
CORPORATE REBRANDING - TYPES OF CHANGES
3 categories / 5 permutations of types of changes:
1. Name plus logo change (revolutionary change)

Name plus logo plus slogan change

Risky strategy since what is being communicated about organisation changes dramatically
(Company should have clear why it’s necessary. Difficult in case of mergers to find satisfactory name
since all companies want their name left in some form.)
2. Logo (only) change

Logo plus slogan

Cosmetic identity change trap:
if there is no apparent reason for logo change, it will either go
unnoticed (hardly cost-effective) or be regarded with suspicion

Henderson and Cote literature is mentioned

If organisation name is changed  obviously important to have new logo.

If organisation wants to be more up to date and modern  changing logo to abstract design should
be handled with care.

If logo doesn’t symbolise organisation  then value is questionable.
3. Slogan (only) change (evolutionary change)

Slogan ideally reflects positioning strategy of corporate brand

Excellent slogan can make a company, bad silly slogan can undermine it

Slogan change can be done with less risk (than name or logo change)
COSTS AND PERFORMANCE OF CORPORATE REBRANDING
Renaming and rebranding initiative of KPMG has cost between 20 and 25 million dollar.
SUCCES OR FAILURE OF REBRANDING
Difficult to measure succes or failure of rebranding. As motivations discussed above vary, so do goals. Each corporate rebranding
should ideally be evaluated with regards to its initial goals.
A RATIONAL APPROACH TO CORPORATE REBRANDING
Research before and after name, logo and/or slogan have been devised is vital. Common mistake  to see corporate rebranding as
marketing communication exercise. Number of issues need to be raised.
4 questions need to be adressed before launching into expensive corporate rebranding exercise:
1. What will happen if we don’t make this change?
2. Exactly what is being signalled? (wat wordt er precies gesignaleerd?)
3. Are key stakeholders cognisant (bewust) and positive about change?
4. What will be reaction of my competitors to this change, or is organisation merely reacting to competitor changes
in corporate branding?
4 CONCLUSIONS
1. Rebranding is expensive and time-consuming
2. More failures than successes of rebranding
3. Sound motivation for rebranding: to send signal to marketplace, communicating to stakeholders that something
about organisation has changed.
4. Looking at organisation holistically and considering possible impact on other identities would be powerful place to start
any corporate rebranding exercise. Marketing communication approach is insufficient to change strategy.
 consider rebranding of hyenas  any amount of corporate rebranding including marketing communication programme
will not convince public that it is nice, caring creature until its behaviour changes.
Consumer Response to Logo Shape Redesign: The Influence of Brand Commitment (Walsh, 2005)
RQ: Why are some logo changes met with consumer resistance and others not?
This article seeks to explore this issue, specifically consumer response to one aspect of logo redesign  shape.
Hypothesized: reaction to change in logo shape is function of degree of change (from *incremental to considerable) and level of
commitment (from strong to weak) consumer has towards brand.
*incrementeel / niet revolutionair
4 experimental studies are discussed.
Logo:
graphic design that is used to identify firm or brand.
2 ways in which logo’s help brand, logo’s can be used…:
1. …in conjunction with name to speed recognition of brand
2. …in place of name when there is space or time constraint
4 reasons for logo change, due to…
1. …changes in company name (Federal Express  FedEx)
2. …strategy or service emphasis change (United Airlines changed logo when it became employee owned)
3. …“update” an image (Aunt Jemima modernized its image)
4. ...purposes of novelty (Prudential Rock which now features vertical lines in image)
2.0 DIMENSIONS OF LOGOS
Henderson and Cote is mentioned.
Exposure/repetition-effects literature is helpful in understanding theory behind response to stimuli such as logos.
2 categories in which results from relationship between exposure and affective response can be categorized:
1. Inverted “U” relationship between exposure to stimuli and affect.
Explanation  “two-factor theory”  2 opposite psychological processes: positive habitation and tedium mediate
relationship between exposure and affect.
Positive habitation:
reduction in uncertainty or conflict in person’s mind.
 repeated exposure leads to more opportunities to learn about stimuli thereby reducing
uncertainty which leads to increased affect toward stimulus
(upward proportion of inverted U).
Tedium:
state of mind described as boredom or satiation.
 repeated exposure to stimuli becomes boring and leads to decreased affect
(downward portion of U).
2. Monotonically increasing relationship between exposure and affect regardless of number of exposures.
Explanation  Perceptual fluency model
Perceptual fluency:
ease which people perceive, encode and process stimuli.
Perceptual fluency of stimulus is increased by prior exposure (particularly when prior exposure was such short that
respondents might not even remember)
2 findings:
When ads are processed in…
…shallow fashion  no tedium effect
…in deeper fashion (processing of semantic content of stimuli)  evaluation of stimuli exhibit inverted U shape.
3.1 THE ROLE OF BRAND COMMITMENT
Commitment:
psychological attachment to brand, viewed as close antecedent of behavioral loyalty.
The more committed individual is toward brand, the more likely they’ll resist information that attacks that brand.
4.0 HYPOTHESES
RQ: Why are some logo changes met with consumer resistance and others not?
This article considers brand commitment to be moderator of consumer’s reaction.
Change to logo raises possibility that meaning of brand has been altered for consumer. Strongly committed consumer is likely to
view such change negatively as means to protect their interests.
Koslow called this…
“defense motivation”:
use of *heuristics selectively to protect vested interests, attitudinal components or other preferences
like freedom of choice (Koslow, 2000).
* Heuristiek is de wetenschap, de leer of de kunst van het vinden / oplossingsstrategieën / methodisch zoeken
H1:
H2:
When commitment is strong/weak effect of logo change on evaluation will decline/improve as degree of change becomes
greater.
When commitment is strong/weak effect of logo change on attitude toward brand will decline/improve as degree of change
becomes greater.
12 designers were interviewed regarding logo design trends. Results indicated shift toward simplistic designs and rounded shapes
in logo redesign.
5.0 OVERVIEW OF STUDIES
4 experimental studies were conducted to test hypotheses:
1. Study One  to measure respondent’s commitment to athletic shoe brands.

Showing respondents booklet containing logos of top 5 athletic shoe brands  asking to complete brand
commitment scale.

Objective  to select specific brand of athletic shoes and confirm that selected brands have wide distribution of
commitment scores.

Results: Adidas, New Balance and Nike have wide distribution of commitment scores.
2. Study Two  to verify respondents categorized logo stimuli as “no change / incremental change / considerable change”

Showing booklet containing original logo and either original, incremental or considerably changed logo for 3
brands of athletic shoes.

Results: Adidas and New Balance were evaluated as intended. (Nike was dropped from main study)
3. Study Three  main study

2 (commitment toward brand: strong vs. weak) x 3 (degree of logo change: none vs. incremental vs.
considerable) between subjects design

Undergraduate students shown booklet containing Adidas or New Balance logo in 1 of 3 conditions: no change,
incremental change or considerable change. Subjects were also asked to complete brand commitment scale,
brand attitude scale and logo evaluation scale.
4. Study Four  second main study  designed to extend generalizability

To replicate effects found in study 3 for brand from other product category

Stimuli  bottled water: Dasani and Aquafina brands

Also tested two mediation hypotheses relating to respondents depth of processing and sense of boredom.

Sample: expanded from undergraduates to general public.
10.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION
Brand commitment moderates logo evaluation and change in brand attitude
Considerable logo redesigns have more positive impact on brand attitude compared to incrementally changed designs.
Strongly committed consumers’
- evaluated redesigned logos worse compared to existing logos
- attitude toward brand was affected by redesigned logos  attitude declined
- any change negatively affects brand attitude
- incremental redesigns less negative impact on brand attitude than considerably changed redesigns
Weakly committed consumers
- evaluated redesigned logos better compared to existing logos
- attitude toward brand was affected by redesigned logos  attitude improved
- any change positively affects brand attitude
- the greater the change in logo redesign, the greater positive evaluation of that change.
The added value of corporate logos. An empirical study. (Van Riel, van den Ban & Heijmans, 2001)
Study  data gathered that elaborate knowledge about effectiveness of logos. Study describes perceptions of external stakeholders
when confronted with new logo, both prior to launch and 6 months after its introduction to market.
Objective  to reveal degree to which logo succeeds in expressing values a company wishes to convey (overbrengen) to its
stakeholders.
RQ: what are perceptions of external audiences of organisation's new corporate logo before and after its launch into
market?
Identity of organization:
what organization members see as central, distinctive and enduring features of their company
(Whetten and Godfrey, 1998).
Organisations transmit these features via behaviour, communication and symbols of organisation, which is known as CI-Mix (Birkigt
and Stadler, 1995). In contrast with theoretical assumptions and evidence from practice, data showing empirical evidence of added
value of logos are limited (Green and Loveluck, 1994).
Corporate Identity mix (CI-Mix):
behaviour, communication and symbols of organisation
2 sets of properties that are assumed to affect individual's understanding and interpretation of logo:
(1) Intrinsic properties of logo:
properties resulting directly from confrontation with logo itself
divided into perception of…

…graphical parts (what is factual interpretation of logo?) (Henderson and Cote, 1998);

…referential parts (what does logo represent?).
(2) Extrinsic properties:
properties originating from associations with company behind the logo.
 partly defined by…

...behaviour of organisation in past and

…intensity of communication (expressing values to external and internal audiences)
Method
2 studies conducted to answer …
RQ: what are perceptions of external audiences of organisation's new corporate logo before and after its launch into
market?
Both studies A and B
 respondents were presented with 3 logos;
2 logos used by financial service institutions for more than 10 years,
1 logo of bank that was about to introduce new logo in Dutch market.
 enabled researchers to make comparison between perceptions before (Study A) and 6 months after (Study B) introduction of new
logo.
Data collection
2 stages:
1. 2 Dutch cities were selected (judgment sample), which Bank thought best represented its target audiences.
2. Stratified random sample of respondents was drawn. Interviewers randomly approached 25 houses.
Procedure
Data gathered  semi-structured and open questions before (Study A)
Logos shown at start of interview
Respondents were asked…
 …to describe spontaneous graphical associations
and referential associations
 …to evaluate fit of each logo with category of company's activities
 …to describe their interpretations of intentions of each company
with use of their logo
and after (Study B) introduction of new logo of Bank.
(“Can you describe symbol in detail?'')
(“What do you think symbol means?'').
(“Please indicate on scale from 1 (not fitting at all) to 5 (100
per cent fit) if logo fits company's category'').
(“What does company want to express with its logo in your
opinion?'').
Studies A and B were identical, with one exception: in Study A  new logo of Bank was shown separately (without name of bank) to
defined group of respondents (51). This enabled researchers to make comparison with reactions to same logo by remaining
respondents (30) who saw logo including company name before it was launched into market.
Conclusions
Study aimed  to improve understanding about fit between graphical and referential associations that people evoke when
confronted with new logo, before and after its been introduced into market.
2 points that need to be addressed in future research:
a.
Well designed-logo is able to evoke limited, but essential, amount of desired organisational characteristics with external
stakeholders with ‘only’ graphical properties of symbol.
b.
Fit between external perceptions of new logo and organizational intentions may increase if launch of new logo is embedded
within nation-wide advertising campaign, explaining values the company wants to express with this logo.
Discussion
Study is one of first attempts to prove that logos have added value in creation and maintenance of favourable corporate reputation.
Advice on communicating during organizational change: the content of popular press books (Lewis, Schmisseur, Stephens
& Weir, 2006)
This study  analysis of advice from bestselling popular press books about communication during implementation of
organizational change.
Objective  to examine…
…how popular press books address issues related to communication during implementation and to characterize nature of
that advice.
…whether there are dominant themes of agreement with regard to communication issues across these advice books.
 to understand how current scholarly knowledge about communication and change is reflected in practitioner-advice
found in popular press books.
METHOD
3 steps:
1. To garner sample of books  Amazon.com was used with search on subject term “organizational change.”
To identify popular press books  we went through top 100 best-selling books on organizational change (indicated by
Amazon.com) to include books that…
(a) focused on how to implement change (rather than what change to implement) and
(b) provided advice to practitioners for implementation.
 24 books were selected.
2. Each researcher read approximately one-fourth of the books to identify dominant themes.
3. Each researcher took different set of books than what was originally read and went through them again to confirm
presence or absence of each theme. This process resulted in tables and theme descriptions provided below.
3 overall themes, Themes Concerning…:
1. …Role of Change Agents, 3 subthemes:

Promoting communication and participication.

Facilitating change process / Facilitator

Creating a vision
2. …General Strategies, 4 subthemes:

Emphasize participation and empowerment

Create a change culture

Emphasize purpose and vision

Emphasize communication
3. …Specific Tactics and Action Steps, 7 subthemes en 1 minor subtheme
RESULTS OF THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS
Communicative Role of Change Agents
Role of change agent in overall change process was important subject.
Davidson (2002): “today, everyone with title of manager, in one form or another, has to be change manager” (p. 6).
Analysis revealed…
…3 themes describing what change agents do:
Table 2. Themes Concerning Role of Change Agents
Theme
Description
1. Promoting communication and
- Focus on the participation and communication of stakeholders.
participication.
- Change agent must be listen-oriented.
- Create a right next tomorrow.
- Empowering (zelfredzaamheid vergroten) people to create decisions.
2. Facilitating change process /
- Guide specific steps of a change process.
Facilitator
3. Creating a vision
- Define focus or vision for others to follow.
- An activity identified for change agents is their role in maintaining or establishing a
vision of the change.
General Strategies for Communication and Introduction of Change
In response to expected resistance or to ensure smooth implementation of change  number of strategies for communicating and
introducing change initiatives.
4 strategies for Communication and Introduction of Change (most related to communication):
Table 3. Themes Concerning General Strategies
Theme
Description
1. Emphasize participation and
- People need to feel a part of the change process if they are going to accept change
empowerment
and commit to its objectives. Leaders need to encourage members to take
ownership and be autonomous independent thinkers.
- Empowerment = zelfredzaamheid vergroten
2. Create a change culture
- Use culture as a tool or anchor to enable change to occur.
- When you create a change-ready environment first, resistance is minimized, and
employees are more open to innovation and more likely to take risks.
3. Emphasize purpose and vision
- Leaders should provide a consistent and strong justification for implementing the
change to occur.
- Having a clear purpose and vision for change is necessary for getting others on
board.
4. Emphasize communication
- Communicating is key to working through problems and successfully implementing
change.
- Communications must be a priority for every managers at every level of the
company.
- Communication is a tool for dealing with resistance to change.
Specific Communicative Tactics for Change
 How to proceed (specific tactics and action steps) in change implementation.
7 major themes concerning specific tactics and action steps, 1 minor theme (nr. 8):
Table 4. Themes Concerning Specific Tactics and Action Steps
Theme
Description
1. Asking for input
- Embrace a participatory philosophy by involving may stakeholders in
communication about change.
- Create a shared vision or using participation tactics.
- Voorbeelden zijn:
Appreciative inquiry: which trains participants to focus on what is working rather
than critique.
Open space technology: which enables large groups to prioritize large numbers of
complex issues.
Dialogue: which serves as an alternative to debate and focuses on discovery and
appreciation of diverse views.
2. Use informal networks and
- Use key stakeholders, opinions leaders, coalitions, and key networks to carry
knowledge of key stakeholders
change messages and address resistance.
- Key stakeholders are those who may hold key resources, are central in opinion
networks, are key technologists, and can create momentum in the organization.
3. Disseminate information
- Develop tactics for providing information to stakeholders.
- Disseminate information = including providing clarity about roles, tasks,
responsibilities and procedures.
- Giving all important stakeholders as much information as early as possible.
4. Manage style and content of
- Be strategic in design of message style, language and content.
communication
- Inhoud moet in iedergeval alle afdelingen bereiken.
- Pain management: the goal of pain management is to motivate people to pull
away form what they are doing now and develop a strong commitment to making a
change. Begrippen:
Change related pain = level of discomfort.
Orchestrating pain message = first step to create commitment.
- Er zijn twee communicatie stijlen: Selling up: al het positieve benadrukken.
Selling down: alle zorgen en objections benadrukken van de veranderingen.
5. Be motivational in
- Motivate people in your communication by celebrating wins and inspiring effort.
communication
- Motivation in communication. Enkele tegenhangers geven juist aan om mensen
niet aan te moedigen. Tweestrijd.
6. Formulate and follow
- Create specific plans for use of channels, message strategies, messengers, timing
communication plan.
etc.
7. Create and communicate vision
- Communicate about vision with stakeholders.
- The most prevalent advice implied that if many are involved in the creation of
vision, many will understand and internalize it.
8. Use threats, punishments, and
- Motivate, reduce resistance, kick-start change through punishments, threats, and
intimidation to move change along.
“kick in the pants” tactics
- Niet meest voorkomende tactieken in de boeken maar moeten echter wel genoemd
worden. Managers moeten soms hard zijn om enkele doelen te bereiken. Dit kan
variëren van waarschuwingen tot ontslagen.
DISCUSSION
Purpose of this analysis  to describe trends in advice available in best-selling books about communicating during organizational
change implementation.
Comparing Practitioner Themes With Conclusions From Scholarly Literature
3 overall themes that were found in popular press books as well as scholarly literature:
1. Wide participation in change process was common piece of advice in implementing planned change.
2. Wide dissemination of information  to promote wide participation in change communication.
3. The importance of communication about vision and purpose.
Furthermore  strong recurring theme of empowerment and autonomy in change processes noted in popular press books that
hasn’t been explored much in scholarly literature.
5 Practitioners’ Challenges in Using the Advice, Practitioners need to…:
1. …intuit underlying logic of claims made in these books.
2. …compare generic form of advice against standards, norms, and values of own organization.
3. …look for examples of other companies (similar to one’s own) to see how general advice was adapted locally
4. …use advice that seems most applicable to one’s own organization and leave rest behind
5. …put into place some triggers to double-check effects if advice books are helping or not helping organization
The impact of organisational characteristics on Corporate Visual Identity (Van den Bosch, Elving & De Jong, 2006)
Dit is enkel hoofdstuk 6 uit proefschrift getiteld: Corporate Visual Identity Management: Current practices, impact and assessment
Assumption: characteristics of organisation and way CVI is managed will affect consistency.
Earlier we explored relationship between various measures and their effectiveness on consistency of CVI.
This paper  investigating relationship between organisational characteristics and consistent CVI (based on classic
distinction between strategy, structure, and culture)
Organisational characteristics may apply to business processes in general or specific domains, such as CVI management.
RQ:
Whether and to what extent do organisational characteristics (OC) and CVI management characteristics affect
consistency of CVI?
4 functions of CVI in corporate communication, CVI..:
(1-3 = external, 4 = internal)
1. …provides visibility and ‘recognisability’
2. …symbolises organization and contributes to its image and reputation
3. …expresses structure, visualising its coherence as well as relationships between divisions or units.
4. …relates to employees’ identification with organisation as whole and/or specific departments they work for.
(Identification appears to be crucial for employees and CVI probably plays symbolic role in creating such identification.)
3 reasons for changing or adapting CVI:
1. Organisational change (mergers, take-overs and acquisitions)
2. Repositioning organisation (finding new markets, new products, or new distribution channels)
3. Modernisation
2 aspects of which contributions that touch on CVI focus on:
1. relationship between strategy and CVI
(identity structures–e.g., monolithic, endorsed and branded identities –, visibility of parent company,
standardisation/localization of CVIs of multinationals) or
2. addressing effects of visual elements
(design and impact of corporate logos, typeface, design elements
RQ: Whether and to what extent do organisational characteristics and CVI management characteristics affect consistency
of CVI?
To study these influences we focus on, Influence of…:
(1) …general organisational characteristics on consistent CVI.
(2) …CVI management characteristics on consistent CVI.
(3) …general organisational characteristics on CVI management characteristics.
Method:
Study was conducted in 20 Dutch organizations with at least 400 employees. They shouldn’t be engaged in implementing new
visual identity or have introduced change in visual identity recently. Research focused on opinions of employees and not on external
stakeholders. 686 questionnaires (with likert scales) returned by selection of employees with a variety of jobs.
Consistent CVI (was defined as):
(dependent variable)
Assumption:
extent to which various CVI elements were actually employed as intended.
consistency of CVI depends on development of CVI guidelines and way defined CVI guidelines are applied,
resulting in more or less consistent visual expression of organisation.
Hypotheses
1 dependent variable  Consistent CVI
3 independent variables  CVI management characteristics:
1. CVI Knowledge of Strategy
(knowledge of rationale (beweegredenen) behind CVI and its objectives)
2. CVI Tools and Support
3. CVI Socialisation Processes (informal learning processes and behaviour of managers, through which members of
organisation gain insight into expected behaviour in relation to CVI)
and
5 independent variables  organisational characteristics (OC):
1. OC Knowledge of Strategy
(respondents’ knowledge of strategy)
2. OC Tools and Support
(co-ordination mechanism used to support differentiated units and functions in organisation)
3.
4.
5.
OC Quality of Managers
OC Internal Communication
OC Open and Dynamic
(respondents’ opinion of their managers).
(respondents’ perceptions of quality of internal communication)
(extent to which organisation is in dynamic environment  has to act flexibly)
Discussion and conclusions
Study  to offer insight into  CVI management.
Model developed:
With exception of openness and dynamics of organisation, no evidence was found for direct relationship between
organisational characteristics and CVI consistency.
CVI consistency appeared to be predicted by CVI management characteristics which, in turn, correspond to organisational
characteristics.
Organisational characteristics are factor of importance for CVI consistency  multi-channel approach to CVI management
will give best results. It can be helpful to embed CVI in existing tools and support.
MINISAMENVATTINGEN (ELK ARTIKEL OP 1 A4)
Guidelines for Selecting or Modifying Logos (Henderson & Cote, 1998)
Logo:
graphic design that a company uses, with or without its name, to identify itself or its products.
What Makes a Good Logo?  CAMS
S Subjective Familiarity:
logo evoking familiar meaning or design being similar to well-known symbols.
Method/Results  3 phases
1. Identifying Response Underlying Dimensions (dependent variables) using factor analysis
4 factors generated by factor analysis:
5. A Affect:
6. F Familiar meaning:
stimuli that easily evoke consensually held and therefore familiar meanings within culture
or subculture.
7. C Correct recognition:
8. A False recognition:
2. Identifying Design Underlying Dimensions independent variables) using factor analysis
7 factors were extracted:
8. Natural:
Representative and Organic
9. Harmony:
Symmetry and Balance
10. Elaborate:
(to capture the essence of something) Complexity, Active and Depth
11. Parallel:
multiple lines that appear adjacent to each other.
12. Round:
curved lines, circular elements.
13. Proportion:
relationship between horizontal and vertical dimensions.
14. Repetition:
when parts of design are similar to one another.
3. Design dimensions are regressed against response dimensions.
General Findings
Creating Positive Affect - 2 forms of affective response, liking and interest  highly correlated for logos.
Which Type of Recognition? A question of resources If a company has…
they want…
…a small budget
false recognition.
…adequate resources
correct recognition.
Clear, Familiar Meaning
Meaning and subjective familiarity go hand in hand  familiar meaning  can be maximized by selecting unique, but easily
interpreted, design of familiar object. Logos with familiar meanings improve correct recognition.
Selection Guidelines  What constitutes a "good" logo depends on situation and objectives
3 different strategic objectives for logos:
Focus on achieving…
1. High-Recognition Logos
…high correct recognition, low false recognition, and high positive affect
Guidelines: repeated elements combined with extensive exposure
Natural
++
(high)
Harmony
++
(high)
Elaborateness
+
(moderately high)
2. Low-Investment Logos
…false recognition and positive affect
Guidelines: parallel lines, and good proportion.
Natural
(below average)
Harmony
++
(high)
Elaborateness
+
(moderately high)
3. High Image Logos
…strong positive affect without thought to recognition
Natural
+
(moderately high)
Harmony
++
(high)
Elaborateness
+
(moderately high)
Applying Guidelines to Different Types of Logos
Abstract Logos  low in natural, poorly recognized
Recognition, affect, and familiar meaning can be improved  making logos more, natural, harmonious and elaborate.
Logos Using Characters  too natural and too elaborate, tend to be well recognized but can hurt image
 add more abstract detail to reduce naturalness, use simple lines to reduce elaborateness.
Pictorial Logos  well recognized, contributed positively to image.
 to ensure pictorials are sufficiently natural and elaborate. Repeat elements and introduce harmony in elements.
How corporate visual identity supports reputation (van den Bosch, de Jong & Elving, 2005)
 to explore relationship between CVI and 5 dimensions of reputation
Corporate visual identity (CVI):
that express the essence
Corporate reputation:
to describe firm’s overall appeal
when compared
5 dimensions of reputation: VDATC
1. Visibility:
2 positive examples: McDonald’s golden arches, Ronald McDonald trust
2 negative examples: CVI on trucks in poor condition, Ahold misled shareholders by overstating its earnings
CVI supports visibility through name and/or visual cues  logo on buildings, vehicles and exposure in the media.
2. Distinctiveness:
4 examples: 1. Intel, 2. Swoosh of Nike, swan of KLM, logo of Akzo Nobel, 3. Shell didn’t feel need to change name (importation of
shells into UK), 4. Business cards  front standard, but back visual created especially by each member of staff.
CVI supports distinctiveness through distinctive design  emotionally appealing and surprising  attract free publicity. CVI helps to
fix it in memory and organization becomes distinctive (top of mind).
3. Authenticity:
4 lessons in which challenge of authenticity is formulated:1. clarify who you are / 2. develop broad consensus within organization /
3. express your identity clearly / 4. remain true to that identity
Often not directly related to CVI
1 example: Pharmachemie - microscopic images of medicines (crystals)
CVI supports authenticity through helping employees understand what organisation stands for, gives material they need to enhance
corporate image among external stakeholders.
4. Transparency:
5 main domains of transparency: 1. products and services / 2. vision and leadership / 3. financial performance /
4. social responsibility / 5. workplace environment
Our view domain can be added, transparency created by… 6. organisation’s visual identity.
2 examples: 1. Unilever, 2. FSC trademark to protect forests.
CVI supports transparancy through (1) identity architecture that includes corporate and endorsed brands (2) special logo as quality
label.
5. Consistency:
1 example: 1. Coca Cola - standard wave, same colours and same typeface.
CVI supports consistency through CVI guidelines.
Discussion and conclusion
CVI can support all dimensions and all of them are interrelated. Convincing evidence that transparency and consistency in CVI
increases organization’s visibility.
Managing Brand Portfolios: Why Leaders Do What They Do (Laforet & Saunders, 1999)
 examines rationale (beweegredenen) behind brand strategies, build framework of forces that shape brand strategies, first review
of literature, second depth interviews with managers
Brand strategies:
corporate, house, and individual
Olins (1989) and Murphy (1987) present brand hierarchy/brand architecture (BA)
(3 types of BA)
(1. ) Corporate dominant
Corporate (5%)
House (11%)
(monolithic BA)
Dual (38,5%)
(2. ) Mixed brands
Corporate
House
(endorsed BA)
Endorsed (13,5%)
endorsed (13,5%)
(3. ) Brand dominant
Branded (19%)
(branded BA)
Furtive (13%)
Dual brands:
give two or more brand names equal prominence. Most common.38,5% of products
Endorsed brands: brand names dominate but are endorsed by a small representation of corporate or house name.
Branded brands: Makers reveal names on stand-alone brands but not in a prominent position (part of an address).
Furtive brands:
similar to standalone brands, but in these cases name of owner does not appear.
Depth interviews with managers and review of literature suggested hypotheses  conceptual framework:
 3 forces that shape brand strategy (Figure 2):
4. Standardization:
5. Differentiation:
6. Symbiosis:
Promotional efficiency
Sub-brands images
Symbiosis
Mixed
Corporate
endorsed
House
endorsed
Branded
Corporate
House
Furtive
Standardization
Diversification
Differentiation
Centralization
Decentralization
Customer loyalty
Customer targeting
History
Multiple markets
Reputation
Positioning
CONCLUSIONS
Main contribution  development of framework that views branding strategies as 3 forces:
for the efficiency of standardization,
the individuality of differentiation,
and the synergy of symbiosis
Results…
…support many proposed benefits for corporate dominant branding ++
…provide some support for proposed benefits of brand dominant branding +
…reveal little evidence in support of benefits for mixed branding Evidence supports supposed benefits of corporate-dominant branding flow from standardization
Evidence supports supposed benefits of brand-dominant branding, largely flow from differentiation (although much evidence flows
from unexpectedly strong associations with furtive branding.)
Proposed benefits of mixed branding were originally sparse and become more so after testing.
The Brand Relationship Spectrum: THE KEY TO THE BRAND ARCHITECTURE CHALLENGE (Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000)
 brand relationship spectrum is related to driver role that brands play
Brand architecture:
The driver role:
organizing structure of brand portfolio that specifies brand roles and nature of relationships between
brands.
degree to which brand drives purchase decision and use experience.
4 strategies and 9 substrategies:
5. A House of Brands:
independent set of stand-alone brands, each maximizing impact on a market.
Procter & Gamble
1.a Not connected
Saturn MG (staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
1.b Shadow endorser:
not visibly connected, people know link Lexus (Toyota)
2 advantages:
o
having known organization backing brand, while minimizing any association contamination.
o
to clearly position brands on functional benefits and dominate niche segments.
6. Endorsed brands:
independent brands are endorsed by another brand. Endorsement by established brand
Polo Jeans by RL
provides credibility and substance to offering and usually plays only minor driver role.
2.a Token endorser:
usually master brand in several product-market contexts, less prominent than
endorsed brand.
Logo such as GE light bulb, statement "a Sony Company,"
2.b Linked brand name:
name with common elements creates family of brands with implicit endorser.
Egg McMuffin, Big Mac, Chicken McNuggets
2.c Strong endorsement
Obsession by Calvin Klein (staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
7. Subbrands:
brands connected to master brand and augment associations of that master brand. Master
brand  primary frame of reference.
Microsoft Office, Sony Walkman, Audi TT.
3.a Subbrand as a co-driver:
both master and subbrand have major driver roles.
Gillette and Mach3.
3.b Master Brand as driver
HP Deskjet, Dell Dimension (staat verder niks over in m.u.v. Figure 1)
8. A Branded House:
master brand moves from being primary driver to dominant driver role across multiple
offerings.
Sony, Adidas, and Disney.
1 advantage: enhances clarity, synergy, and leverage  should be default brand architecture option.
4.a Different identity
GE capital associations inappropriate for GE appliances
4.b Same identity
Virgin
Does the master brand contribute to the offering by adding…:
…Associations Enhancing the Value Proposition
…Credibility with Organizational Associations
…Visibility
…Communication Efficiencies
Will the master brand be strengthened?
Is there a compelling need for a separate brand because it will…?
… Create and own an association
… Represent a new, different offering
… Avoid an association
… Retain/capture customer/brand bond
…Deal with channel conflict
Will business support new brand name? (business great enough?)
Core value-based corporate brand building (Urde, 2001)
 introduce framework for corporate brand building process based on core values.
Urde was researcher  International benchmarking  interviews with 40 managers at all corporate levels
Additional 20 interviews with managers representing Volvo and its partners.
Internal brand building process:
External brand building process:
Mission:
Volvo  “providing transportation related products with superior quality, safety and environmental care”.
Vision:
.
Volvo  “Based on consumer-perceived quality sustain position as recognized leader in safety and be ranked as leader of
environmental care”
Organisational values:
Corporate culture Volvo  care for people, responsibility, integrity, and honesty.
Core values
3 core values Volvo’s brand statement:
4. Quality:
Not only product, but also relations and communication.
5. Safety:
Volvo’s primary and most differentiating core value. Personal safety, safety for all passengers, safety
for others in traffic safety in relation to the environment.
6. “Concern for the environment”
Brand architecture (BA) 4 basic BA’s (1) corporate brand (Volvo); (2) product brands (AEG, Flymo – Elextrolux Group); (3)
corporate and product brands (SAS – Eurobonus); (4) product brands and corporate brand (Nicorette – Pharmacia Corporation.
Volvo’s BA  2 levels linked to 3 core values
Corporate brand
Corporate brand building provides credibility
Core Values
Product brand
Corporate brand building provides added values
Product attributes – building core values into the product, Goal  make product *exude brand’s identity. *uitstralen
Seat belts for the back seats (1967), air bags for side windows (1998).
Safety is way of thinking at Volvo. Instead of product development steering brand development, brand development generally steers
product development. Volvo has been first to strengthen link between Volvo and safety.
Brand personality:
At Volvo, people strive to create feeling “this is my kind of company”. Important role for corporate brand  creation of trust.
Environmental debate. CEO sent personal letter to media to defend company’s actions.
Brand positioning:
efficient way of communicating brand’s image.
In 1972 Volvo displayed safety concept car. Attitude in auto industry was that safety could not be used as argument for selling cars.
Eithout direct competition – Volvo could focus on safety  first-mover advantage. Volvo introduced new way of evaluating cars 
created new category and position around concept of safety.
Communication strategy:
“Drive Safely. Volvo”. “When did you last hear a car salesman speak about safety?” Core values not intended to be used directly in
external communication. Meaning of core values should be communicated so that they are not reduced to meaningless words.
Internal brand identity:
that everyone understands what core values are and what each represents.
Goal  org. to live its core values, and thus its brand.
Volvo formed Core Value Group to ensure its core values and identity are protected. (advertising agency attempted change to brand
identity that can be described as revolution)
Conclusions  Article offers framework  for corporate brand building process based on core values
Core values: all-embracing terms…  dynamic rather than inactive  must be continually be adapted and developed.
Purpose of core value-based brand building  to establish unifying common thread (vaststellen en verenigen van ‘rode draad’)
Implications  Challenge  organise company’s resource base and internal processes that strengthens and differentiates core
value. Goal  ensure core values are expressed as added values that customer experiences as useful and unique;
must be difficult to imitate.
Consumer perceptions of rebranding: The case of logo changes (Alshebil, 2007)
 Model developed that focused on how exposure to logo change puts consumer into coping process through expressions of
Skepticism, curiosity and resistance toward logo change.
2 elements proposed to govern coping processes of rebranding:
1. Perceived degree of logo change 2. Perceived valence (i.e. favorability) of logo change.
“2 kinds of rebranding from CEO’s perspective”: 1. “have to” necessity real 2. “want to.”
Luxury cosmetic
Rebranding: “building new name…” (Muzellec, 2003)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
 updating or changing image of brand in minds of different stakeholders involved (Alshebil, 2007). (NIET IN
AHONEN)
3 levels in which rebranding in organization can take place:
(OOK IN AHONEN)
4. corporate level  most critical  represents company’s identity as a whole 2. business unit level 3. product level
3 types of changes in rebranding continuum of Daly and Moloney (2004)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
4.
minor changes
…aesthetics - from restyling to revitalizing.
5.
intermediate changes …repositioning existing brand name
6.
complete change …getting new name, all marketing communications involved to make stakeholders aware of change.
3 types of rebranding / 5 permutations:
(DOOR STUART EN MUZELLEC EN OOK IN AHONEN)
6. new name and logo
/ new name + new logo + new slogan
7. new logo (only)
/ new logo and slogan
8. new slogan (only)
4 reasons/drivers of rebranding, change in…: (Muzellec & lambkin, 2006)
(OOK IN AHONEN)
5. …ownership structure  most frequent cause, most compelling reason (mergers and acquisitions at top)
6. …corporate strategy
7. …competitive position
8. …external environment
Logo Changes:
Logos:
2 types of logo changes, “if logo is changed, change should be made in…
(1) …content …. (2) …style …
Implications
Companies deciding to change logo should think of their consumers and see their side of the picture.
2 elements to think about: 1. how big logo change would be, and 2. how better or worse off new logo would be compared to
old logo, from consumer’s viewpoint.
Findings:

bigger perceived degree of logo change  likely to raise questions  more skeptical  more resistance.

Skepticism directly affects brand attitude after logo change.
 Solution: provide meaningful communication.
 announcing logo changes
 providing some rationale and more information
(Failing to do so  unanswered questions  skepticism  negative attitude toward the brand.)

more perceived valence of logo change  the less questions  less skepticism  less resistance.
 Solution: companies should get their customers say on it and not just surprise them.

perceived valence of logo change  more critical criterion than perceived degree of logo change.
 if new logo is viewed as more favorable than old logo consumers would be less questioning, less skeptical, and less
resistant when company decides to go for drastic logo change,
Corporate Re-Branding Process: A Preliminary Theoretical Framework (Ahonen, 2008)
 to develop process model of corporate re-branding that explains… -…how it happens; -…how corporation adopts new name and
-…what influences the process.
Process:
Often corporate re-branding defined as:
 in reference  only name is changed.
3 levels of change in corporate brand:
3. Minor change:
4. Intermediate change: .
3. Complete change:
Continuum of corporate rebranding from…
evolutionary changes (slogan or logo only) to
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
Daly and Moloney (2004) call complete change  rebranding.
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)

revolutionary change (incorporating elements of name, logo and slogan).
3 categories in which types of changes fall:
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)
4. Name change / 2. Logo change / 3. Slogan change.
5 permutations possible: a) name and logo, b) name, logo and slogan, c) logo only, d) logo and slogan, e) slogan only.
Paper based on 2 major sources:
1. Daly and Moloney’s (2004)
5 stages corporate re-branding process has: suggested by Daly and Moloney (2004)
Pre-campaign situation analysis
6. Stage one:
partnership campaign
7. Stage two:
vision and values
8. Stage three:
interim/dual branding (brand naming)
9. Stage four:
pre-launch
10. Stage five:
launch.
Furthermore, they describe phases of analysis, planning and evaluation.
2. In contrast, Muzellec and Lambkin (2006)…
…4 reasons/drivers for corporate re-branding, change in…:
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
1. …ownership structure
2. …corporate strategy
3. …competitive position
4. …external environment
…suggest model of re-branding process. 4 aspects of which rebranding consists…
Re- P N D L
Conclusions and Further Studies
Creating framework for corporate re-branding as process.
3 levels in which corporate re-branding may occur in organizations
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
4. corporate level,
5. business unit level, or
6. product level,
Corporate re-branding may vary from…
(OOK IN & VAN VOLGEND ARTIKEL STUART & MUZELLEC, 2004)
…minor, evolutionary changes
to 
revolutionary changes
(in position and aesthetics)
(in corporate name, values, attributes and positioning.)
4 reasons for corporate re-branding, change in…:
(OOK IN ALSHEBIL)
5. …ownership structure
(mergers & acquistions)
6. …corporate strategy
(internationalization)
7. …competitive position
(outdated image)
8. …external environment
(legal obligation)
4 phases that model distinguishes and consist with corporate re-branding: (MEEST BELANGRIJK, AHONEN ZELF)
5. A Analyzing:
antecedents and driving forces behind re-branding
(incl. decisions causing change in company’s structure, strategy, or performance)
6. P Planning:
decisions about corporate re- P N S D
(pretesting/developing logo/new name under/with stakeholders)
7. I Implementation: launching new corporate brand both internally (first) and externally (later)
8. E Evaluation:
measuring and analyzing success of re-branding process with regards of initial goals
All phases are intertwined and overlap one another.
Implication  process description may give insights for managers who are about to convey corporate re- branding issues.
It clarifies that corporate re-branding is holistic, complex and multilevel issue.
Corporate makeovers: can a hyena be rebranded? (Stuart & Muzellec, 2004)
 corporate rebranding is associated with changes in name, logo and slogan.
Rather than hyenas being SMSS… highly intelligent, mental abilities, social skilss  websites  can and should be rebranded
Rebranding:
Continuum in corporate rebranding:
From evolutionary change - logo or slogan only

revolutionary change - name, logo and slogan
Overall motivation for corporate rebranding to send signal to marketplace, communicating to stakeholders that
something about organisation has changed.
5 other motivations: M S F N P
3 categories of types of changes / 5 permutations:
4. Name plus logo change (revolutionary change) / Name plus logo plus slogan change
Risky strategy / Should have clear why it’s necessary / Difficult in case of mergers to find satisfactory name
5. Logo (only) change
/ Logo plus slogan
Cosmetic identity change trap:
Henderson and Cote is mentiond
If name is changed / wants to be more up to date and modern / doesn’t symbolise organization
6. Slogan (only) change (evolutionary change)
Slogan ideally reflects positioning strategy of corporate brand
Excellent / bad silly slogan can make / undermine company
Less risk
Difficult to measure success/failure of rebranding. Research before and after name, logo and/or slogan has changed is vital.
4 questions need to be adressed before launching into expensive corporate rebranding exercise:
WEAW
4 CONCLUSIONS
5. Expensive and time-consuming
6. More failures than successes
7. Sound motivation for rebranding: to send signal to marketplace, communicating to stakeholders that something
about organisation has changed.
8. Looking at organisation holistically  Marketing communication approach is insufficient
 consider rebranding of hyenas  any amount of corporate rebranding including marketing communication programme
will not convince public that it is nice, caring creature until its behaviour changes.
Consumer Response to Logo Shape Redesign: The Influence of Brand Commitment (Walsh, 2005)
 to explore RQ: Why are some logo changes met with consumer resistance and others not?
Specifically one aspect  shape (that are more rounded).
Exposure/repetition-effects literature  helpful in understanding theory  response to stimuli such as logos.
2 categories in which results from relationship between exposure and affective response can be categorized:
3. Inverted “U” relationship between exposure to stimuli and affect.
Explanation  “two-factor theory”  2 opposite psychological processes: positive habitation and tedium
Positive habitation:
 repeated exposure leads to more opportunities to learn about stimuli  reducing
uncertainty  increased affect (upward proportion inverted U).
Tedium:
 repeated exposure to stimuli becomes boring  decreased affect
(downward portion of U).
4. Monotonically increasing relationship between exposure and affect regardless of number of exposures.
Explanation  Perceptual fluency model
Perceptual fluency:
ease which people perceive, encode and process stimuli.
Perceptual fluency increased  by prior exposure
2 findings: When ads are processed in… …shallow fashion  no tedium effect …in deeper fashion  evaluation exhibit inverted U
Commitment:
The more committed toward brand, the more likely they’ll resist information that attacks brand.
Strongly committed consumer  likely to view logo change negatively  to protect their interests.
Koslow called this…
“defense motivation”:
4 experimental studies were conducted
5. Study One  pre-test to measure respondent’s commitment to athletic shoe brands.
6. Study Two  pre-test to verify logo stimuli as “no change / incremental change / considerable change”
7. Study Three  main study

2 (commitment toward brand: strong vs. weak) x 3 (degree of logo change: none vs. incremental vs.
considerable) between subjects design

Undergraduate students shown booklet containing Adidas or New Balance logo in 1 of 3 conditions: no change,
incremental change or considerable change. Subjects were also asked to complete brand commitment scale,
brand attitude scale and logo evaluation scale.
8. Study Four  second main study  designed to extend generalizability

To replicate effects found in study 3  other stimuli  bottled water
DISCUSSION
Brand commitment moderates logo evaluation and change in brand attitude
Considerable logo redesigns have more positive impact on brand attitude compared to incrementally changed designs.
Strongly committed consumers’
- evaluated redesigned logos worse compared to existing logos
- attitude toward brand was affected by redesigned logos  attitude declined
- any change negatively affects brand attitude
- incremental redesigns less negative impact on brand attitude than considerably changed redesigns
Weakly committed consumers
- evaluated redesigned logos better compared to existing logos
- attitude toward brand was affected by redesigned logos  attitude improved
- any change positively affects brand attitude
- the greater the change in logo redesign, the greater positive evaluation of that change.
The added value of corporate logos. An empirical study. (Van Riel, van den Ban & Heijmans, 2001)
 to reveal degree to which logo succeeds in expressing values company wishes to convey (overbrengen) to its stakeholders.
RQ:
what are perceptions of external audiences of organisation's new corporate logo before and after its launch into
market?
Identity of organization:
Corporate Identity mix (CI-Mix):
central, distinctive and enduring features
2 sets of properties that are assumed to affect individual's understanding and interpretation of logo:
(1) Intrinsic properties of logo:
directly from confrontation with logo itself
divided into…

…graphical parts (what is factual interpretation of logo?) (Henderson and Cote, 1998);

…referential parts (what does logo represent?).
(2) Extrinsic properties:
associations with company behind logo.
 partly defined by…

...behaviour of organisation in past and

…intensity of communication
Method
2 studies A and B  respondents were presented with 3 logos;
2 logos used by financial service institutions for more than 10 years,
1 logo of bank that was about to introduce new logo in Dutch market.
semi-structured and open questions before (Study A) and (6 months) after (Study B) introduction of new logo
Respondents were asked…
 …to describe spontaneous graphical associations
(“Can you describe symbol in detail?'')
and referential associations
(“What do you think symbol means?'').
 …to evaluate fit of each logo with category of company's activities
(Likert scale)
 …to describe their interpretations of intentions of each company
(“What does company want to express with its logo in your
with use of their logo
opinion?'').
Conclusions
Study aimed  to improve understanding about fit between graphical and referential associations that people evoke when
confronted with new logo, before and after its been introduced into market.
2 points that need to be addressed:
a.
Well designed-logo is able to evoke limited, but essential, amount of desired organisational characteristics with external
stakeholders with ‘only’ graphical properties of symbol.
b.
Fit between external perceptions of new logo and organizational intentions may increase if launch of new logo is embedded
within nation-wide advertising campaign, explaining values the company wants to express with this logo.
Advice on communicating during organizational change: the content of popular press books (Lewis, Schmisseur, Stephens
& Weir, 2006)
 analysis of advice from bestselling popular press books about communication during implementation of organizational change.
 to understand how current scholarly knowledge about communication and change is reflected in practitioner-advice
found in popular press books.
METHOD
3 steps:
4. Amazon.com  search on subject term “organizational change.”
Top 100 best-selling books on organizational change  to include books that…
(a) focused on how to implement change (rather than what change to implement) and
(b) provided advice to practitioners for implementation.
 24 books were selected.
5. Each researcher read approximately one-fourth of the books to identify dominant themes.
6. Each researcher took different set of books than what was originally read and went through them again to confirm
presence or absence of each theme. This process resulted in tables and theme descriptions provided below.
3 overall themes, Themes Concerning…:
4. …Role of Change Agents, 3 subthemes:

Promoting communication and participication.

Facilitating change process / Facilitator

Creating a vision
5. …General Strategies, 4 subthemes:

Emphasize P&E

Emphasize P&V

Emphasize C

Create
CC
6. …Specific Tactics and Action Steps, 7 subthemes en 1 minor subtheme

Asking for input

Disseminate information

Manage style and content of communaction

Create and communicate vision
DISCUSSION
3 overall themes that were found in popular press books as well as scholarly literature:
4. Wide participation in change process
5. Wide dissemination of information  to promote wide participation in change communication.
6. Importance of communication about vision and purpose.
Furthermore  empowerment and autonomy noted in popular press books  hasn’t been explored much in scholarly literature.
5 Practitioners’ Challenges in Using the Advice, Practitioners need to…:
6. …intuit underlying logic of claims made in these books.
7. …compare generic form of advice against standards, norms, and values of own organization.
8. …look for examples of other companies
9. …use advice that seems most applicable
10. …put into place some triggers to double-check effects
The impact of organisational characteristics on Corporate Visual Identity (Van den Bosch, Elving & De Jong, 2006)
 RQ: Whether and to what extent do organisational characteristics (OC) and CVI management characteristics affect
consistency of CVI?
Assumption:
consistency of CVI depends on development of CVI guidelines and way defined CVI guidelines are applied,
resulting in more or less consistent visual expression of organisation.
To study these influences we focus on, Influence of…:
(1) …general OC on consistent CVI. (2) …CVI management characteristics on consistent CVI. (3) …general OC on CVI man. char.
Method:
686 questionnaires (with likert scales) returned by selection of employees with variety of jobs in 20 Dutch organizations with at least
400 employees. They shouldn’t have introduced change in visual identity for at least last 2 years. Focused on opinions of employees
and not on external stakeholders..
Consistent CVI (was defined as):
(dependent variable)
extent to which various CVI elements were actually employed as intended.
Hypotheses
1 dependent variable  Consistent CVI
3 independent variables  CVI management characteristics:
4. CVI Knowledge of Strategy
(knowledge of rationale (beweegredenen) behind CVI and its objectives)
5. CVI Tools and Support
6. CVI Socialisation Processes (informal learning processes and behaviour of managers, through which members of
organisation gain insight into expected behaviour in relation to CVI)
5 independent variables  organisational characteristics (OC):
6. OC Knowledge of Strategy
(respondents’ knowledge of strategy)
7. OC Tools and Support
(co-ordination mechanism used to support differentiated units and functions in organisation)
8. OC Quality of Managers
(respondents’ opinion of their managers).
9. OC Internal Communication (respondents’ perceptions of quality of internal communication)
10. OC Open and Dynamic
(extent to which organisation is in dynamic environment  has to act flexibly)
Discussion and conclusions
Study  to offer insight into  CVI management.
Model developed:
With exception of openness and dynamics of organisation, no evidence was found for direct relationship between
organisational characteristics and CVI consistency.
CVI consistency appeared to be predicted by CVI management characteristics which, in turn, correspond to organisational
characteristics.
Organisational characteristics are factor of importance for CVI consistency  multi-channel approach to CVI management
will give best results. It can be helpful to embed CVI in existing tools and support.
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