Research for Agricultural Development
Program (RADP)
Annual Report for the year 2012-13
Dr. Sher Muhammad
Project Director, RADP
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC)
Islamabad – July, 2013
i
Contents
Foreword...................................................................................................................................................... iv
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................. vi
Background, Objectives and Operation ................................................................................................. viii
Issues and Challenges ............................................................................................................................ viii
Program Objectives .................................................................................................................................. ix
Approval ................................................................................................................................................... ix
Management Structure............................................................................................................................ ix
Program Steering Committee (PSC) ......................................................................................................... ix
Program Executive Committee (PEC) ....................................................................................................... ix
Research Activities Approval and Funding Mechanism ............................................................................ x
PROJECT PROGRESS ...................................................................................................................................... 1
FINANCIAL OUTLAYS AND EXPENDITURE ................................................................................................. 1
PHYSICAL ACHIEVEMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 3
Staff Position-PIU ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Scientific staff for Research Projects ........................................................................................................ 3
RESEARCH PROGRAM ................................................................................................................................... 4
Research Projects/Activities ..................................................................................................................... 4
Research Projects / Activities Monitoring and Review ............................................................................. 5
Salient outputs/progress of Research Projects/Activities ........................................................................ 6
RESEARCH PROJECTS / .................................................................................................................................. 8
ACTIVITIES: OUTPUTS,................................................................................................................................... 8
PROGRESS ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
AND WAY FORWARD .................................................................................................................................... 8
Crop Sciences ................................................................................................................................................ 9
Natural Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 56
Animal Sciences .......................................................................................................................................... 81
Social Sciences ............................................................................................................................................ 98
CIVIL WORK ............................................................................................................................................... 123
TRAINING .................................................................................................................................................. 125
Training and Visits ................................................................................................................................. 125
WAY FORWARD......................................................................................................................................... 126
ii
Table of Annexure
Annex-I: ToRs and Composition of PSC-RADP __________________________________ 129
Annex-II: ToRs and Composition of PEC-RADP _________________________________ 130
Annex-III: Cumulative Expenditure of RADP FY 2006-07 to 2012-13 ________________ 131
Annex-IV: Research Themes under RADP ______________________________________ 132
Annex-V: Status of RADP sub-projects _________________________________________ 133
Annex-VI: Format of the project completion report ________________________________ 143
iii
Foreword
The “Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP)” a mega project of Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council (PARC) funded through Public Sector Development Program was approved on 7 th
March, 2007 at a total cost of Rs. 2,963 million. The project aims to initiate research on priority areas
identified under 22 themes identified in consultation with NARS. It addresses emerging issues like
agricultural development, strengthening of the research infrastructure through supply of needed lab/field
equipment, improvement of existing lab / offices, glass houses, office buildings, and replacement of
obsolete transport fleet. Human resource development, international collaboration and Technical
Assistance are other components of the program.
RADP is the first of its kind to materialize the efforts of PARC scientists and research managers for
implementation of large number of research themes and helped NARS research activities on which the
research projects were developed and implemented. In spite of many hurdles/ shortfalls particularly
meager allocation and release of financial resources which did not commensurate with complexity and
approved work plan of the project, RADP has made a significant physical progress by completing 66
research projects in all the sectors i.e. Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences and Social
Sciences. These projects addressed crop production enhancement, preventive, curative and policy
management. The internal reviews of these projects revealed that these projects have delivered the desired
outputs which are of high economic value. For example, in the Crop Sector, these research projects have
delivered the desired results in the form of induction of varieties resistant in crops against viral, bacterial
and fungal diseases, produced a number of competing hybrids of sunflower, canola, citrus, tomato,
livestock vaccines, feeds and diagnostics etc. Similarly, under Natural Resources, land/water conservation
technologies and new byproducts of honey were studied. Detail report of these and other scientific
achievements are being presented in this report.
The RADP has also strengthened and improved the PARC research infrastructure in terms of lab and field
equipment, office equipment, transport system, construction of new laboratory and glass house, insectary
and containment facilities, improvement of irrigation and roads as well as communication system. This
will help improve research infrastructure for high tech research and will go a long way for effective and
fruitful research system.
The report summarizes the activities of 6 years execution of the project and presents salient achievements,
constraints and bottlenecks. The project has made a solid progress in spite of the acute disruption in flow
of funds. I wish a success to the project and its implementation team in the years to come.
(Dr. Iftikhar Ahmad)
Chairman PARC
iv
Acknowledgement
Project Implementation Unit (PIU) of Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP) is
pleased to present fifth annual report, which encompasses achievements of the project during last six
years covering period from April 2007 to June, 2013. During this period project endured the shocks of
very low and late release of financial resources, changes in senior management in PARC as well as
RADP, and thus the priorities. Despite this significant achievements were made. The PIU-RADP works in
coordination with the Technical and Finance Divisions of PARC under the guidance of Chairman PARC
and the Members of these Divisions. Chairman PARC and Members of Technical Divisions have always
been guiding with wisdom and experience. We express sincere thanks and gratitude for this ownership.
Secretary, M/o National Food Security & Research / Chairman Program Steering Committee (PSC) of
RADP has been very kind and never hesitated in providing crucial approvals to time limit cases whenever
these were referred to his office. This spirit is acknowledged with high respect.
The implementation of the program like RADP is a challenging task demanding team work of large
number of cooperating Sections/Directorates of PARC. These include Planning and Development
Division, Works, Procurement, Establishment, L&GA, Media & Publication Directorates, Central
Secretariat in PARC; PRMC, Central Stores, Transport, Machinery Workshop and SIU, in NARC.
Whatever has been achieved to date is due to their team work which is thankfully acknowledged.
The PIU-RADP team has made its best efforts to achieve the project targets and has always been a
pushing force behind every task and they have never failed to respond timely to any call of duty. All the
team members deserve special appreciations. Focal persons in the Technical Divisions have extended
support to PIU in processing cases which is apprecaited.
Principal Investigators (P.Is) of sub-projects deserve special thanks as they are the forefront research
leaders who formulated research projects, faced peer critique and accepted the challenge of conducting
research and delivering tangible and useful products and technologies. Their efforts to provide life line to
projects at disruption of flow of financial resources are appreciated.
We are thankful to all those who have been mentioned above and those as well who could not be
mentioned but supported the RADP activities. We also hope to continue receiving their unending support
in future.
Dr. Sher Muhammad
Project Director – RADP
v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP) was launched in April 2007, with total cost
of Rs. 2963 million for a period of 60 months. Due to overall financial environment in the country, the
allocation of financial resources and releases remained far below than those reflected in PC-I. Therefore,
by the end of FY 2012-13 the actual expenditure was only Rs. 1070.00 million. Due to this factor, the
project has been extended upto June, 2015. The project is being implemented within the Pakistan
Agricultural Research Council (PARC) system with a Project Implementation Unit (PIU).
Main objectives of the RADP are: to provide timely response to emerging and re-emerging research
issues and problems; provide autonomy to PARC to prioritize and implement its research agenda within
the main ambits of 22 research themes approved in the project for each sector i.e., Crop Sciences, Natural
Resources, Animal Sciences and Social Sciences – with its own implementation mechanism through
established PARC system. The other objectives of RADP are to upgrade and strengthen the depleting
research infrastructure at various centers of PARC, by supplying latest and state of the art equipment;
farm machinery, office equipment; green houses and repair of irrigation system, and old buildings. It also
aimed at improving the lab to field mobility of scientists, and update/improve communication links. It has
also to cater for the human resource development, and arrange experts in the areas where PARC lacks
expertise.
By the end of FY 2012-13, more than, one hundred and seven (107) research activities/sub-projects were
launched. Out of these, 66 projects have completed their life. The research activities/ projects in operation
are reviewed annually by the senior management of PARC, with primary objective to quantify
progress/outputs of each of these projects, assesses possible completion / funds utilization and to give
directions for speedy achievements of set targets. These reviews indicate that a number of salt, drought
and rust tolerant lines/varieties of wheat and rice have been identified and their genetic manipulation is in
progress. Similarly good hybrid lines of sunflower, canola, mustard, tomato, mandarin (citrus) and fodder
crops are also available. These hybrids are in line for approval, and commercialization. Seed of a couple
of oileseed hybrids multiplied and sold to farmers. Domestication of wild growing black cumin has also
been done at Gilgit, NAs.
The other out puts are fabrication and testing of mango harvesting and pre-cooling machine, buffalo
milking machine and maize dryers developed in collaboration with local manufacturers. Two pilot plants
one each for processing of bio-herbicides and bio-pesticides locally fabricated and installed at NARC, are
in position to develop their products for organic farming. One bio-composting processing unit installed at
NARC, is to produce and market bio-fertilizer, to farmers. Some projects are primarily gathering and
putting together useful information on pest control, pest risk analysis and pesticides residues for trade and
policy development which are going to suggest new avenues for further research and development as well
as policy planning and introducing management interventions.
Social Sciences projects have done analyses of the commodity value chains citrus, poultry and dairy
products, agricultural growth and poverty reduction, food consumption diversity, harvest and post harvest
losses, Bt cotton issues at farm level, and supported in capacity building of social / biological scientists.
These activities have generated very useful information and data set for planning and policy making. At
NARC, Pakistan Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture (PIASA) with affiliation to Quaid-i-Azam
vi
University, Islamabad has been established with current enrollment in M. Phil and Ph. D exceeding 196
students.
Major focus in Natural Resources is on land and water productivity, and use efficiency through drip and
trickle irrigation; plant nutrition management, chemical and bio-chemical reclamation of salt effected
soils, soil pollutants, their fate and management and modeling for climate change, and bio – remediation
of sewerage water. All these have generated useful information and technologies. Three projects on honey
bee rearing are considered best in establishing the lab for analysis for export quality honey, production
technologies for developing valuable by products of honey (royal jelly, pollen, propolis and bees wax etc)
as well as imparting training to farmers for diversification and income enhancement. Beekeeping in
Gilgit/Baltistan introduced to make use of high value flora for small farmers.
Animal scientists have developed state of the art technologies of inducing early puberty and heat
synchronization of large ruminants for improved production and reproduction of animals, improved
preservation of buffalo and goat semen for enhancing its quality for improved AI. Vaccine developed for
avian influenza of poultry birds which are under field test. Production of FMD vaccine will require
additional work with international collaboration. Research on control of diseases of fish and trout culture
have given good results and enhanced production and income of fish farmers.
In couple of projects collaboration with international centers has also been made e.g. ICARDA, and
discussions held with CIMMYT, IFPRI, ILRI etc. However, except ICARDA, other activities could not
take off due to resource constraints. For the collaboration with national research system, projects have
gone through a consultative process at different technical and policy level forums. e.g. Inter Provincial
Agricultural Research Coordination Committees (IPRCC) of PARC, Technical Evaluation/Execution and
Program Committees of different commodity programs.
The upgradation of infrastructure was given due emphasis for efficient and smooth carrying out of
research activities. This included; procurement of scientific equipment, field machinery and office
equipment. Two lifts in PARC HQs building and two phone exchanges one each at PARC and NARC are
installed and made fully functional, facilitating communication among scientists.
In the Civil Works component many items of repair and maintenance of existing buildings were carried
out by PARC - Works Directorate. Under new construction; the SSI building, conversion of old CSI
block into women hostel, glass house/containment facilities, animal enclosures, tube wells, irrigation
channels, F-type residences, animal and parking sheds have been completed. Much of the works estimates
have to be reviewed as the cost of construction has almost doubled. Some items have to be swapped with
other emerging and essentially required items, therefore some adjustments have to be made through
Program Steering Committee’s (PSC) authorization. Some of these include; Labs and residences in CARS
at Thatta, research project based repairs, and works at newly created research stations.
The capacity building component has remained rather weak in spite of best efforts to identifty areas,
scientists, training programs and institutions for training. Only about 9 scientists could participate and
avail such facilities. The slackness is due to financial crunch, increasing cost of foreign trainings and
lengthy approval process. Efforts had not stopped here, recently a committee has been constituted to
oversee this process in order to avail these facilities.
vii
Background, Objectives and Operation
The vision 2030 of Government of Pakistan (GoP) envisages “developed, industrialized, just and
prosperous Pakistan through rapid and sustainable development in a resource constrained economy by
deploying knowledge inputs”. This vision is being operationalized through series of Medium Term
Development Frameworks (MTDF) similar to five year development plans. National Economic Council
(NEC) approved on 27th May 2005 the MTDF 2005-2010, which is first of the series. Under the MTDF
the main objectives of agricultural development are to achieve self-reliance in agricultural commodities,
ensure food security and improve productivity and profitability of crops, livestock, fisheries and poultry.
The primary objective of agricultural research included in MTDF will be to generate new knowledge and
techniques for the enhancement of agricultural productivity. Being an apex research organization at
federal level responsible for conducting, coordination and promotion of agricultural research, Pakistan
Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has the mission of “Poverty reduction through science-based
improvements in agriculture productivity, profitability, and competitiveness to ensure food and livelihood
security for all in an environmentally sustainable manner”.
After 18th amendment in the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Ministry of Food and
Agriculture at (MINFA) had been devolved w.e.f. 1st July, 2011. However, realizing the significance and
importance of agriculture sector, GoP constituted new Ministry with National Food Security and Research
Division w.e.f. 26th October, 2011, with the goal to develop and implement strategies for national food
security. Agriculture sector has a pivotal role in “Growth Strategy” and research has to generate
technologies to achieve the goals set by Government.
The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) as apex national research organization is mandated
to provide science based solutions to agriculture in Pakistan and thus to play key role to address the issues
of national food security. PARC has placed emphasis on the following research priorities:








Paradigm shift from green revolution to gene revolution
Strategic research to explore new scientific opportunities to improve total factor productivity and
profitability
Crop intensification and diversification
Integrated farming system approach for small holders
Sustainable use of natural resources
Capacity building of the national agriculture research and extension system
Enhanced partnership/coordination with all stakeholders (farmers, national/international research
system, civil society, agro-industry, etc.)
Participatory research and utilization of indigenous knowledge
Issues and Challenges
The agricultural sector in Pakistan has grown complex over time with increasing challenges. In
particular, constraints on the availability and quality of land and water, coupled with increasing natural
resource degradation represent major challenges. Globalization has brought additional challenges with the
need for much greater reliance on new crops, technologies, institutions and public-private partnerships. A
rapidly increasing population, particularly of poor and small farmers and increasingly skewed distribution
viii
of access to land and resources has created a much more pronounced need to move from resource-based
to science based agriculture. PARC, therefore, proposed this portfolio of Research for Agricultural
Development Program (RADP) which is built around priority areas of agricultural research within its
mandated research agenda to provide solutions that meet the needs of Government’s broad based strategy
for food security and agricultural growth. The project is under implementation since April 2007, and has
provided PARC a base for continuing its research agenda despite constraints in release of funds and
shrinking of current budget.
Program Objectives
The broad objectives of “Research for Agricultural Development Program” are: (a) address the current
and emerging needs of science based-agriculture development to achieve food security on sustainable
basis, poverty reduction, economic efficiency and export competitiveness; (b) serve as a mechanism for
timely response to emerging research issues and problems such as pest epidemics for crops and livestock,
nutrient deficiency, climate change, etc; (c) maximize productivity per unit of land, water, animal, labor
and capital; and (d) move from research output to innovations in terms of products and services suitable
for smallholders.
Approval
The RADP was approved by the Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) on
7th March 2007 at total cost of Rs. 2963.00 million including FEC of Rs. 876.49 million (from own
sources) for a period of 60 months (later extended upto June, 2015) . The administrative approval of the
RADP was issued on 3rd April 2007 by MINFA.
Management Structure
The executing agency of the project/program is PARC. A Project Director with core staff has been
appointed for the implementation. The project activities on approved themes / priority areas of each sector
i.e. Crop Sciences, Animal Sciences, Natural Resources and Social Sciences are coordinated by respective
Member / Incharge of the sector who is authorized / responsible for resource distribution and outcome of
that sector. The management committees are:
Program Steering Committee (PSC)
Program Steering Committee (PSC) has been constituted as per approved PC-I for overall supervision of
the project implementation. The ToRs and composition of PSC is given in Annex-I. The PSC during the
currency of project has met five times, reviewed the overall progress, provided guidance to resolve
operational and financial issues and also authorized technical revision and re-appropriation of funds
within overall approved cost and scope of the project.
Program Executive Committee (PEC)
Major themes and broad research activities under each theme have been given in the project document.
ix
The detailed research plans under these themes / activities are prepared by the respective scientists and
cleared by PEC based on the recommendation of Technical Division and comments of PIU. PEC has met
22 times in last six years (upto June, 2013). The ToRs and composition of PEC is given in Annex-II.
Research Activities Approval and Funding Mechanism
The research activities are coordinated by the respective Technical Divisions of PARC who are
authorized and responsible for the resource distribution and outcome of the research activities of their
respective sector. The scientists working in various establishments of PARC under their sector submit the
detailed proposals in identified and emerging areas to concerned Technical Division and to PIU through
DG’s of research institutes. PIU reviews the proposals and places before PEC with comments of
Technical Divisions. The PEC examines the proposals and budget for funding under RADP. In most of
the clear cases the PEC approves the proposal in principle and puts some observations and asks the
scientists to revise/modify/improve the project both technically and financially. It also authorizes the
Technical Division to get these projects reviewed, revised and cleared before final authorization and
release of funds. Some proposals are to be re-submitted to PEC after major revisions / improvements for
reconsideration and some other are rejected or deferred for technical reasons.
Most of the proposals requiring minor revisions in technical and budget parts are discussed with
individual scientists and Technical Division before administrative and financial sanctions from the
competent authority. Upon issuance of these approval letters by the Project Implementation Unit (PIU)
the allocated funds for the year are put at the disposal of PI with Finance Division, PARC. The funds are
utilized under the revised procedure for operation of assignment accounts of federal government notified
by Central Secretariat on 11th March, 2011. This procedure is not only cumbersome but very lengthy and
has slowed down the pace of funds utilization and payment made in the end of June are not actualized for
cheques taking time to get cleared from central bank (National Bank of Pakistan) with number of cheques
remained un-cleared hence unpaid. The outstations are suffering most as their payments are taking very
long time. The system needs review in order to facilitate scientists and proper counting procedure.
At the end of each quarter, quarterly technical and financial reports are submitted by each PI to PIU,
which are scrutinized and submitted to Technical Divisions and Finance Division respectively for
evaluation and comments. Based on this P.Is. are authorized to use funds in next quarter.
x
PROJECT PROGRESS
The financial and technical report for 2012-13, presents the progressive achievements of the RADP since
its launch in 2007. The Year 2012-13 was practically 6th year (Year 2006-07 was for one month only),
and very important year of RADP as number of the research activities initiated in 2007-08 were to be
completed and give outputs. Many new activities along with those in continuance were in pipeline to start
in order to maintain right size portfolio of research activities as per scope of project. The major activities
carried were: formulation and approval of research plans as per themes and priorities of PC-I, operational
research funding, review of research activities, procurement of lab, field / office equipment, and farm
machinery. It also included completion of some civil work activities and start of new civil works items.
Short term foreign trainings, and consultancies were also component of overall work plan. The start of FY
2012-13, was bit smooth with 1st quarter release of Rs. 34 million in October, 2nd release of Rs. 30
million and 3rd quarter release of Rs. 10 million. Total Rs. 74 million in the FY 2012-13 was released
against the allocation of Rs. 170 million. New activities could not start due to change of all project
management all of sudden with no reason assigned. Earlier 18th constitutional amendment and resultant
devolution & re-evolution of Ministries led PARC attachment and detachment and re-attachment to
MINFA – MoST – M/o National Food Security & Research also resulted in delayed releases to RADP.
The release of financial resources in the life of project were never as per work plan. Resultantly, research
activities and physical work could not go as per approved cash and work plan.
Inspite of all these odds, sufficient progress was made in all the areas of project activities with prudent
financial management.
FINANCIAL OUTLAYS AND EXPENDITURE
Annual work and cash plans were prepared every year according to the activities planned in the PC-I of
the project and allocation made by the ‘Priorities Committee of GOP’. The work /cash plans were got
cleared and approved from Planning Commission and MINFA/MoST/Min of National Food Security &
Research for release of the funds. The table below shows that allocation was always low than that of
phasing in PC-I. Releases were hardly 50% of the allocation and timing of release remained uncertain that
jeopardized the plan of work.
Year-wise Allocation and Expenditure
Item
2006-07
PC-I (Cost)
268.909
Allocation
200.00
Release
40.00
(Rs. Million)
Expenditure
39.961
1030.423
809.181
504.568
349.919
-
948.423
600.000
400.000
411.555
165.321
170.00
-
535.635
239.058
160.000
120.501
107.458
74.00
1277.00
353.442
239.058
160.000
111.725
92.868
73.16
1070.00
(one month)
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Total
1
Total PC-I Cost
Total Expenditure
Throw forward
Rs. 2963.00 million
Rs. 1070.00 million
Rs. 1893.00 million
The resource allocation and utilization to project by end of FY 2012-13, is hardly one third of total project
cost (PC-I). In order to achieve full objectives and utilized available funds the project has already been
extended for two more years w.e.f. July-2013 to June-2015 within the same cost and objectives of the
project to provide continuity to on-going R&D activities. Simultaneously the project needs revision with
revised objectives, scope and costing of completed and proposed/remaining work. This will bring
confidence of scientists in the project.
The cumulative expenditure on major activities as per PC-I is given in Annex-III.
2
PHYSICAL ACHIEVEMENTS
Staff Position-PIU
Eighteen positions are provided in the PC-I for Project Implementation Unit (PIU). All the project staff
was recruited through open competition on merit, by January 2008 except one position of Scientific
Editor. Subsequently support staff of RADP was regularized by management and placed with PIU of
RADP for smooth work. In such a mega project these positions are vital for proper
financial/administrative controls and efforts were made to fill up these positions urgently by suitable
candidates through competitive /transparent selection process. This exercise was left alone when it was
almost completed due to lot of interference and in the meanwhile the original staff was again re-instated
in May 2012. Later in September, 2012, contract of Project Director was abolished all of sudden and Dy.
Project Director (Tech) was also repatriated to PARC on his original position. Both the moves were made
with ulterior motives of the PARC management and non-serious. List of filled and vacant position by end
of FY 2010-11 are as under:
Staff Position of PIU-RADP
S. No.
Name of the Positions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Project Director
Deputy Project Director (Technical)
Deputy Project Director (Finance)
Civil Engineer
Scientific Editor
Sub-Engineer
Admn. Officer
Account Officer
Programmer (MIS)
PA to PD
Admn./Computer Assistant
12.
Driver
No. of
Positions
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
Status
Filled through transfer
Vacant
Vacant
Filled
Vacant
1 filled, 1 left
Vacant
Filled through transfer
Filled through transfer
Filled through transfer
1 filled through transfer, 3 filled
through DPL
1 recruited, 2 Filled through
transfer
Scientific staff for Research Projects
In order to implement a sizeable research operation of PARC through out the country a number of
individual research sub-projects are funded to be carried out at the PARC research establishments under
the RADP. In order to support the scientific work both in the fields and laboratories, 55 temporary
scientific positions are provided in the RADP in the form of Research Associates, Research Assistants
and Research Technicians for all the four sectors vis-a-vis Crops Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal
Sciences, and Social Sciences. Against these, 19 positions were filled in FY 2007-08 and of these
eighteen completed their tenure or resigned. At moment only one is in position. Details are given in the
table below:
3
Scientific Manpower Available and Recruited under RADP
Sector
Res. Associate
Res. Assistant
Res. Technician
Total
Resigned/
Available Filled Available Filled Available Filled Available Filled completed
5
1
10
6
0
0
15
7
6
Crop
Sciences
Natural
5
0
10
2
Resources
Animal
5
1
5
6
Sciences
Social
5
0
5
2
Sciences
Total
20
2
30
16
(*) One adjusted with Research Technicians
0
0
15
2
1
(5-1) *
1
15
8
9
0
0
10
2
2
5
1
55
19
18
The vacant positions could not be filled due to lengthy process and intermittent / uncertain flow of funds
and bans imposed by the Govt from time to time. Management also hired services of Consultants to
support the on-going activities in sub-projects.
RESEARCH PROGRAM
Major part of funds in the RADP are provided for the carrying out of research operations of PARC
establishments all over the country. For this purpose over one hundred (119) activities/ research topics
(sub-projects)are identified in addition to other emerging issues under 22 themes in four sectors: crop
sciences, natural resources, animal sciences and social sciences. A list of themes is given at Annex-IV.
Projects on emerging issues and other important areas are also considered for funding. The activities
under taken and progress is explained in follow up sections.
Research Projects/Activities
The Program Executive Committee (PEC) of RADP has met 22 times during the last six years and
considered more than 180 research proposals / activities submitted by scientists as per scope of project.
Of these 107 projects were started in different years. Out of the projects launched 16 were closed after
review by management due to serious financial constraints in FY 2008-09 and 2009-10. Sixty six (66)
projects were completed and presently forty one (41) are on-going. Some new projects have also been
launched recently. Sector wise list of ongoing and completed projects at various research stations is given
at Annex-V. Sector wise number of the approved, ongoing and completed projects are summarized in the
table below:
4
Sector Wise Research Projects
Sr.
No.
Discipline
Completed
On-going
Total
1
Crop Sciences
34
23
57
2
Natural Resources
12
8
20
3
Animal Sciences
8
5
13
4
Social Sciences
12
5
17
66
41
107
Total
Research Projects / Activities Monitoring and Review
PIU-RADP calls for the technical and financial reports of each ongoing project which is reviewed by
Technical Division, Finance Division and PIU. These reports are prepared by the Projects Incharges
(P.Is.) on prescribed format. The areas covered in the review are: Technical/Physical progress in terms of
outputs, financial utilization against the budget allocation and funds released and the difficulties or issues
faced by the scientists / P.Is. These reviews focus on progress and issues. Occasionally field oriented
detailed reviews wherein critical issue of success level and good physical progress is expected are
conducted by experts from the Technical Divisions. The recommendations given by review experts are
taken up at various forums for information and necessary action.
Every year review is conducted by PARC management with PEC members. The 4th annual review of the
on going and completed projects was conducted on 29-30th November, 2011 at NARC. The review was
chaired by the Chairman PARC and attended by the Members of Technical Divisions, Member (Finance)
D.G-NARC and senior management of PARC. The report of the review has been circulated to all
concerned and feed back given to the scientists. According to these reports except few projects all other
are going well with their physical progress. The critical issues discussed include major outputs/product
expected from the project and time frame for taking these to the fields. Scientists were asked to coordinate
with PATCO, TTI and AVC centers of PARC, for taking their products and technologies after testing and
evaluation to the farmers’ fields. The P.Is. of slow performing projects and those facing bottlenecks were
advised to improve the progress for which advice given and decisions were made by the review team and
peers. The Projects Wing of Planning Commission also conducted desk/field monitoring, and found
progress satisfactory within the allocated resources.
Technical Divisions also review the progress of individual or group of projects from time to time, for
assessing the progress and resolving the issues faced. Project /Activity Completion the P.Is. of those
projects / research activities which have been completed are approached by the PIU-RADP for supply of
final project reports both the Technical and Financial, along with a couple of other sets of information as
given below:
i.
Submission of Final Technical Report by the Project Incharge-12 copies in bound form on proper
RADP format enclosed.
5
ii.
iii.
iv.
Submission of Final Report with year wise breakup of budget and details of expenditure 5 copies
endorsed by concerned DDO/Account Officer.
Return of any balance/unutilized amount of funds left with Project, or submission of request for
payment of liabilities from PIU-RADP, PARC instantly. P.I of the project at NARC has to
provide certificate of return of these funds to PARC from the respective account officer.
Provide copies of all publications, broacher/leaflets, thesis etc produced under the project.
List of all capital assets / durable goods provided / purchased under RADP required to be furnished which
should obtain name of item, quantity, location and working status and their utilization after completion.
The project reports are circulated to all concerned for evaluation, comments, and further actions to take
the outputs/outcomes to the field for benefit of the farmers and achieving the desired impact. The
completed projects will be revisited annually by the concerned Technical Divisions along with PIURADP to see the adoption level and impact of the project outcomes. A format of the project completion
reports is given at Annex-VI.
Salient outputs/progress of Research Projects/Activities
The available gene pool is the major building block available to breeders to develop new crop varieties
and hybrids. Larger is the bio-diversity, the greater and better would be chances of requiring high yields
and better results. Under the genetics improvement projects a large number (>15000) germplasm has been
acquired from a diverse local and exotic gene pool. This germplasm has been preserved in the repository
of gene bank at NARC. Much of it has been characterized for the phenotypic and genotypic traits. In this
process a number of lines of various crops with desirable traits (drought, salt, diseases, pest resistance as
well as desireable yield, quality, duration, consumer preference etc) of economic / trade importance
became available for the use of breeders. The material / lines / germplasm is being regularly passed on to
the breeders to select and use in crosses for breeding purposes.
The outputs expected from these projects are becoming visible as a number of salt, drought and rust
tolerant lines/varieties of wheat and rice are in pipeline. Similarly good hybrids of sunflower, canola,
mustard, tomato, mandarin (citrus) and fodder crops are under NUYT and will be available for
commercialization through private-public partnership. Seed multiplication and sale, of canola and
sunflower hybrids has been started through PARC Agro Tech Company (PATCO). Technology for
domestication of wild growing black cumin has also been developed at Gilgit, NAs. Short duration
ground nut verities of 110-120 days maturity identified. Sugarcane verities characterized for flowering
ability and areas identified for viable fuz production for use in varietal development. In-vitro culture
adopted for introduction of ginger and turmeric cultivation as well as production of fungus free potatoes
seed. Mushroom cultivation technology developed and being promoted. Non-shattering, aphid resistance,
bold seeded, low erusic acid early maturing lines of canola and mustard identified and are being utilized
for further breeding and hybrids development.
A project was initiated at NARC for fast track production of hybrid seeds of cotton, wheat, rice, maize
and tomato as well as exploitation of innovative technologies for crops and income diversification.
Infrastructure developed and tangible progress made. For Rawal shed management a nursery producing
30-50,000 deciduous fruit plants annually established at Satrameel. As a result of farm machinery
development projects, mango harvesting and pre cooling machine, buffalo milking machine and maize /
6
ground nut dryers have been developed in collaboration with local manufacturers. Development of olive
oil extraction plant is also in pipeline. Two pilot plants one each for processing of bio-fertilizer and biopesticides locally fabricated and installed at NARC. Their products to be used for promotion of organic
farming. Some projects are primarily gathering and putting together some useful information on pest
control, pest risk analysis and pesticides residues for trade and policy development which suggest new
avenues for further research and development as well as policy planning and introducing management
interventions.
Major focus in Natural Resources is on improving land and water productivity and enhancing their use
efficiency through drip and trickle irrigation, plant nutrition management, chemical and bio-chemical
reclamation of salt effected soils, soil pollutants, their fate and management, and modeling for climate
change. These technologies have been tested and demonstrated on large areas at farmers’ field and
information packs published. Three projects on honey bee rearing were considered best in establishing
the lab for analysis for export quality of honey, production technologies for developing valuable byproducts of honey (royal jelly, pollen, propolis and bees wax etc) as well as imparting training to farmers
for diversification and income enhancement. Experiments also started on bio-fuel production of Jatropha,
Sukhchen and Caster Beans, the results are encouraging. Bio remediation of waste/ used water of Chak
shahzad and residential blocks of NARC is a big success story to witness at NARC for integrated
multipurpose use of waste water. The drip irrigation technology perfected and successfully demonstrated
at farmers fields in water scare areas of D. I. Khan for orchards and field crops.
Animal scientists have developed technologies of stair step feeding regime to induct early puberty and
heat synchronization of large ruminants, to improve production and reproduction of these animals,
improved preservation of buffalo and goat semen for enhancing its quality, vaccine development for avian
influenza and FMD. Research on control of disease of fish and trout culture are going to give good results
and enhance production and income of fish farmers. Trout feed developed successfully for economical
feed, using locally available ingredients. Feeding requirements developed for improving goat/sheep
mutton potential. Facility established for wild life research for cross breeding with domestic animal of
deer farming. The stair step technology has enabled to enhance one lactation period of buffaloes / cows in
addition to saving on cost to attain early puberty. Artificial insemination (AI) in goats successfully
performed at farms’ using fresh semen – first time in Pakistan. Heat synchronization looks promising to
control milk production seasons.
Social Sciences projects are also doing important analyses of the commodity value chain, agricultural
growth and poverty reduction, food consumption diversity, harvest and post harvest losses and are also
working for capacity building of scientists, researchers and community workers. These projects have
generated very useful information and data sets on these issues for planning and policy making. In the
national University of Agricultural Sciences (NUAS) of PARC established at NARC has enrolled 196
students, out of which 35 students have completed their degrees and 161 students are remained enrolled
for M. Phil and Ph. D degree program.
The project/activity wise brief of all the ongoing and completed projects with outputs, and way forward is
presented in next section.
7
RESEARCH PROJECTS /
ACTIVITIES: OUTPUTS,
PROGRESS
AND WAY FORWARD
8
Crop
Sciences
9
Project Title: Characterization of sugarcane germplasm for flowering ability
Achievements:
The purpose of the project was to test flowering ability of all sugarcane germplasm at four locations
already identified for this purpose. On the basis of this experimentation, baseline information was to
develop which is essential for hybridization of sugarcane.
For this purpose, 260 lines were tested at Dargai, Charrapani and Pail. A total of 48 lines flowered at all
locations. Flowering intensity ranged from 1-45% and maximum flowering intensity was recorded in
HSF-240 at Pail. At Thatta, almost 80% varieties did flowering showing conduciveness of Thatta
environment. It was also observed that early flowering lines have more flowering intensity. It was also
observed that local seed (Fuzz) viability was very low i.e. 10-20 seedlings per gram of fuzz; hence
Pakistani breeders has to depend on foreign fuzz for breeding and introduction of varieties.
Gaps: Unsustainable funding was a gap in execution of project
Future Requirement: It has been proved that sporadic, erratic and uncertain flowering occurs in Pakistan
in natural conditions like the other regions of world. Further, the fuz produced has very low viability. It is
also to mention that sporadic, erratic flowering in nature cannot be virtually utilized for crossing purpose
in sugarcane. For successful breeding of sugarcane an extensive photo thermally controlled breeding
station is needed which may be helpful in developing high production potential varieties with high sugar
content.
Project Title: Development of Sunflower and Canola type hybrids and Canola type
mustard varieties:
Achievements:




46 AB & R lines were developed for sunflower and eighty parental lines were developed for
rapeseed canola.
A total of 15 sunflower potential hybrids were evaluated in National Uniform Yield Trials. These
were selected from 290 new hybrid combinations developed under the project.
Five canola hybrids and 2 open pollinated varieties were evaluated in National Uniform Yield
Trials from 350 hybrid combination made.
Two sunflower hybrid and one canola hybrid are under registration process.
Gaps:
 More inbred lines need to be developed for broader breeding for higher production potentail.
 Breeding for higher oil content must be done.
Future Requirement :
 More inbred lines and more hybrids are needed in sunflower and canola to lesson the import of
sunflower and canola seed and to save foreign exchange.
10


More oil content varieties are needed and breeding for higher oil content is required.
Public private partnership is needed to popularize new hybrid seed developed by PARC.
Project Title: Adaptation and commercialization of small scale olive extraction unit:
Achievements:
A small scale olive extraction unit has been developed. Efforts have been made for the awareness of
farmer about the machine and its working. This project played an instrumental role for creating business
opportunities for manufacturing industry and job opportunities for farmers and labour.
Gaps: Unsustainable funding was gap in execution of project
Future Requirement :
There is need to develop and indigenize big units of 500 kg/h and 1000 kg/ hour.
Project Title: Development of milking machine for water buffaloes and
indigenization:
Achievements:
A dual purpose milking machine was developed which not only milk buffaloes but also cows. A brochure
was also developed for the instruction of farmers regarding this machine. Five developed machines have
been purchased by farmers.
Future requirement:
No need to work on it as task completed.
Project Title: Intervention for management of mycotoixins in Maize and groundnut ; Adaptation of
mobile Flate Bed dryer for Maize and groundnut
A low cost mobile Flat Bed Dryer was adapted for maize and groundnut after necessary modifications in
the already available machine. The efficiency of machine was remarkable as it was able to dry 1.8 tons of
unshelled peanuts from 23.3% to 14% moisture content in only 2.4 hours and was also able to dry earcorn from 28.7% to 19.7% moisture content. The cost analysis is Rs. 1.45/kg for drying ground nut and
Rs. 2.9/kg for drying ear-corn. Two B.Sc. Engineering students also completed their degrees from the
project research.
Gaps. Commercialization of machine was not carried out.
Future requirement:
A project needs to be prepared for the commercialization of the machine.
11
Project Title: Development of sorghum – Sudan grass hybrids for high forage yield
and quality characters:
Achievements:
Twenty five CMS A&B sorghum lines and 16 Sudan grass restorer lines were acquired from ICRISAT.
Utilizing these inbred lines, 70 hybrid combinations were made. Out of which on the basis of high yield
and palatability, 12 were included in adaptability trials. After testing in adaptability trials, 2 most
productive and palatable hybrids were selected which produce yield upto 144 tons/ha which is 23% more
as compared to other available hybrids.
Gaps:


Further testing of hybrids is required to see their adaptability in different regions. Further
agronomy of hybrids need to be developed.
Unsustainable funding was also a gap in execution of project
Future Requirement:


Fodder breeding is needed especially in sustainable and high production potential hybrids. So
fodder breeding should be strengthened for more and new high production potential and palatable
hybrids.
Multi location testing of hybrids and agronomy of these needs to be developed in addition to their
registration. So project is needed.
Project Title: Improvement of groundnut for short duration and high yielding in
rainfed wheat cropping system:
Achievements:
Extensive breeding programme was started under the project based on early flowering maturity and high
yield lines. Through the breeding and selection, two lines were selected (PG 1058 and PG 963) for high
yielding (3000 & 2800 kg/ha) and early maturing (110-120 days). 50 kg breeder seed was produced of
line PG-1058.
Gaps:


Multi-location testing and agronomic trials for the lines has not been carried out.
Unsustainable funding was also a gap in execution of project
Future requirement:
12


Multi location testing and agronomic trials are required for the development of new high yielding
and early maturing variety which is the requirement of farmers..
Groundnut breeding needs to be strengthened to utilize maximum arid area and increase income
of arid land.
Project Title: Biological Control of major Cotton Pests including Mealy bug:
Achievements:



A total of 25 bioactive plants from Multan and Islamabad areas were collected and tested against
mealy bug, two plants were found effective and this information was shared with CABI,
Rawalpindi
Mass rearing of cotton mealy bug was successfully achieved at NARC and IPM Station, Multan.
Six students completed internship on bio-active plants. Trained fifty stake-holders for testing bioactive plants against mealy bug.
Gaps:



The flood disaster hampered the activities in cotton growing areas.
Non-availability of sufficient funds resulted in slow pace of the project.
Some of the studies could be dropped or curtailed.
Future requirements:


Evaluation and commercialization of potential products for controlling mealy bug on cotton.
Extension in training program for the benefits of end users farm workers and students.
Project Title: Development and Improvement of mass production techniques of
Insect Bio-Control Agents:
Achievements:
 Established Research Insectary facility for rearing insect bio-control agents and hosts.
 Biological parameters of bio-control agents were studied under different temperature, humidity
and photoperiodic regions for better rearing.
 Under the objective of training and transfer of bio-control technologies, 2 Ph.D, 2 M. Phil and
fifty two agricultural graduates completed their degrees.
 Three booklets and one bibliography were published and distributed.
Gaps:
Almost all the objectives have been achieved as per approved PC-1 but Commercialization of potential
insect bio-control technologies for farmers use is needed to do.
Future Requirements:

Commercialization of potential insect bio-control technologies for farmers use.
13


Exposure of public and private sectors to encourage them to set up such facilities for large scale
production of insect bio-control agents.
Strengthening of already established bio-control labs for the benefit of sugar industry and end
users in the country.
Project Title: Transfer of rodent control technologies through
commercialization and services in the province of Sindh
Achievements:
The prime objective of the project was to disseminate and commercialize PARC rat bait
technology for the rodent pest management in urban and agricultural areas of Sindh. It was
anticipated to enhance the crop yield by at least 5-20 %. In order to achieve the objectives of the
project, various urban localities were provided VPM technologies in addition to targeting wheat
and sugarcane crops areas in Thatta, Badin and Sujawal. A total of 27 different urban localities in
and around Karachi were provided VPM technology. In rural Sindh, a total of 2184 participants
representing NGO’s, Line Departments, and farmers were trained for the use of PARC rat bait
technology. In addition, Rs.0.830 million was earned from the sale of bait and providing VPM
services during 3 years of project operation.
Gaps:
The project had to address few areas which could not be tackled due to un avoidable
circumstances. The districts of Larkana and Dadu growing rice crop in Sindh have reported up to
30% losses due to rat attack especially at heading stage. There is a dire need to address this issue
through this project. It is needed to impart VPM technology to more farmers; NGO’s and Line
departments during the proposed extension.
Future Requirement:
The districts of Larkana and Dadu in Sindh are reported up to 30% losses due to rat attack in crop
especially at heading stage. There is a dire need to address this issue through new project. It is
needed to impart VPM technology to more farmers, NGO’s and Line departments.
Project Title: Identification selection of parental lines and hybrid development in
tomato.
Achievements:
The basic purpose of project was to develop parental lines and ultimately tomato hybrids to lessen
dependence on imported hybrid seed for tomato cultivation. Under the project there were two
components. Through execution of project, germplasm was extended from 100 lines to 875 lines. Out of
this, 442 lines were characterized for seeding traits, 320 for 37 plant descriptors and 266 for 18 agronomic
traits. After characterization 14 genotypes were selected with high production potential (about 20 t/ha)
and better shelf life (more than 10 days). Utilizing high production potential lines 130 hybrid
combinations were made. Out of 130, 4 hybrids were found promising which were handed over to
14
vegetable programs. The parental lines supplied by PGRI & already available with Vegetable program,
the parental lines were multiplied to 33 numbers. Hundreds of hybrid combinations were made and
ultimately 4 hybrids were selected on the basis of production and more shelf life.
Gaps: Unsustainable funding was gap in execution of project
Future Requirement : A project needs to be submitted for testing and verification of selected hybrids
and their mass scale production and availability to farmers.
Project Title: Pilot Project for Adoption of Water Saving Cultivation Pot
Achievements:
Following conclusions were drawn from the Studies Conducted during the Years 2008 and 2009
 Horticulture Research Institute, NARC: Eleven plant species (6 fruit & 5 forests) tested using
Cultivation Pots. All these showed extremely low survival percentage in spite of regular irrigation
applied as per scheduled irrigation program whereas plantation without pots showed maximum
survival rate.
 Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI), Bahawalpur: Twelve plant species (6 fruit & 6 forests)
were evaluated using Cultivation Pots. The survival percentage of all the plant species was quite
low with potted plants in spite of the fact that water was regularly applied as per scheduled
irrigation program.
 Coastal Agricultural Research Station (CARS), Karachi: Eight plant species (5 fruit & 3
forests) were tested in Cultivation Pots. Survival percentage was quite poor in potted plants
compared to the plants without pots.
 Agri. Res. Institute (ARI), Tarnab, Peshawar (FATA):
Eleven plant species (10 fruit &
1 forest) were tested in Cultivation Pots. The survival of the plants in Water Saving Cultivation
Pots was very low (potted plants 0-42.8%, control 71.4-100%).
 Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), Quetta: Four plant species (1 fruit & 3 forests) were
tested using Cultivation Pots. The performance of plants indicated no major differences in plant
survival percentage and plant growth rate for seedlings planted in pots and without pots.
Gaps: Conclusion: Water Saving Cultivation Pots do not seem to be suitable for the agro-climatic
conditions of the above mentioned locations.
Decision: Project completed and technology tested was not found fit for adoption in Pakistan.
(Reference: No. F.R&M(S.Proj.)/2008/PARC(PIU), dated 23rd Dec. 2011 , Minutes of the Annual Review
of RADP ongoing and completed projects)
Future Requirements: No further research is needed on Water Saving Cultivation Pots
Project title:
Genetic Manipulation for Induction of Resistance against Fungal
Diseases and Potato Seed Production
Achievements:
 Multiplication of pre-basic-I seed: Pre-basic seed-I (1.7tons) of four potato varieties
Kuroda, Desiree, Hermes and Lady Rosseta was planted on 2.5 acres for multiplication.
15
4.5 tons pre-basic-II was harvested. This seed was transported to Islamabad and was
stored in Taj Cold Storage, Islamabad to use for further multiplication.
 In vitro multiplication: In vitro multiplication of virus free stock of five potato varieties
(Kuroda, Santey, Hermes, Astrix and Desiree) was carried out. Ten thousands in vitro
plants were produced. Through maristem culture of Potato-1 variety produced 60 plants
and are under multiplication phase. After clonal multiplication these plants will be tested
for ELISA to ensure the virus free status.
 Nucleus seed production at NARC screen house: In vitro plants (5000) of five varieties
(Kuroda, Santey, Hermes, Astrix and Desiree) were planted at NARC to produce the
nucleus seed, ten thousands nucleus seeds were harvested and stored at low temperature
for further multiplication.
 Pathogenesity tests of transgenic potato plants: The survival percentage of the
transgenic plants was 80%. The Pathogenesity tests of transgenic potato plants (Var: SH5 and Desiree) is being carried out in collaboration with CDRP and IPM.
Gaps: Project was extended for six months and later further extended for another six months i.e till
30.06.2013, targets hopefully will be achieved
Future Requirements: The nucleus and disease free potato seed produced through the subject project is
needed to use for further experimentation/multiplication through National Potato Programe, HRI, NARC.
16
Theme: Diversification of Agriculture Emphasizing Horticulture, for Improved Profitability and
Value Addition
Project/Activity: On Farm Research & Development for Improved Drying, Grading, Packing,
Branding and Marketing of Dates in District Khairpur Dr. Ali Muhammad, Director (TTI, PARC)
ARI, Tandojam
Start date: 01.11.2009
Completion date: 31-10-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 29.530 million
Expenditure: Rs.0.66 million
Objectives:
 Development and demonstration of harvesting, drying, grading and packaging facilities for value
addition of dates
 Gender based on – farm capacity building of growers in the overall value chain of dates
 Identification and establishment of potential market channels linking them with the growers.
Outputs/Progress:
 Social mobilization of Date growers and other stakeholder were done. A gas/solar date dryer and
a solar date dryer were installed at Hussainabad and Chhudaho villages of District Khairpur in
collaboration with KCS and WADO. The growers who processed their dates in solar house
reported that quality of dates is better than the dates dried by conventional methods. It was
recorded that dates become dried with in 4 days and the color of dates remain unchanged. The
dates quality and color was attractive than dates proceed in solar house and by conventional
methods. The training programs on “Date Palm Orchard Management” and “value addition and
brand development” were organized in the project area.
 Village Org. etc formation activities covered and 3000 growers registered.
 Training activities have been started 200 growers trained in dates value addition.
 Solar and solar cum gas fired dryers developed indigenously by NARC engineers and drying
performed.
 P.I. changed to continue work.
 The solar dryer and solar cum gas fired dryers is very successful in dates value addition. It has
improved quality of Dates and demand in national and international market. Pakistan is 5th largest
Dates producing country. Hence, Pakistan can enhance its export by improving quality.
17
Theme: Genetic Improvement of crops especially through application of biotechnology and
molecular genetics
Project/Activity: Identification / selection of parental lines and hybrid development in Tomato, Mr.
Muhammad Farooq Chaudhry, HRI, NARC
Start date: 1.10.2007
Completion date: 30-09-2010
Total Cost: Rs. 1.933 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.69 million
Objectives:
 Enhancement of tomato genetic resources through collection and acquisition.
 Evaluation and characterization of tomato germplasm for investigation of genetic diversity and
identification of promising ones for various characters.
 Investigation for agronomic traits along with biochemical and molecular markers and identification of
suitable parents with better combining ability for hybrid seed production or development of pure lines
in future.
Outputs/Progress:
A total of 47 different genotypes were collected locally and also from exotic sources. Out of these
germplasm collected, thirteen promising female genotypes and eight male genotypes were identified.
Twenty nine direct crosses were made. Out of which 17 crosses were successful with compatible results.
F1 hybrid seeds from successful crossed fruits have been extracted. All single cross hybrids were
evaluated along with their parental lines during 2008-09. Two local hybrids NTT-04-08 and NTT-12-08
gave at par results of fruit weight per plant & total yield with commercial hybrid ‘sahel’ used as check.
From the results of first year evaluation a total of 12 local hybrids were selected on the basis of yield and
apparent fruit shape and quality (without or less fruit cracking) and these twelve hybrids were again
evaluated along with two commercial hybrids during 2009-10. Maximum yield (24.26 t/ha) was recorded
in NTT-04-08. During 2009-10, the vegetatively propagated plants of these twelve hybrids along with
commercial hybrids were also tried for their performance. Local hybrids; NTT-02-08, NTT-08-08, NTT09-08, NTT-13-08 and NTT-17-08 were at par ranging 2.0 – 2.3 kg/plant and 51.3 to 92.3 t/ha. On the
basis of three year’s performance, it was observed that there was fluctuation in yield of all local hybrids.
Therefore, to verify results, four hybrids (NTT-04-08, NTT-06-08, NTT-07-08 and NTT-12-08) were
grown during 2010-11. Maximum yield was recorded in Sahel (check) and it had significant difference
with all locally developed hybrids. Four hybrids have been selected on the basis of average of three years
performance.
Hybrids
2008-09
NTT-12-08
NTT-04-08
NTT-06-08
NTT-07-08
Sahel
71.58
69.33
59.20
59.00
62.00
2009-10
(cutting)
60
62
57
59
91
2010-2011
39.28
50.57
47.01
49.24
75.55
Average
56.9 b
60.6 b
54.4 b
55.7 b
76.2 a
Way forward:
 Evaluation of the remaining germplasm is very important along with regeneration and seed
multiplication. Although more than 800 tomato genotypes are available in the gene bank but only
half of these can be distributed at present, while others are yet to be evaluated and multiplied.
18


Biochemical and molecular analyses is needed to expand particularly for SSR markers. Seed
protein profiling is effective to distinguish among various species of the same genus, hence we
have got ht expertise to identity unknown species preserved in the gene bank.
Screening for salinity tolerance gave encouraging results that is needed to expand on diverse
germplasm under hydroponic as well as field conditions.
19
Theme: Developing and Improving Machinery for Planting, harvesting, Grading and Processing
Project/Activity: Adoption and Commercialization of a Small-Scale Olive Oil Extraction Unit, Mr.
Liaqat Ali Shahid, Principal Engineer, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01-07-09
Completion date: 31.12.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 6.800 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.226 million
Objectives:
 Performance evaluation and modification of available small-scale olive oil extraction technology.
 To indigenize the potentially feasible small-scale olive oil extraction technology through local
machinery manufacturing industry.
 To conduct extensive field demonstrations with the help of stakeholder for commercial adaptation of
indigenized technology in the country.
Outputs/Progress:
Olive was introduced about a decade ago as an emerging healthy oil source through grafting of existing
wild olive trees (Kahu) and raising new orchards in hilly areas of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP)
Provinces of Pakistan. A significant portion of olive fruit production gets wasted due to non-availability
of a mobile mechanical oil extraction facility in Pakistan. Agricultural & Biological Engineering Institute
(ABEI), NARC took the initiative, pre-screened and imported a community level olive oil extraction unit
as suggested by the olive farmers. The machine was successfully adapted to local agro-tech and socioeconomic conditions and was adapted through local manufacturing industry.
The pre-participation unit of the adapted machine was evaluated and demonstrated at farmers’ fields in
Punjab and KP Provinces in collaboration with Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Chakwal,
the collaborative manufacturer, KP Olive Promotion Project, and other stakeholders. Test results
indicated that the fruit processing capacity of prototype oil extractor varied from 32 to 38 kg.h-1 with total
oil recovery from 10 to 20 percent. The late harvested olive fruit yield more oil recovery as compared to
early harvested fruit irrespective of variety. The mechanically extracted olive oil was graded as extra
virgin in accordance with the world edible oil standards. Total operational cost of the machine was
estimated as Pak Rs.12.4 kg-1 of fresh olive fruit. The awareness among the target growers and service
providers about usefulness of the commercialized technology is being provided through electronic and
print media.
CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions can be drawn on the basis of field experience and machine performance study:



The oil extractor was field tested and demonstrated for processing fresh olive fruit at four different
sites in collaboration with the machinery manufacturer and other stakeholders. Machine performed
well at all sites. The fruit processing capacity of the machine ranged between 32 - 38 kilograms per
hour. Total oil recovery varied from 10 - 20 percent mainly depending upon the following factors:
o
The role of olive varieties in total oil recovery is very important and crucial; learned during olive
processing that pickle varieties (bold sized fruit) have given less oil recovery percentage as
compared to varieties containing high oil contents(thin oval sized fruit).
o
Fruit maturity level play an important factor affecting the total oil recovery percentage; field
results revealed that total oil recovery percentage was comparatively more from the late harvested
(November – December) olive fruit than the early harvested (September – October) olive fruit.
This may be due to comparatively cool temperature during late harvesting.
Average fruit processing capacity of ABEI Oil Extractor is 35 kg.h -1 as compared to original Italian
oil extraction unit i.e. 45 kg.h-1.
The unit performance also depends upon the expertise of the machine handling technical team.
20


The machine operation was noisier than the original extractor.
Improper functioning of main motor clutch system affected the overall machine performance.
Free Services: Presently 2 units (one local and one imported) are available with the institute. Provided
free fruit processing facility to more than 50 olive farmers during year 2009 and also to the same number
during 2012.
This facility really motivated the farming to grow more olive trees for meeting their edible oil needs at
community level.
SCALE
 Test results showed that performance of local machine is comparatively better than the


imported machine.
The extracted oil is extra virgin and can be consumed directly after natural cleaning through
sedimentation for one week.
The waste material (cake) can be easily utilized for making syrup, jam & jelly and biscuits as
already tried by a private entrepreneur in Lahore.
The unit is portable and can easily be shifted from one place to another.
Price of the local unit is much lower as compared to imported one. It is about one third.
Maintenance is easy as most of the replacement parts are available locally.
More local manufacturers should be encouraged to manufacture and market the machine.




Strategy
 Sincere efforts are needed to be done for introduction of this local innovative olive processing




technology through PARC Olive Promotion Project being run at country level especially in upstreams areas of Punjab and KP Provinces.
Training of machine operators and farmers terms of operation and maintenance of machine is
needed.
Awareness campaign is important for enhancing domestic edible oil production through the use
of innovative technologies.
A subsidy program may be started for farmers to pay 50% of the cost.
For its promotional introduction, the government should pay 50% subsidy to the olive farmers for
purchase of local machine.
Way forward:
The following modifications need to be incorporated into the indigenized prototype before its commercial
production
– The extractor processing capacity should be increased through the improvement of paste
feeding mechanism to centrifuge unit
– Uninterrupted performance of hydraulic clutch system of main drive system should be
ensured (no oil leakage and shaft slippage)
– The noise should be controlled through the replacement of best quality centrifuge support
hub assemblie
21
Theme: 1 (PS) Genetic Improvement of Crops Especially through application of biotechnology and
molecular genetics
Project/Activity: Genetic Manipulation for induction of resistance against fungal diseases and
potato seed production, Dr. Iqbal Hussain, IABGR, NARC
Start date: 01.07.2009
Completion date: 30-06-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 14.820 million
Expenditure: Rs. 6.880 million
Objectives:
 Preparation of source materials for seed production and genetic transformation.
 Virus free seed production
 Introduction of chitinase gene in potato through Agrobacterium mediated transformation.
 Molecular analysis of transgenic plants
 Pathogenesity test.
Outputs/Progress:








Production of 40,000 virus free in vitro plants of four potato varieties (Kuroda, Desiree,
Santey Hermes and Lady Rosetta).
Production of six ton virus free potato seed.
Virus free seed was disseminated among progressive farmers for further multiplication.
A part of seed is planted at Kaghan for further multiplication.
Collaborative seed multiplication is under way with Hazara Research Station Abottabad
and Deptt of Agriculture Gilgit Baltistan.
Production transgenic potato having resistance against fungal diseases.
Human resource training in potato tissue culture from Northern areas and Ph.D/M. Phil.
students.
Published research achievements in local/international journals.
Way forward:
The nucleus and disease free potato seed produced through the subject project is needed to use for further
experimentation/multiplication through National Potato Programe, HRI, NARC.
22
Theme: Integrated pest management models for cotton-wheat, rice-wheat horticulture systems and
their field implementation, scaling out and scaling up strategies
Project/Activity: Biological control of major cotton pests including mealy bug in Pakistan (IPMP,
NARC component), Dr. W. A Gillani, SSO, IPEP, NARC
Start date: 1.07.2009
Completion date: 30.06.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 4.255 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.30 million
Objectives:
 Conduct studies on the effectiveness and repellency of bio pesticides against mealy bug and their
natural enemies on cotton and other preferred host plants under local environmental conditions.
 Role of use of bio-pesticides in IPM of the mealy bug sharing knowledge with CABI.
 Train farmers and extension workers on application of bio-pesticide for controlling mealy bugs on
cotton and other plants and promotion of this product on large scale.
Outputs/Progress:
 Collected 25 bio active plants with pest control properties from Multan and Islamabad area.
Extracts of all collected plants prepared and stored in the freezer for future studies against
different stages of mealybug and Chrysoperla in the lab and fields.
 Two hundred twenty four studies conducted in the lab at Multan Station.
 The mass rearing of cotton mealybug started at NARC and IPM station Multan. The culture of its
predators and parasitoids also started at both the places for future studies.
 Two plants identified having bio activity against cotton mealybug the information share with
CABI – CA.
 Contribution in two training courses organized by CABI at Bahawalpur (FFS). Trained 50
stakeholders for preparing bio active plants extracts.
 21 students from different universities of Pakistan completed their internship on bio active plants.
 4 students from KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar completed M.Sc (hons) degrees studying
at NARC.
Way forward:


Evaluation and commercialization of potential products for controlling mealy bug on cotton.
Extension in training program for the benefits of end users farm workers and students.
23
Theme: Integrated pest Management Models for Cotton-Wheat, Rice-Wheat Horticulture Systems
and their Field Implementation, Scaling out and Scaling up Strategies
Project/Activity: Transfer of Rodent Control Technologies through commercialization and services
in the province of Sindh, Dr. Amjad Pervez, SSO, Director VPCI/SARC, Karachi
Start date: 1.07.2009
Completion date: 30.06.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 7.166 million
Expenditure: Rs. 2.41 million
Objectives:
 To work out strategy and implementation action plan for rodent bait commercialization in urban and
rural situation, through service provision to farmers and general public.
 Dissemination of rodent control technologies through multi-disciplinary approaches (demonstration at
farmers field school, farmers gathering, video session) so that PARC developed rodent bait
technologies be adopted by at least 75% of target group.
Outputs/Progress:
Urban Areas:
 Customize services related to de-rating activities in Civil Hospital are in full swing. Rat control
treatments in various wards and labs especially in Gyne, Burn ward, Jail ward, Canteen, Nurses
Hostel, Dental and Surgical wards were successfully undertaken. During the quarter, 160
deceased rats were recovered and disposed off.
 Detailed rodent infestation survey was conducted to identify the intensity of the problem in OPD
surgical blocks, hostels, stores and canteen etc. A comprehensive survey report is submitted to
Medical superintendent, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital with monthly cost of Rs. 25000/- including
cost of bait and labour charges. The case has sent to DG, Health services for financial approval.
 In response to request from senior authority, Karachi Port Trust, (KPT technical meeting was held
with G.M (Technical) to ascertain the level of urban rat infestation and to provide remedial
measures on payment basis. Preliminary survey was conducted, however, detail survey procedure
is in progress.
 Machchai Miani market is one of the oldest market dealing with wholesale meat, vegetables and
other edible items and is visited by thousands of local citizens. The presence and loss due to
rodents are serious concern for shop keepers and they are willing to initiate rat control campaign
on payment.
Agricultural Areas:
 One day training workshop / farmers gathering was organized at Goth Haji Ramzan KhasKheli,
Sujawal to impart knowledge related to rodent pests problems, their importance, mode of damage
and their effective management through application of “PARC Rat Baits”. A total 80 participant
including farmers NGO’s worker and provincial extension personnel appreciated the efforts to
impart current know how through literature, on field demonstration and audio visual techniques.
 As follow up study from Goth Raess Mohd Khan Rind related to de-rating operation in Raees
Rind Farm, a sever attack on field rodents porcupine, and wild board was recorded. During 1 st
treatment decrease in rodent population upto 45% were recorded through treatment of zinc
phosphide bait. As follow up study, the survived population was treated with brodifacoum treated
bait for complete knockdown of pest population. As a results of three day poison baiting,
reduction in rodent population upto 98% was achieved. However, constant vigilance is
recommended to keep the adjoining area rat population at minimum level through application of
PARC Rat baits.
 On request by Pakistan Society of Sugar Technologist (PSST), lecture related to crop threat by
rodent pest in Sindh was delivered on 11th June, 2012 at Indus Hotel, Hyderabad. The participants
were technologists from sugar mills of upper and lower Sindh region. A total of 85 participants
24



attended the workshop and presentation was highly appreciated by technical staff of sugar cane
technologists.
A proposal was submitted to hold training workshop/seminar in selected sugar mills of both upper
and lower Sindh region to enhance awareness level in farming community to save the crop from
rat pests menace.
The prime objective of the project was to disseminate and commercialize PARC rat bait
technology for the rodent pest management in urban and agricultural areas of Sindh. It was
anticipated to enhance the crop yield by at least 5-20 %. In order to achieve the objectives of the
project, various urban localities were provided VPM technologies in addition to targeting wheat
and sugarcane crops areas in Thatta, Badin and Sujawal. A total of 27 different urban localities in
and around Karachi were provided VPM technology. In rural Sindh, a total of 2184 participants
representing NGO’s, Line Departments, and farmers were trained for the use of PARC rat bait
technology. In addition, Rs.0.830 million was earned from the sale of bait and providing VPM
services during 3 years of project operation.
The prime objective of the project was to disseminate and commercialize PARC rat bait
technology for the rodent pest management in urban and agricultural areas of Sindh. It was
anticipated to enhance the crop yield by at least 5-20 %. In order to achieve the objectives of the
project, various urban localities were provided VPM technologies in addition to targeting wheat
and sugarcane crops areas in Thatta, Badin and Sujawal. A total of 27 different urban localities in
and around Karachi were provided VPM technology. In rural Sindh, a total of 2184 participants
representing NGO’s, Line Departments, and farmers were trained for the use of PARC rat bait
technology. In addition, Rs.0.830 million was earned from the sale of bait and providing VPM
services during 3 years of project operation.
Way forward:
 Establishment
of
sale
points
of
PARC
rat
baits
PARC Rat baits sale points are proposed to be established at following locations to facilitate local
farmers near to door steps:
 National Sugar Crops Research Institute (NSCRI), Thatta
 Hussain Abad, Jati in collaboration with Agha Khan Economic Planning Board for Shah Bunder
 Mirza Sugar Mills, Lowari Sharif, Badin
 Sanghar Sugar Mills, Sanghar
 Agricultural Extension Office, Sujwal
 The districts of Larkana and Dadu in Sindh are reported up to 30% losses due to rat attack in crop
especially at heading stage. There is a dire need to address this issue through new project. It is
needed to impart VPM technology to more farmers, NGO’s and Line departments.
25
Theme: Diversification of agriculture for improved profitability and value
Project/Activity: Ginger and turmeric: Introduction, Acquisition, kitchen gardening and farm
production technology, Dr. Mustafa Sajid, SSO, PGRP, NARC
Start date: 1.07.2009
Completion date: 30.06.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 2.975 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.617 million
Objectives:
 Acquisition, collection and multiplication of Ginger and turmeric germplasm.
Outputs/Progress:
 Ginger and turmeric germplasm have been acquired and maintained using both in vitro and field
approaches as per approved plan of work in the project. Tissue cultures have been established and
media formulations have been amended for fast track multiplication of germplasm. Culture
discoloration which was encountered in the initial experiments has been corrected using the
correct balanced concentration of auyxins and cyotokinins in the media. Culture multiplication
can be carried out using high levels of BAP (6 mg/I) in the MS media and it can rise to 25 plants
per explants per period of 4 weeks of incubation under 16:8 h photoperiod and temperature of 27
o
C in the growth room.
 Germplasm of turmeric and ginger has been pregermianted in field conditions using humification
at different levels. It was found that the percent germination was much improved if germination
was carried out under 75% relative humidity that at 30% relative humidity. This improved
sprouting helps obtain a better crop density in the field conditions. Ginger and turmeric
germplasm was evaluated in field and shade house conditions. It was observed that maximum
yield, shoot number and shoot height of the plants varies from accession to accession and
maximum rhizome yield per plant of turmeric was 840 gm per plant and the minimum yield of
rhizomes per plant was recorded at 430 gm.
 Ginger rhizomes planted in the beginning of the crop weighed 25-40 gm per plant and the mean
of the harvested mass per plant (gms) were compared among the accessions. It was noted that the
harvested mass ranged from 193 gm to 438 depending upon the accession.
 Turmeric growing area of Qasoor and Changa Manga was surveyed and disease was observed
which negatively impact the crop yield upton 25-35%. Samples have been collected and disease
being studies with pathologists for diagnosis.
 Field grown plants have successfully reach maturity stage and grew with good performance.
Seven accessions of germplasm of ginger and six turmeric germplasm accessions were acquired
from expeditions, other personal sources, and through the good office of the Chairman, PARC
and have been successfully established both in vitro and field conditions in accordance with the
planned annual phasing of the project. In kitchen gardening exercise for evaluation of ginger and
turmeric, clay pots have shown better growth performance than the plastic pots. At the onset of
growing season growth has triggered among the already dormant plants.
 Junter and maize crops can be used as intercrop for ginger plantings and turmeric was grown as
stand alone crop. Complete shad provided by dense maize or junter plantations hamper the
growth of ginger whereas thinning of these crops helps allow more light to reach down the newly
emerging sprouts of ginger which in turn helps them perform better.
26
Theme: Genetic Improvement of Crop through application of biotechnology and molecular genetics
Project/Activity: Production and propagation of quality deciduous fruit plants in MARC and
Rawal Watershed at Satrameel, Islamabad, Mr. M. Saleem Pomee, SO/PL SWC, WRRI, NARC
and Mr. Muhammad Din, SSO, MARC (PARC) Juglote, Gilgit
Start date: 01-02-2010
Completion date: 31-01-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 7.610 million
Expenditure: Rs. 2.59 million
Objectives:
 Develop research based package of technology on production of quality deciduous fruit plants
Himalayan roses and medicinal herbs.
 Enhance income of farmers through introduction and supply of certified quality fruit germ plasm and
medicinal herbs for commercial cultivation.
 Improve livelihood of populations through supply of high yielding and disease resistant fruit and
medicinal herbs cultivars.
Outputs/Progress:
 The nursery was developed using seeds, cutting and rootstocks as input provided by the using
MARC component from GB area.
 Total no of rootstock of fruit plants 3580 Nos. seeds 33976 and cutting 5900 Nos. were planted.
Different types of fruit plants Peer plants were 2150; Apricot 750, Apple 360 etc.
 Cutting of Pomegranate were successful by over 80% followed by grapes (56.43%) and fig (over
21%).
 Grafting trials were carried out both in Monsoon and spring season and highest success rate was
in spring season for apple, followed by peach and apricot respectively.
 A sale strategy was designed and approved to sale the matured fruit plants. So far an estimated
income of over 70,000 have been earned and deposited to NARC income account.
 Demonstration to various stake holders.
 Automatic irrigation facility has been designed and established for the nursery.
 Developed a broacher to summarize production technology under Rawal Watershed conditions.
Way forward:




Upscaling of fruit plants nursery in whole watershed area.
Certified fruit plants model will be developed.
Automatic irrigation facility model nursery will be developed in low, medium and high rain fed
zone.
Dissemination the technology to all stake holders.
27
Theme: Fate of pesticides and other pollutants in food chain and environment
Project/Activity: Strengthening of National Institute of Bioremediation, Dr. M. Ashiq Director,
NIB, NARC
Start date: 01.04.2010
Completion date: 31-03-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 33.426 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.375 million
Objectives:
 Establishment of bioremediation and analytical facilities.
 Development/validation of waste water analytical techniques at NIB.
 Collection, characterization and establishment of aquatic plant nursery and indigenous microbial
bank for use in bioremediation at National level.
 Awareness generation through electronic and print media.
 Development of manpower skill and expertise.
 Introduction of integrated farming by using treated water.
Outputs/Progress:
1. Strengthened water quality lab by addition of chemical parameters COD and BOD, their respective
analytical procedures were validated from American Public Health Association (APHA).
2. Lovibond Spectrodirect Spectrophotometer was purchased and calibrated.
3. Prepared fortnightly reports on sustainable basis for fate of contaminants in water at inlet, individual
ponds and outlet for bioremediation orchard and bioremediation garden (two bioremediation sites at
NARC). Treated water fell under irrigation national environmental quality standards.
4. Water quality reports were evaluated by third party evaluation.
Experiment-1Phytoremediation efficacy of Nasturtium officinale in treatment of batteries effluents
Effluent samples were collected from Volta batteries Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur. Analyzed
for Pb by referred methods mentioned in APHA (1998).Nasturtium officinale was collected from Rawal
dam catchments areas. Plants of weight (20 ± 20 g/plant, wet mass) and length (roots, 10 ± 1 cm, aerial
parts 22 ± 5 cm) were used for the experiment. Plants (n = 12) were exposed to concentrations of Pb
(2.7mg/L-1) for 12 days. Water samples (50 ml each) were taken in triplicate from all solutions at 0 h and
every 72 h for 12 days, acidified with 0.02 N HNO3 and analyzed for Pb concentrations by atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. The percentage of Pb concentration decreased in the water as the exposure
time increased. Nasturtium officinale showed a total removal efficiency of 81.4% of Pb from
contaminated effluents. These results indicated that Pb remediation through N. Officinale can be
considered as a candidate species for the treatment of battery industries effluents.
Experiment-2 Effect of different additives on composting of water lettuce(Pistiastratiotes)
Highest pH was recorded in T2 (WL + Urea) while minimum pH value was recorded in T4 (WL
+ Sewage Sludge). In case of EC maximum EC level 1.423 ds/cm was measured in T4 (WL+SL) while
minimum EC level 1.005 was recoded in T1 i.e. (WL+RP). The C: N ratio was highest in T3, WL+EM,
26.56 while minimum C : N ratio 22.83 in WL+RP was recorded. Similarly maximum organic matter
98.3% was evaluated in T3 (WL+EM) and minimum organic matter level 78.2% was recorded in T4 (WL
+ Sewage Sludge). The availability of macro and micro nutrients also differ in different treatments. The
Nitrogen 2.33% was maximum in T1 (WL + Sewage Sludge). Highest phosphates (0.91%) was recorded
in T3 (WL+EM), while minimum “P” values 0.80% was recorded in T4 (WL+SL). Potash values various
28
from treatment to treatment. Maximum “K” level 6.5% was recorded in T3 (WL + EM), while minimum
K level 5.5% was recorded both in T1 and T2 (WL + RP and WL + Urea) respectively. In this study the
micro nutrients i.e. Zinc and Boron was studied. Maximum Zinc (Zn) level 380ppm was measured in T1
(WL+RP) while minimum Zn level 270ppm was recorded in T2 (WL + Urea). Maximum B limit 420
ppm was recorded in T3 (WL+EM) and minimum level 26.8 ppm was recorded in T1 (WL+RP). The
results showed that after composting significant level of micro and macro nutrients are available in the
compost. Results of Physico-chemical analyses of composting material (120 days).
S
No.
Samples
(Combination)
pH
EC
C:N
ratio
OM
(%)
T1
T2
T3
T4
WL + RP
WL + Urea
WL + EM
WL + S/Sludge
8.73
9.17
8.95
8.28
1.005
1.130
1.860
1.423
22.83
25.73
26.56
25.96
91.71
85.88
98.33
78.20
Macronutrients
(%)
N
P2O5
2.330
0.96
3.936
0.885
2.147
0.906
1.747
0.795
K
5.5
5.5
6.5
6.0
Micronutrients
(ppm)
Zn
B
380
26.8
270
32.16
420
42.88
310
21.44
Integrated Farming Activities
1.
Indigenous aquatic plants i.e. Nasturtium Officinale, Nasturtium microphyllum, Phlaris minor
and Ranunculus scleratis were collected from different water bodies. These plants are available from
aquatic plant nursery at NIB will serve as a backup support of Phytoremediation.
2.
Fruits (fig, grapes,pomegranates, pear, avocado, and papaya), ornamental plants (poppy,
acroclinium, poinsettia, daisy, pot marigold, cineraria) and herb plants (pepper mint, rosemary, stevia)
were produced and planted at Bioremediation Orchard using treated waste water. This integrated nursery
will help in income generation through sale proceeds.
3.
At bioremediation orchard 450 lemon plants were added to high density plantation.
4.
Harvested 39 tons wet aquatic plant biomass at bioremediation orchard for composting to meet
nutritional requirements of nearly 30,000 fruit plants and backup fruit plants nursery.
5.
Harvested lemon fruits and provided to PATCO for value addition (making of pickle and squash).
6.
Continued maintenance operation on three Bioremediation field stations (Bioremediation Garden,
Bioremediation Orchard and Site-2)
7.
Provided Bioremediation water supply to RRI through overhead pumping system.
8.
Produce of vegetables i.e. chilies, cabbage, broccoli, tomato and provided to PATCO for sale.
Sold 500 rose plants through PATCO.
Awareness Generation
1)
Delivered severalprograms on various TV & Radio Channels to disseminate knowledge regarding
impact of bioremediation of agriculture and environment.
2)
Conducted numerous field visits for awareness generation to people belonging to different walks
of life.
3)
Provided internship to 20 B.Sc., 6 M.Sc. students, currently 2 M. Phil and one Ph. D student is
working under the umbrella of NIB.
Delivered lectures to participants of AARDO at AHK-NCRD.
29
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and remerging infections of crops
Project/Activity: Assessment of Garlic viruses and their management, Talat Shaheeen Gilani, SSO,
IPEP, NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-09-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 1.886 million
Releases: Rs. 0.988 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.649 million
Objectives:
 Assessment of distribution, incidence and severity of viral diseases of Garlic in selected agroecological zones of Pakistan.
 Identification of new sources of diseases resistance against viruses.
 Indexing of virus free garlic variety/varieties at NARC Islamabad, Summer Research station
Kaghan and MARC Gilgit.
Outputs/Progress:
 Survey of four locations of Punjab Khanewal, Gujranwala ,Sialkot and Kasur was carried out and
290 samples were collected from different farmer fields and %age infection recorded was 33.44%
through DAS ELISA against OYDV.
 Survey of eight locations of Khyberpukhtunkhawa was carried out and 400 samples from farmer
fields were collected. DAS ELISA results of samples showed that OYDV was prevalent at all
locations with maximum 90% at Swabi and minimum of 20 % at Malakand and Nowshera.



Identification and indexing of garlic germplasm was carried out at NARC field for seven
varieties of garlic cv Iranian, Italian, Chinese, NARC-09,MJ-84, JS-1 and Desi to find out the
tolerant /resistant varieties.The %age infection of OYDV was decreased due to the management
practice i-e the sowing of virus free Elisa tested cloves in the field.
All plants of seven varieties tested through DAS ELISA showed different degrees of
infection.The decrease of infection was due to the good management practices adopted durin
experiment.
OYDV and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV) were recorded for the first time in Pakistan.
30
Theme: Diversification of agriculture emphasizing horticulture for improved profitability and
value addition
Project/Activity: Establishment of Botanical Garden for Cultivation of wild plants of Pakistan to
introduce non-conventional crops in cultivation for value addition, Dr. Rubina Akhter, PSO,
IABGR, NARC
Start date: 1.01.2012
Completion date: 31-12-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 1.132 million
Expenditure: Rs. ------- million
Objectives:
 Introducing new value added crops from wild plant resources
 Setting up display wild plant farm for education, research, aesthetic value and cultivation requirement
of wild plants in agriculture
 Ex situ conservation of plant diversity through seed preservation in gene bank and living collection of
plants in botanical garden.
Outputs/Progress:
 Land preparation, weed clearing, land leveling, irrigation channels done. Landscape design
prepared. Seed sowing for spring planting done.
 Bulbs and cuttings grown for spring season according to the requirement of plant species.
31
Theme: Developing and Improving Machinery for Planting, harvesting, Grading and Processing
Project/Activity: Development and Evaluation of a PTO Driven Disk Plow, Shabbir Ahmad
Kalwar, PE, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01.03.2012
Completion date: 28-02-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 4.687 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.876 million
Objectives:
 Development of PTO driven disk plow
 Performance evaluation of powered disk plow in the field.
 Demonstration of new machine to the local manufactures, farmers, extension workers and NGO.
Outputs/Progress:

90% of potential manufacturers visited

90% of technical specifications finalized

90% of technical drawings completed

100% Machine acquired from FO&S

100% The selected machine tested in NARC field to finalize some parameters

100% The identical machine shifted to Daska and with the help of a M/S Commander Agro
Engineer (potential manufacturer). It was tested in farmers field at three locations in three
different soil types

Manufacturing drawings of Ist prototype machine on AutoCAD completed

50% First prototype unit is in progress at the above named manufacturer’s workshop in Daska
55% of total Project objectives achieved
32
Theme: Production enhancement of oilseed crops with special focus on sunflower and
canola
Project/Activity: Development of Sunflower and Canola hybrids and canola type mustard
varieties (second phase), Dr. M. Ayub Khan, PSO, CSI, NARC
Start date: 1.01.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 3.920 million
Completion date: 30-06-2013
Expenditure: Rs. 0.478 million
Objectives:
 Completion of field requirements for registration/approval of local sunflower and canola
hybrids developed during first phase of the project.
 Maintain purity and identity of parent lines of potential local sunflower and canola hybrids
 Seed production of potential hybrids of sunflower and canola hybrids and mustard varieties for
demonstration and promotion through PATCO.
Outputs/Progress:
Sunflower:







Planted parent lines of four potential hybrids for purification and seed multiplication during
each season to improve uniformity in local hybrids.
Completed adaptability testing of two potential sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 (PARSUN3) and SMH-0917 under different environmental conditions of the country. Over all
hybrids were tested during four growing seasons (i.e. 2 spring and 2 autumn). On the
average of four growing seasons SMH-0907 produced 1780 kg/ha as compared to
commercial imported hybrids, Hysun-33 and NK-S-278 with 1833 and 1733 kg/ha,
respectively. However, SMH-0917 produced relatively lower yield than checks. Results of
NUYT at NARC during spring, 2013 are in process of compilation and also awaited from
other 14 locations.
Demo plots were also conducted in Punjab and Sindh with the collaboration of private seed
companies (Jullundhur and Ali Akbar Seeds). In Sindh demo plots were conducted at three
locations in Tando Muhammad Khan. Local hybrid SMH-0907 produced higher yield
(1400 kg/ha) as compared to Hysun-33 (1250 kg/ha) and Hysun-39 (1300 kg/ha).
Demo plots of both hybrids were also planted at ten different locations of Punjab in Pak
Pattan, Vehari, Multan, Muzaffar Garh and D.G. Khan districts. However, results are not
received.
Demo plots of SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 were planted at NARC during, spring, 2012,
autumn, 2012 and spring, 2013. On the average of three seasons SMH-0907 and SMH0917 produced 3534 and 3115 kg/ha, respectively. Whereas, commercial imported hybrids,
Hysun-33 and NK-S-278 produced 2856 and 2998 kg/ha, respectively.
Parent lines (CMS and R lines) were planted during each season for purification and seed
multiplication.
Morphological description of SMH-0907 (PARSUN-3) and its parents has been completed
during
Spring, 2013, compilation of results is in progress.
33



Agronomic research trials for the optimization of N fertilizer requirements and plant
population have been completed and will be reported in completion reported after
compilation and analysis.
A total of 1.8 ton hybrid seed of two potential hybrids (SMH-0907 and SMH-0917) was
produced during 2012 and distributed among farmers on 50 % less price than imported
hybrid seed.
SMH-0907 has been recommended by the Variety Evaluation Committee for registration.
However, advised to submit data of 2nd season’s on morphological description of hybrid
and parent lines. Data have been recorded during spring, 2013 and is in process of
compilation. The hybrid has been renamed as PARSUN-3.
Canola:












Among 60 local hybrids, ten produced higher seed yield than imported commercial hybrid
(Hyola-401) in preliminary yield trials during rabi, 2011-12. Results of rabi, 2012-13 are in
process of compilation and analysis.
Average seed yield performance of PARC Canola hybrid was almost equal (1992 kg/ha) as
compared to check, Hyola-401” with 1995 kg/ha, However, SPS N7/28 produced higher
yield (2067 kg/ha).
Research trials were also conducted to develop improved production technology package
for newly developed PARC canola hybrid and compilation of results for the 2nd season are
in progress.
Seed of parent lines of potential hybrid was multiplied at NARC and Kaghan. A total of
750 kg seed of PARC canola hybrid was also produced at NARC.
Data on required morphological characters were recorded on hybrid and their parent lines.
Demo plots were planted on farmers’ field at five locations for the promotion of PARC
canola hybrid and seed yield was recorded at NARC rainfed (1625 kg/ha), NARC Pivot
Irrigation (1750 kg/ha), Fateh Jan (1510 kg/ha), Bahawalnagar (1400 kg/ha) and
Bahawalpur (1050 kg/ha). Seed yield was lower due to moisture stress. On-farm evaluation
was also done during rabi, 2012-13, however, results compilation is.in progress.
40 F2 populations from crosses between adapted varieties/lines and canola mustard
varieties were planted and selection for canola type lines was made in each population.
100 single plants having low glucosinolates and erucic acid were planted in progeny rows
and further selection was made in each progeny row.
Screening of potential sunflower and canola hybrids against major insect pests and diseases
is in progress for the 2nd growing season.
Proposals for approval of PARC canola hybrid was presented before Variety Evaluation
Committee (VEC), however, committee advised to present again due to some deficiencies.
Therefore, the proposal will be presented again in August, 2013.
Maintenance of purity of parent lines and potential canola hybrid is regular activity to
produce more uniform and productive hybrids.
Morphological description of hybrid and their parent lines has been completed during
current rabi season and compilation of results is in progress.
34
Promotion and Commercialization of Sunflower and Canola Hybrids



30 tons of PARC Canola Hybrid seed has been marketed during 2011-12 and 2012-13 rabi
seasons.
1.2 ton of Sunflower Hybrid (PARSUN-3) has been marketed during spring, 2013.
Private sector has been involved in promotion of sunflower and canola hybrids through
planting of demo plots of local hybrids on farmers, field.
Way forward:




Breeding programs on sunflower and canola will be strengthened.
Inbred lines with better combining ability will be developed to have new hybrids with more
uniformity and higher yield potential.
Hybrids/varieties with higher oil contents will be developed
Public private partnership is needed to popularize new hybrid seed developed by PARC.
35
Theme: Production enhancement of fodder through sorghum sudan grass hybrid development
Project/Activity: Development of Sorghum Sudangrass hybrids for high forage yield and quality
characters (2nd Phase), Dr. M. Shafiq Zahid, Fodder Program, NARC
Start date: 1.02.2012
Completion date: 31-06-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 1.934 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.331 million
Objectives:
 To maintain, purify and multiply the desirable parental lines of S. S. hybrids under various ecologies.
 To see the fodder yield potential of best performing S. S. hybrids in various agro-climatic zones.
 Refinement of production technology of S. S. hybrids under various environments.
 To register developed hybrids with FSC&RD and promote its introduction to fodder growers through
public private partnership.
Outputs/Progress:
 Four block of parents of two promising hybrids (A, B & R) lines were planted at different
locations for purification/maintenance purposes. About 464 kg pure seed of parental lines (A, B&
R) of two hybrids has been produced that is sufficient to develop hybrid seed over an area of 100150. Further, seed production activities have also been planned and executed to enhance this work
during 2013.
 Nine plots were planted for development of two hybrids (“NARC hybrid-2” and “NARC hybrid4”) at 7 different locations. About 67 kg seed was produced and has been utilized for
adaptability, agronomic trials, demonstrations and registration purposes. Additionally, three most
appropriate seed production sites (Faisalabad, Sargodha, Arifwala) have been identified.
 An adaptability trial comprising of 12 hybrids was planted at 9 different locations around the
country. The data of 4 cuttings indicated that “NARC Hybrid-2” and “NARC Hybrid-4” were
among the top-yielding hybrids by producing 138 & 129 t ha-1 green fodder yield, whereas it was
111t ha-1 in check (Pak-Sudax). This trial has been planted again across the country for
reconfirmation of these results during 2013.
 Production technology refinement trials on two promising hybrids were conducted during 2012.
It showed that, seed rate of 25 kg ha-1 produced higher green fodder yield (155.47 t ha-1) in
“NARC Hybrid-2” whereas, in “NARC hybrid-4” it yield was higher (141.65 t ha-1) in seed rate
of 30 kg ha-1 but at-par with seed rate of 25 kg ha-1. Row spacing of 30 cm proved its superiority
in both the hybrids by producing 144.77 and 158.06 t ha-1 green fodder yield in Hybrid 2 & 4
respectively. Fertilizer dose of 60:60 NP at sowing and 60 kg N (ha-1) after each cut was
appropriate for getting higher green fodder yields (145-146 t ha-1) in both the hybrids. These
trials along with sowing dated trials have been planted again in 2013 for reconfirmation of these
results.
 Correspondence work for registration is in progress with FSC & RD. Seed of two registered
hybrids and their parents were provided to FSC&RD for 2 years for characterization and DUS
data generation. Required data for characterization generated at NARC has been provided to
FSC&RD. Demonstration plots of the two promising hybrids have been planted at farmers’ fields
at 5 sites and 4 private companies’ farms. Further, Demonstrational/ promotional work is in
progress.
36
Way-Forward:
High fodder yielding hybrids are required for sustainable fodder supply to livestock population which is
increasing at the rate of 4% per annum. Therefore fodder breeding research needs to be straightened.
Further projects are required to develop more hybrids across the country. In addition to this, there is
needed to develop viable seed production in the country to provide hybrid seed to farmers at affordable
prices.
37
Theme: Diversification of agriculture emphasizing horticulture for improved profitability and
value addition
Project/Activity: Extraction and analysis of essential oil from Rose, Jasmine and Aromatic Herbs,
Dr. Muhammad Naeem Ullah, PSO, IABGR, NARC
Start date: 1.02.2012
Completion date: 31-01-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 3.011 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.756 million
Objectives:
 To identify best varieties of rose, jasmine, mint, lemongrass and rosemary with high essential oil
contents.
 Optimization of essential oil extraction method.
 To analyze bioactive compounds in different medicinal plants.
Outputs/Progress:
a. Clonal repository of medicinal plants including mint, basil, thyme, lavender, rosemary, oregano
and other important plants is being maintained at Institute of agricultural Biotechnology &
Genetic Resources, NARC.
b. Mint germplasm was characterized for major polyphenols. Caffeic acid was present in highest
amount (315.4 mg/g DW) in catnip mint followed by white mint (314.8 mg/g DW). Cool mint
(M. spicata) was having highest amount of rosmarinic acid (298.2 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid was
also present in considerably high quantity suggesting the mint as potential source of dietary
phenols.
c. Essential oil of 18 mint local and exotic accessions was analyzed for chemical constituents. A
wide array of chemical compounds was detected. Highest menthol contents were detected in
locally collected white and purple flower mint. Mentha longifolia. Nana Asavi introduced from
Saudi Arabia was rich in pipritone oxide (54.23%). Lemon mint contained nearly (15.37%),
geraniol (23.22%) and geranial (26.41%) while; field mint and Nana Maghrabi contained only 1.2
and 1.34% geraniol, respectively.
d. Seasonal variation was studied in total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant and antimicrobial
activities of lemongrass essential oil and plant extract. Significant differences were observed
Essential oil yield and bioactive compounds. Total phenols and total flavoinoids were found to be
higher in summer harvest followed by winter. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were also
higher in summer harvest as compared to winter and spring.
e. Lemongrass essential oil, summer harvest, possessed highest antibacterial activity against gram
positive bacteria among three harvests i.e., winter, spring and summer.
f. Effect of date of sowing was studied on oil contents and total phenols in flaxseed. Total phenols
were higher (26-77.6 GAE/100g DW) in the seeds of accessions sown on 15/10/12. Higher oil
contents (35-49%) were observed in accessions sown on 15/11/2012.
g. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were compared among Melissa officinalis, Mentha
pulegonium and Nepeta cataria. M. officinalis plant extract contained highest amount of total
phenols (243.9 mg GAE/100g DW) and of total flavonoids (144.2 mg CE/100g DW). Essential
oil of M. officinalis was having lowest IC50 (1.104 ppm) among three essential oils. Minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these three essential oils was determined against four bacterial
strains. M. officinalis essential oil inhibited the growth of B. thuringeneisis, B. subtilis and X.
axonopodis at 20ppm concentration while P. syringae growth was inhibited at 25ppm. Nepeta
catria and M. pulegonium essential oils inhibited the growth of these bacteria at 25 and 30ppm
respectively.
h. Antioxidant activities of different concentrations of 11 different medicinal plants were
determined through DPPH assay. Holy basil and hot wave basil were possessing highest
antioxidant activities at 50ppm concentration.
38
Theme: Developing and Improving Machinery for Planting, harvesting, Grading and Processing
Project/Activity: Evaluation and commercialization of mango picking and desapping machine,
Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01-03-2012
Completion date: 30.09.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 1.09 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.759 million
Objectives:
 To test and evaluate the performance of new version machine and to demonstrate it to farmers/mango
growers in Punjab and Sindh.
 To commercialize mangoes picking machine involving local industries and arranging field
demonstrations.
Outputs/Progress:
Design and fabricated the second version of machine in light of previous field results to improve
the working efficiency of the machine like change in the machine design from articulated to telescopic to
ease operator. In addition to install the lime water supply system on the machine for improving the
working efficiency of lime water. Finally machine has been tested and demonstrated in Sindh and Punjab
provinces in mango’s areas. Machine working found satisfactory and now machine is ready for market
promotion.
39
Theme: Developing and Improving Machinery for Planting, harvesting, Grading and Processing
Project/Activity: Development and Evaluation of vegetable planter and transplanter, Dr. Muslim
Abbas Zaidi, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01-03-2012
Completion date: 28.02.2014
Total Cost: Rs. 3.00 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.467 million
Objectives:
 To design and develop a vegetable planter at AEEI initially focusing on pea planting.
 To indigenize the imported vegetable transplanter through local manufacturer.
 To evaluate the performance of the developed machines at farmers fields.
 To demonstrate the technology to the stakeholders by conducting extensive field
days/demonstrations.
Outputs/Progress:
Two different machines will be developed under this project;
Vegetable planter
- Completed the conceptual drawing/designing work and procurement of material for planter
- Completed fabrication of the planter at ABEI
- Tested the planter at farmer’s field for sowing of okra
- Modification work of the machine is in progress in the light of field test results like bed shaper,
furrow opener and accordingly the size of the main frame.
Vegetable tansplanter
- Finalized the MoU between PARC and private firm (M/S Agritec Multan) for fabrication of
transplanter.
- Development of transplanter at Agritec Multan has been completed according to the MoU under
the supervision of ABEI and machine has been commission in ABEI after the laboratory tested at
manufacturer premises.
40
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and re-emerging infections and pests
crops.
Project/Activity: Making NARC Campus Rodent free through Operational Research. Shahid
Munir, SSO, VPMP/IPEP/NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 31-03-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 1.634 million
Expenditure: Rs.0.417 million
Objectives:
 To evaluate and determine different operational parameters for area-based rodent control
campaign.
 To set and evaluate different rodent control practices as to be adopted by the concerned
programme/institutes at NARC or by the farmers in the barani areas.
 Budget analysis of cost-return of the campaign.
Outputs/Progress:
RODENT CONTROL AT NARC FARM:
 Total cultivated area of NARC was divided into 12 zones where rodent control operation was
carried out.
 Infested areas especially wheat, fodder, sugarcane, vegetable & fruit orchards were targeted to
manage the rodent population in the first phase.
 Control strategies comprised of application of fumigants, acute and chronic rodenticides.
 A total of 18,611 burrows were treated in three steps. In first treatment fumigation with
aluminium phosphide was carried out followed by application of different formulations of
acute and chronic rodenticides.
 Rodenticide baits were applied in PVC bait station and using underground baiting technique.
 Overall 57.81 Kg Aluminium phosphide tablets, 47.85 Kg Zinc phosphide grain bait and 117
Kg Coumatetralyl grain bait was used. Overall 80 to 90% reduction in burrow activity was
estimated by counting the pre and post-treatment number of burrows.
 One day hands on training in rodent management in field crops was imparted to 35 field staff
personnels and DPLS of different commodity programmes of NARC.
RODENT CONTROL IN STRUCTURES:

A total of 423 PVC bait stations were installed in Offices, labs, Stores, and residential areas.
Overall 47.9 Kg Coumatetralyl pellet bait was applied in PVC bait stations. No further damage
was reported from the treated area.
41
Theme: Genetic Improvement of Crops Especially through application of biotechnology and
molecular genetics.
Project/Activity: Establishment of Microbial Bio-resources Laboratories National Culture
Collection of Pakistan (NCCP). Dr. Iftikhar Ahmed, SSO, Plant Biotechnology Program NIGAB,
NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-09-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 2.066 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.44 million
Objectives:
 To collect and preserve the microbial genetic resources form Pakistani ecology.
 To conduct research for the identification of economically beneficial strains.
 To establish a database comprising all the information required for genetic resources of useful
and pathogenic microorganism.
 To distribute the economically important strange to scientific community for research or
utilization in industrial process as a regular activity of the NCCP after its establishment and
recognition at national and /or international level.
Outputs/Progress:
 Culture collection play an important role in offering services not only preserve microorganism
using techniques that maintain viability, purity, and important characteristics of microorganisms,
but also to supply high quality microorganism for use in teaching, research and industrial
applications. In Pakistan, long-term reservation of microbes is a neglected subject. Recently,
PARC took an initiative to start working on identification, systematic/taxonomy and preservation
of economically important bacterial strains from Pakistani ecology and established microbial bio
resources repository: NCCP for the preservation of this bio-acid of Pakistan.
 More than 500 indigenous beneficial microbial strains were collected, which include (1) plant
growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from the rhizosphere of lentil, mash beans, soya
bean, groundnut, cotton, rice and compost. (2) Halo tolerant, boron and heavy-metal tolerant
strains from samples of karaks salt mines, sewage-sludge of tanneries effluents and coal mine,
respectively. (3) Pathogenic strains associated with citrus canker lesions, and strains from rice
leaves infected with bacterial blight. All of the isolated strains were identify characterization
differentiating classical physiological and biochemical test and, or ribotyping analysis etc for
premising novel strains. During these studies more than 15 candidate NOVEL strains were
identify which can be delineated as NOVEL species.
 Six PGPR strains were given to soil microbiology section of land research institute, NARC for
field application in wheat improvement. These strains are being used as potential PGPR strains in
biozote biofertilizer marketed by PARC
42
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and reemerging infections of crops.
Project/Activity: Determination of the severity of HLB and CTV in citrus growing areas of Punjab
& KPK, Dr. Shahid Hameed , SSO, CDRP/IPEP, NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-09-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 2.628 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.305 million
Objectives:
 To gain a better understanding of the current status of citrus greening and virus disease
occurrence in the citrus growing regions of Pakistan.
 To establish the genomic variability among the selected isolates of HLB and CTV using
molecular methods.
Outputs/Progress:
MONITORING OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS (CTV) IN PUNJAB
Major growing areas of Punjab were surveyed and 510 random citrus leaf samples were collected.
The areas surveyed include Sargodah, Toba Tak Singh, and Faisalabad. The samples were tested
through DAS-ELISA against CTV. Incidence range in the province was 10-40%. Citrus Tristeza
Virus (CTV) diseases was prevalent in all area surveyed.
MONITORING OF CTV IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHAWA PROVINCE
Citrus growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province were surveyed and 300 random citrus leaf
samples were collecteted. The areas surveyed include Peshawar, Nowshera, Mardan, Swabi, Swat,
Malakand Agency and Dir. The samples collected were tested against Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV)
diseases through DAS-ELISA for detection and identification in accordance to find the incidence and
prevalence of this disease. Forty citrus samples were tested through ELISA against Citrus Triteza Virus
(CTV). The result showed that all locations were found infected with CTV with different infection rate.
Percent incidence of CTV in Peshawar, Nowshera, Mardan, Swabi, Swat, Dir and Malakand Agency were
50%, 45%, 28%, 20%, 16%, 44% and 20% respectively. An average incidence of 43.33% was recorded in
the KPK province.
GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG CTV ISOLATES
Six Citrus Tristeza virus (CTV) ELISA positive were amplified through PCR and an expected product
size of ca. 600 bp was obtained.
CITRUS GREENING
The citrus plants with HLB symptoms showed pale yellowing with mosaic pattern or variegated type of
chlorosis and reduce in size. Based on these symptoms 35 samples of NARC citrus field were collected
and analyzed through PCR using five different methods i.e. DNA zol, Plant Phine PcR Direct kit,,
Genomic DNA purification kit, CTAB method and DNA NEASY Kit. The DNA efficacy was analyzed
through gel electrophoreses and was found maximum. Later PCR was used to analyze by using three sets
of primers viz. A2/55, Oi1/Oi2C, and General Primers for HLB. The first set Oi1/Oi2c is 16rDNA based
primer which is specific for detection of Ca-L-asiaticus and Ca-L-Africanus yielding the 1160pb PCR
product after amplification. Although the infected trees showed clear symptoms but PCR based detection
has not yet achieved and is in process.
43
Theme: Developing and Improving Machinery for Planting, Harvesting, Grading and Processing.
Project/Activity: Development and evaluation of a turmeric curing and drying technology. Hafiz
Sultan Mahmood, Assist Agri. Engr, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01-02-2012
Completion date: 31-01-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 1.74 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.55 million
Objectives:
 To develop a suitable turmeric curing and drying technology.
 To evaluate the performance of this technology in turmeric growing areas.
 To perform the cost analysis and to demonstrate this technology to turmeric growers and local
manufacturers.
Outputs/Progress:
 The objectives of the reporting quarter have been successfully accomplished.
Activities
Status
Establishment of design parameters of the Completed
turmeric drying system
Preparation of bill of material and Completed
procurement of material
Design of the drying system using AutoCAD Completed
Fabrication of the turmeric drying system in completed
the ABEI workshop
Measurement of the performance parameters Under progress
of the turmeric drying system
44
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and re-emerging insect pests of crops.
Project/Activity: Strengthening of National Insect Museum (NIM). Dr. Muhammad Ather Rafi,
PSO, NIM, IPEP, NARC
Start date: 01-02-2012
Completion date: 31-01-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 3.140 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.838 million
Objectives:
 To strengthen and improve the existing housing facilities in NIM, NARC.
 To explore the insect fauna of Pakistan in different ecological zones with special reference to
agriculture importance.
 To provide online access to generate knowledge.
Outputs/Progress:
Surveyed Localities:
 Punjab: 16 districts surveyed in 6 agro ecological zones (Barani Lands, Northern Irrigated
Plains, Sandy Deserts, Sourthern Irrigated Plains, Suleiman Piedmont, The Wet Mountains)
 Khyber PakhtunKhwa: 13 districts surveyed in 3 agro ecological zones (Northern Dry
Moutnains, The Wet Mountains, The barani Lands).
 Gilgit-Baltistan: 4 districts surveyed in single agro ecological zones (Northern Dry Mountains).
 Azad Jammu & Kashmir: 2 districts surveyed in 2 agro ecological zones.
Insects Collected:
 As a whole about 15,000 insect specimens were collected in 15 surveys from different agroecological zones of the country.
Insects Identified:
Predators:
 Neuroptera = 3 species
 Odonata = Syrphidae = 37 species
 Coleoptera (Cicindellidae): 15 species
Pollinators:
 Hymenoptera: 15 species of bees.
Crop Pests:
 Coleoptera:
Diptera:
Lepidoptera:
Curculionidae = 12 species;
Meloidae = 2 species
Tipulidae = 5 species
Sphingidae = 52
Significant Achievements
New records explored = 30 with following details
45
Crop Pests:
Coleoptera:
Pollinators:
Curculionidae = 2;
Lepidoptera: Sphingidae = 10
Hymenoptera = 4;
Diptera: Syrphidae = 10
Predators:
Odonata = 1;
Neuroptera = 3
46
Theme: Developing and improving machinery for Planting, Harvesting, Grading and Processing.
Project/Activity: Investigation of Factors Causing Low Head Rice Recovery. Dr. Tanveer Ahmed,
PE, ABEI, NARC
Start date: 01-02-2012
Completion date: 31-01-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 2.612 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.983 million
Objectives:
 To assess the factors affecting low head rice recovery for combine harvested paddy.
 To identify the practices (such as drying, storage and rice milling) causing low head rice recovery
for long grain rice.
Outputs/Progress:
 After drying and storage of paddy, categorized the field samples (machine and hand samples).
Also collected a number of paddy samples, husk, brown rice, white / polished rice, bran, broken
and head rice samples from different modern rice mills, sheller at village level including
laboratory samples.
 Data of number of paddy samples through treatment of a series of milling versions at lab. Scale,
local technology and modern rice mills at different moisture level were collected, and being
processed/analyzed for head rice recovery and other critical factors.
47
Theme: Diversification of Agriculture emphasizing Horticulture for improves profitability.
Project/Activity: Evaluation of locally developed mandarin hybrids in potential citrus growing
area. Mukhtar Ahmed, PSO, Fruit Crops Research Program, HRI, NARC.
Start date: 01-07-2012
Completion date: 30-06-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 0.892 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.270 million
Objectives:
 Testing/evaluation and selection of mandarin hybrids in citrus growing area for early maturity.
 Propagation of selected hybrids.
Outputs/Progress:
Fruit production and quality data was recorded to check the performance of these hybrids. Two
hybrids NARC 05-18 and NARC 05-17 seem to promising in respect of fruit production and quality
parameter (weight, juice content, TSS and acidity).
 NARC 05-18 and NARC 05-17 had the maximum average fruit weight of 178 gm and 170 gm as
compare to Kinnow 164 gm.
 The juice content in NARC 05-17 & NARC 05-18 were 46.66% and 46.0% respectively.
 Higher TSS was recorded in NARC 05-17 (11.86%) followed by NARC 05-18 (11.80%)
compared Kinnow with TSS value of (11.30%).
 NARC 05-18 had acid content of 0.96% which was lower than Kinnow (1.04%) fruit harvested
on 10-12-2012.
Propagation:
300 plants of NARC 05-18 and NARC 05-17 were grafted.
Seedless/Less Seeded Mandarin Hybrids:
 63 seedless/less seeded hybrids were developed and planted in fruit area HRI, NARC for
evaluation studies. The plants will start bearing fruit after 4 to 5 years.
Way forward:
 Qualitative & quantitative data of the fruit of mandarin hybrids, planted at CRI Sargodha will be
recorded to identify the optimum maturity period.
 Selected Hybrids will be propagated for the farmers
48
Theme: Genetic Improvement of crops.
Project/Activity: Seed production and popularization of lentil variety, Markaz-2009. Dr. Asghar
Ali, PSO/Coordinator Pulses Programme, CSI, NARC
Start date: 01-10-2012
Completion date: 30-09-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 2.095 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.567 million
Objectives:
 To produce quality seed of newly released lentil variety markaz-2009 at limited scale at NARC
and farmers’ field with the involvement of a seed company Seed and Services International,
Islamabad (SSI). The company is already working in the pothwar region.
 Dissemination of seed of Markaz-09 in Pothwar region through farmer participation, Seed
Company, SSI and PATCO.
 To demonstrate a complete package of lentil production technology in pothwar region through
farmer participation and seed company, SSI.
Outputs/Progress:
BNS production of variety MARKAZ-09 at NARC

Markaz-09 was planted on 4 acres at NARC during Rabi season 2012-13 to get quality
seed for dissemination next year.
Farmer Selection:

Progressive and cooperative farmers were identified and selected in five districts of
Pothwar region
Districts
Farmers names/address
Area
Rawalpindi Ch. Muhammad Ijaz, Dhok Gujjran
1 acre
Jehlum
Muhammad Jabbar, Arrah Sural, Sohawa
1 acre
Attock
Malik Allah Yar, Fatehjhang
1 acre
Gujrat
Akhter Ali, Village Noonawali
3 kanal
Ch. Riaz Maqsood, Village Bhago Sharif
1 acre
Yasir Araft, Village Paharianwala
1 acre
Chakwal
Adaptive Research farm, Bhaun
4 kanal
 Supervised farmers for various crop production practices.
 Arrangements made to certify seed at farmers field from FSC&RD.
 Progressive farmers contacted to buy back certified quality seed of the variety through
PATCO under progress.
 Got printing of informatory brochures and advertising material for farmers.
 Arrangements made for talks on electronic media for the awareness of farmers and
conducted three TV talks for this purpose.
 Farmers’ day organized after selecting the representative site in the region at Sohawa,
District Jehlum.
49
Theme: Genetic Improvement of Crops especially through Application of Biotechnology and
Molecular Genetics.
Project/Activity: Genetic diversity analysis of brassica oilseeds and adaptability testing of elite
lines at different ecologies (follow-up project), Abdul Ghafoor, PSO, IABGR, NARC
Start date: 01.01.2012
Completion date: 31.12.2013
Total Cost: Rs. 2.240 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.342 million
Objectives:
 Regeneration of germplasm for conservation and distribution to user communities
 Evaluation and identification of promising genotypes having high yield potential, bold seeds,
higher oil contents, lower levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates, and resistant to shattering and
aphids
 Seed multiplication and multi-locations testing of elite lines in comparison with improved
cultivars in different ecologies
 Fingerprint and discover genome-specific molecular markers for the identification of improved
cultivars and grmplasm accessions of brassica oilseeds
Outputs/Progress:



Two hundred and forty two accessions of brassica germplasm were regenerated during 2012 for
conservation and distribution to user communities. In addition, one hundred and ten accessions of
brassica were collected from Bahawalpur and Mingora, Sawat. During the project period (2
years), 490 accessions of brassica oilseeds were added in the genebank after regeneration under
field conditions at NARC.
Thirteen promising genotypes (24866, 27388, 27397, 27398, 27406, 27410, 27425, 27435,
27440, 27443, 27444, 27445, 27450) of brassica from exotic origin were identified on the basis of
their superior performance and these were planted under six locations to select the best one/s. The
data is yet to be compiled. In addition to multilocational trials, 100 accessions of brassica were
planted under field condition at NARC for characterization and evaluation purpose, and among
these thirty eight accessions did not germinate or were damaged badly with hail storm, hence the
data were recorded for sixty two accessions that will be presented in the report.
Seed proteins profiling of 200 accessions were conducted that indicated low genetic diversity
among accessions within one species. Fingerprinting of cultivars was made on the basis of SSR
markers. One hundred and eight SSR primer pairs were screened using two improved cultivars of
Brassica carinata and most informative markers were identified for further use. DNA profiling of
100 accessions of Brassica was carried out using 52 SSR markers for diversity analysis. The SSR
markers analysis will help us in variety protection, plant breeder rights and marker assisted
breeding.

More than 500 accessions were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolates, and nine accessions
(27380, 27382, 27391, 27392, 27394, 27438, 27443, 26147, 26321) exhibited low erucic acid and
glucosinolates. The seed of these accessions will be multiplied and will be shared with the
researchers working on brassica improvement.

A promising line (26187) of Eruca sativa (Taramira) having yield potential of more than 1200
kg/ha has been identified and it was planted at four location during 2012-13 and excelled as
compared to the local cultivar.
One M.Phil and two Ph.D. students have already completed their dissertation research, while
research work of three students is underway at the moment.

50
Theme: Development and improving machinery for planting, harvesting, grading and processing &
reduce post-harvest losses and improve product quality through improvement of equipment and
facilities
Project/Activity: Intervention for the Management of Mycotoxin in Maize and Groundnut
Component-I (Mobile Flat-Bed Dryer) Dr. Munir Ahmad, CSO, ABEI, (FMI), NARC
Start date: 01.04.2009
Total Cost: Rs. 2.869 million
Completion date: 31-03-2012
Expenditure: Rs. 1.63 million
Objectives:
 To adapt and evaluate drying technology (mobile flat-bed dryer) for maize and groundnut.
 To perform the cost analysis of maize an groundnut drying using this technology
 To demonstrate and disseminate this technology among the maize and groundnut growers.
Outputs/Progress:
 Dryer has been tested on ear-corn and further modifications are made for gas firing and increasing
volume. For use of solar energy designing process is on.
 Evaluated the adaptability of dryer for ground nut and ear corn and found suitable. Evaluation for
autumn ear corn at Depalpur / Okara showed that moisture content of 4 ton ear corn dropped from
28.7% to 19.7% in 10 hours. The cost of drying one kg was Rs. 2.9. The cost of drying spring corn
was Rs. 1.9 /Kg. Dryer can dry produce of one acre in a day.
 Demonstration was carried at Pind Dadan Khan and number of farmers participated.
 Mou has been signed with Malik Engineering Rawalpindi for commercialization.
51
Theme: Diversification of Agriculture Emphasizing Horticulture, for Improved Profitability and
Value Addition
Project/Activity: Acquisition and Improvement of Mushroom Production Technology in Pakistan
Mr. Umer Iqbal, SO, CSI, NARC
Start date: 01.11.2009
Total Cost: Rs. 6.056 million
Completion date: 31.10.2012
Expenditure: Rs. ------- million
Objectives:
 Acquisition and collection of genetic resources to broaden the genetic base of mushrooms.
 Improvement of mushroom production technology for commercially grown mushrooms.
 Development of indigenous spawn production facilities for cultivable mushrooms.
 Improvement of post-harvest technology for mushrooms.
 Training and development of human resources in mushroom cultivation.
Outputs/Progress:
 Cultures of Button, Oyster, Reshi, Chinese and Shiitake mushroom were collected from various
sources (China, Japan, Belgium and United Kingdom).
 Five U.C (Ghora Gali, Charhan, Darya Gali, Murree Urban and Sehr Bagla) were surveyed for
the collection of different mushrfoom sprcies. Ganoderma and morchella species were collected
from different host trees in Murree, kaghan and Kashmir from spring to monsoon (March to
June).
 Hybrid strains of Oyster and Button mushroom were developed for high yield.
 Physiological studies of Oyster and Shiitake mushroom was studied. Potato dextrose yeast agar
medium was found as a best culture media, starch as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source,
pH 8 and 28°C for oyster mushroom. Corn meal agar medium as a best culture media, glucose as
carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, pH 7 and 25°C for Shiitake mushroom.
 The mycelial growth on different substrates (corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane
baggase) of oyster (local) showed that maximum mycelia growth was recorded on corn cob.
 The maximum percentage of moisture was obtained in oyster mushroom grown on wheat straw
and maximum amount of protein in the mushroom which was grown on corn cob.
 Different fungicides were evaluated for the management of contaminants grown on mushroom
compost Carbendazim was assessed well against three pathogenic fungi namely Aspergillus
flavous, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viridae.
 Button and Oyster mushroom were grown and production was being marketed.
 Spawn of Oyster and Button mushroom was produced for experimental purposes as well as for
commercial farming. Different grains were evaluated for the growth of best spawn sorghum and
rye seeds were found best for the production of good quality spawn.
 Different pathogenic fungi were isolated from Pleurotus spp. spawn and tested against oyster
through dual culture technique and found that Trichoderma suppress the growth of Pleurotus
maximum.
 Identify different blanching techniques to preserve the button mushroom for refrigeration. All of
three treatment samples were tested for color, texture, taste and aroma by using nine point
hedonic scale. Boiling for 1 min is the best blanching technique to preserve the mushroom for
refrigeration.
 Evaluate different preservation methods to store the mushroom for long period. 0.5% acetic acid
+0.1%sodium benzoate +1.5% KMS +5% Nacl; was found the best treatment to preserve the
button mushroom for one year.
52




On-farm trials were being conducted at Murree, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Abbotabad.
Two training courses were conducted and trained 120 peoples.
Booklets related to mushroom production technology were distributed among the farmers.
Five students from Sargodha University, two from Arid University , Rawalpindi and one from
Rawlakot University complete their thesis research and internship
53
Theme: Soil Management for Improving Crop Productivity and Environment
Project/Activity: Carbon sequestration and organic matter decomposition dynamics under crop
residue management in rice wheat system, Dr. Ghulam Nabi, LRRI, NARC
Start date: 01-07-2011
Completion date: 30-06-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 2.75 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.017 million
Objectives:
 Determine SOM decomposition dynamics and carbon pools in soils under Rice-Wheat systems
 Determine carbon sequestration potential of lands under crop residue recycling and effect on rice
and wheat crop growth performance under applied treatments
Outputs/Progress:
A study was undertaken under laboratory conditions to compare decomposition rate of surface applied
and incorporated crop residues. During 110 days study period the results indicated that soil incorporation
of rice as well as wheat residue decomposed faster than surface applied residues. Residue applied soils
realised greater amounts of CO2and Nthan control soil. Highest rates of C release per day was recorded
during first 10 days in both residue incorporated and residue surface mulched treatments which attained a
steady state release afterwards however, rice residue released faster C than wheat residue.The
decomposition of soil incorporated residues may be attributed to better residue soil contact which
promoted greater microbial population and ultimately resulted in faster decomposition. The study
indicated that residue incorporation in soil promotes quicker decomposition than surface applied
techniques.
Decomposition of rice residue at 3 soil moisture levels was compared under laboratory conditions. During
60 day study period, the results indicated that soil moisture equivalent to 60% of field capacity resulted in
highest rates of CO2release as well as NO3-N and NH4-N than 50% as well as 70% field capacity soil
moisture. About 10-15 % faster CO2 release was recoded on cumulative basis at 60 % field capacity.
Decomposition rates of rice residue were further enhanced when starter dose of N as urea was applied
which resulted in 3 times greaterCO2 and release suggesting that under field conditions faster rice residue
decomposition can be obtained application of starter dose of nitrogen applied as urea with suitable soil
moisture level of 60% field capacity.
Most widely occurring soil series (50 sites)in Gujranwala and Sheikhupura, rice wheat area, were sampled
during field survey of the area with incremental depths (0-12, 12-24, 24-36, 36-60 and 60-100 cm). Based
on various physico-chemical determinations, it was observed that:
•
Majority of the soil (80 %) belonged to medium (loam silt loam) and moderately fine textured (sandy
clay loam, silty clay loam and silty clay)
•
All soils were neutral to alkaline pH range of 7.5 to 8.5 with a mean value of 7.8. However, lower
soil depth had greater pH values particularly in Eminabad and Satagrah soil series.Electrical
conductance ranged 0.2 to 1.3 dS m-1 with a mean value of 0.5 dS m-1. However at 60- 100 cm depth
higher EC values were observed in Kamoki soil series.
•
Rice wheat soils are generally considered deficient in N. Data indicated that NO3-N concentration in
surface soil ranged between 1.15 to 5.7 ppm with a mean value of 2.64 ppm NO3 concentration
decreased with increased soil depth. In surface soil NH4-N ranged from 0.2 ppm to 12.5 ppm with a
mean value of 4.8 ppm. Lower soil depth had similar values of NH4-N invariably. .
•
In surface soil P concentration ranged between 0.5 ppm to 14.7 ppm with a mean value of 6.6 ppm.
About 30 % soil were in deficient P range (< 4 ppm) while another 22% (11 soil) were in marginal (47 ppm) range whereas only 48 % (24 soil) were in adequate P range(> 7 ppm). At 12-24 cm soil
54
depths, 52% soils (27) were in deficient, 20 % were marginal and only 30 % were in sufficient P
range
•
SOC in surface soil ranged from 0.02 g 100g -1 to as high as 1.51 g 100g -1 with a mean value of 0.73
in surface soil. SOC decreased in lower depths.Concentrations of SIC increased with increasing soil
depth being highest at 60-100 cm depth
55
Natural
Resources
56
Natural Resources Division (NRD) under RADP project has been working on four themes one
each related to land, water, rangelands and honeybees. The major activities were also related to these
fields. Other activities were focused on forests, bio-diversity and bio-fuel plants etc. In all 19 sub-projects
were developed to cover the themes and activities, 17 were fully operated. Whereas two sub-projects were
implemented partially while one sub-project could not be implemented. Details of these projects,
implementation status and accomplishments have been discussed in various sections of this report.
In order to achieve the project objectives provisions were made in the PC-I for recruitment of
research fellows, procurement of office, lab and field equipment, capacity building of available manpower
and incentives for the staff involved in the project activities. The targets for research and procurements
were accomplished to a reasonable extent. However, the performance of most of the sub- projects was
adversely affected due to reduced and erratic flow of funds against the allocated budget for these sub
projects. The procurements were also delayed substantively whereas some of the direly needed equipment
could not be arranged hindering the smooth functioning of projects. In order to fully achieve the
objectives of the RADP project, extension in period of the current project or launching of a follow-up
project is necessary.
What has been accomplished so far?
Technical Progress
Natural Resources Division (NRD) handles the following RADP themes:




(Theme–1NR): Soil Management for Improving Crops Productivity & Environment
(Theme– 2NR) Improving Water Productivity under Irrigation and Rainfed Production System
(Theme– 3NR) Realization of Improved Rangeland Productivity
(Theme– 4NR) Apiculture Quality Honey Production and Increased Crop Productivity
The details of the activities wise completed /ongoing projects under various NR themes are given as
follow:
(Theme–1NR): Soil Management for Improving Crops Productivity &
Environment
Activities Covered
Actvity.1
Integrated plant nutrient management (INM) for major cropping systems
using conventional and biotechnological approaches
 Plant nutrition management for sustained crop production in northern areas of
Pakistan
The project was initiated during 2009 to establish fully functional soil analysis laboratory at
Gilgit – Baltistan to investigate the nutrient status of Gilgit – Baltistan soil and to develop
package of technology for improvement in productivity of stone fruit orchards. All the
procurement required for the project has been made during the project life. To run the fully
functional soil analysis laboratory, a follow up project is required to keep the laboratory in
operational form and to help the local farming community of Gilgit – Baltistan in soil
57
analysis. The main objective of RADP project to build the capacity of scientists in different
fields of specialization could not be addressed during the project life, keeping in view the
need to arrange trainings for scientists on priority basis.
Actvity.2
Saline soil and brackish water management using conventional and
biotechnological approaches
 A strategic approach of chemical and biological reclamation of salt affected
lands
The project was initiated in 2007 to develop a package of technology / strategies for
reclamation of saline soil to enhance crop productivity and to increase cultivable land in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The project was successfully completed but also need further
research work to completely address the issues. Under this project some of the direly needed
field machinery i.e. tractor, cultivator, seed drill & trolly could not be purchased.
Actvity.3
Development of bio fertilizer and composting technologies for improving
crop production
 Development of bio fertilizer processing plant
The project was initiated during 2009 to develop pilot Bio-fertilizer processing plant. The
pilot Bio-fertilizer processing unit was developed and installed at NARC for production of
compost / bio-fertilizer..
Actvity.4
Soil environmental pollutants: loading, fate, and management
 Soil environmental pollutants: loading, fate, and management
The project was initiated in 2007 to develop the Model for bio - remediation of toxic metals
in soil, vegetables, animals and industrial waste. Metals in soils and vegetables irrigated with
untreated contaminated municipal / industrial wastewater from Gujranwala, Sialkot,
Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas were assessed.
Actvity.5
Soil physical health improvement for enhancing water & nutrient use
efficiency
 Carbon sequestration and organic matter dynamics under crop residue
management in Rice-Wheat System
The project was initiated during 2012 to develop a package of technology for improvement of
soil physical health and enhancing water & nutrient use efficiency. The project is in progress
and needs extension to continue the work to achieve the project objectives. The equipments
required for the project activities have not been purchased as yet. It is a dire need of the
project to purchase the equipments mentioned in the sub-project. Due to non availability of
required equipments the project activities are affecting especially the purchase of “Straw
Spreader Kit”.
 Establishment of vermiculture and vermin composting Research Unit at NARC
58
The project was initiated during 2012 to identify “strains of worms”, its adoptability to the
local environment and its production in large quantity for improvement of soil physical health
and enhancing water & nutrient use efficiency. The project is in progress and needs to
continue the project work to achieve the project objectives. The equipments required for the
project activities have not been purchased so far. It is dire need of the project to purchase the
equipments mentioned in the sub-project proposal.
(Theme-2NR):
Actvity.1
Improving Water Productivity under Irrigation and
Rainfed Production System
Identify and test suitable irrigation method considering land, water, crop,
farmer, etc. to increase productivity and water use efficiency
 Evaluation & Resource Conservation Technologies for Improving Water
Productivity in Rice-Wheat Cropping System
The project was started in October 2007 with an objective to evaluate different resource
conservation techniques like double zero tillage, direct seeding, and bed-furrow. Water use
for wheat and rice crop was recorded and hence water productivity for both crops under
different techniques was recorded which were found to be higher under zero tillage for wheat
and saturated regime for rice.
Actvity.2
Introduce supplemental, deficit and saving irrigation concepts to increase
cropped area and production per unit area and water.
 Water Productivity Improvement through Deficit Irrigation Scheduling under
Center Pivot Irrigation System.
The project was started in 2001. The deficit irrigation project with Center Pivot is in progress
and nearing completion with achievement of objectives. The project was affected due to lack
of funds.
 Water Productivity and Application Efficiency Evaluation under Trickle
Irrigation System in Stress Environment of D.I. Khan
The project was started in October 2007 to devise a package of technologies to enhance water
productivity under different irrigation management strategies through trickle irrigation for
stressed environment. The project demonstrated irrigation management for vegetables
successfully. The project activities continuously suffered due to non-availability of funds and
erratic releases.
Actvity.3
Develop conjunctive use of water (rain, surface and groundwater) for
sustained increased productivity.
 Production and Propagation of Quality Deciduous Fruit at MARC &Satrameel
The project was started in January 2010; the main objective of the project was to develop a
kind of nursery of deciduous fruit plants at bulk level. A nursery was developed at Satrameel,
Islamabad and established new orchards and nurseries of deciduous fruit plants, roses and
medicinal plants at MARC, Jaglote. Project activities continuously hampered due to lack of
funds.
59
Actvity.4
To develop, adapt and demonstrate integrated land and water use techniques
for increased agricultural production on sustained basis under rainfed
conditions
 Capacity Development for Demonstration and Comparative Evaluation of
Different Irrigation Systems on the Farmers’ Field in Balochistan
The project has been initiated at HRI, Khuzdar Balochistan during last quarter of 2012 and
first release has been made. Work of land leveling and tendering for installation of bubbler
irrigation system is in progress.
 People Centered Agro-Based Research & Demonstration Center
The project was started in October 2009 with an objective to introduce agriculture based
package of technologies at community level to improve and create livelihood opportunities.
The project was closed at its infancy stage because of termination of PI and non-availability
of funds.
Actvity.5
Develop resource inventories for targeted irrigated and rainfed areas.
 Estimation and Modeling of Climate Change Impact on Land Use System
The project was started in July, 2007 with an objective to look into climate change impacts
and analysis and develop future strategy to cope the issues related to agriculture and water
resources. The project rendered temperature and rainfall data and analyzed which revealed
that glaciers are rapidly melting and there is a spatial and temporal variability in rainfall and
temperature as compared to past. The project was closed and demanded equipment and
softwares were not given to look future trends of climate change.
(Theme-3NR):
Realization of Improved Rangeland Productivity
Activities Covered
Actvity.1
Range inventory for current ecological status of range resources
 Critical Evaluation and Standardization of Innovative Techniques for Ecological
Monitoring and Range Resource Management
The project was approved in 2008 with a total cost of Rs.6.294 million for a period of 36
months, but could not be executed. The project activities involved highly advanced
modeling and were based on the trainings of the PI and CO PI from USA. The trainings could
not get matured due to financial constraints and policy level decisions and lack of an
appropriate mechanism for processing the cases for training abroad.
Actvity.2
Identification of promising grasses, fodder trees and shrubs
 Rangeland Improvement by Re-vegetation of Suitable species and Development
of Model Pasture at NARC
60
The project has started in November 2012 with a cost of 1.475 million at NARC to
develop a model pasture by monitoring the growth and productive potential of
grasses, shrubs, tree species and rainfed fodder crops for re-vegetation of degraded
rangelands.
Actvity.3
Studies on Range Biodiversity Conservation
 Development cultivations and propagation of black cumin as 1st Initiative in
Pakistan
The project was initiated in 2007 to develop germination and cultivation technology of black
cumin to include it in the framing system of Gilgit-Baltistan. The technological package of
cultivation of black cumin has been developed. Propagation techniques of black cumin
cultivation through seeds and bulbs were developed. Delayed releases, shortage of funds, and
trained technical manpower (taxonomist) were the major constraints in execution of the
project affectively.
 Conservation of Native Flora of Cholistan through Rejuvenation Techniques
The project was started in 2009 focusing on the conservation and restoration of ecological
balance of Cholistan desert. Ten thousands stubbles/propagules of eight different economic
geophytes were collected from different areas of Cholistan desert and have been propagated
at Cholistan farm of AZRI, Bahawalpur for multiplication.
Actvity.4
Bio-fuel plants propagation and cultivation technology
 Cultivation of Biofuels Plants on Marginal Lands in Pakistan
The project was initiated in 2009 with objective to develop an appropriate package of
technology for promising biofuel plants and their introduction on the framers fields. Protocols
for vegetative propagation of the biofuels plant i.e Jatropha were developed under the project.
Oil contents upto 30%, with protein 26% were recorded in Jatropha seed. Delayed releases
affected smooth functioning of the project.
(Theme – 4NR)
Apiculture Quality Honey Production and Increased Crop
Productivity
Actvity.1 Improve honey quality for enhanced and ensured honey export
 Production of export Quality honey and establishment of honey analysis lab
The honey Analysis Lab. has been established under the project. The honey analysis lab has
been made functional and reports are issued to beekeepers and stakeholders regularly on
honey analysis results. The project was initiated in 2007 for 36 months. Delayed releases and
provision of insufficient funds against the approved budget were the major constraints in
smooth execution of the project.
Actvity.2 Investigate pollination potential of honeybees for higher crop production
 Beekeeping in Mountain Agriculture, NAs
61
The project was started in 2008 to investigate the effect of honeybee pollination on the
production and quality of temperate fruits. Under the project a beekeeping unit has been
established at MARC and major honey flora has been documented in Gilgit Baltistan. Honey
bees pollination demonstrated positive effects on apple production. Shifting of Apiary to
appropriate location at a suitable time was badly effected due to non availability of funds. It
also affected negatively the colonies management.
Actvity.3 Development of byproducts of bee keeping like pollen, propolis, royal jelly
and beeswax
 Improvement in the production techniques of Royal jelly, pollen, propolis,
beeswax and their value added products for livelihood
To improve and standardize techniques for the production of royal jelly, pollen, propolis and
beeswax, the project was initiated in 2008. Production of royal jelly, pollen and other products
has been successfully carried out under the project. A limited quantity of bee pollen (Natural
food supplement) and royal jelly with honey (tonic), candle & wax sheets are available at
Honey Bee Research Institute, NARC. No lab/field equipments were provided till the end of
the project. Project work was seriously affected due to non availability of funds in due time
and according to the allocated budget.
Procurements:
Efforts were made to identify genuine requirements of the NRD establishments for the office, lab
and field equipments and procure the same with the help of PIU – RADP. Most of the equipments
identified for NRD in the PC-I were procured. Some direly needed equipments not included in
PC-I were also purchased. Still some important gadgets mostly not included in the PC-I could not
be procured for various reasons.
Short-Term Trainings and Visits Abroad:
This is an important component of the PC-I for capacity building of the scientists in PARC.
Highly significant areas to take benefit of this provision with corresponding cash cover were
identified. Several exercises were undertaken to collect suitable nominations for the training
courses, their placement in the relevant foreign institutions and initiating the approval process
were made during last six years. However, the opportunities could not be availed due to
cumbersome, lengthy and complicated approval mechanisms. Availing such opportunities is
always difficult but in case of RADP the process for training was loaded with too many problems,
technical, administrative as well as financial.
Civil Works:
No civil works were proposed for the establishments of NRD under RADP. Only repair of some
of the buildings had to be carried out. However, a small scale but highly useful contribution by
constructing a soil analysis lab at Mountain Agricultural Research Centre, Juglote was made by
RADP. This lab needs to be strengthened by equipping it with some important gadgets and glass
wares etc. and also the trained manpower.
62
Identify Gaps that PARC has not accomplished:
NRD through its establishments at NARC and outstations developed several sub-projects in line
with the themes and activities outlined in the RADP PC-I. Some of those were dropped in the
initial stages of the approval while few could only be implemented partially. Two projects could
not be launched for various reasons.
Efforts were made to meet the targets with respect to identified themes and undertake the
activities related to the procurement of requisite equipments, availing the training opportunities
etc. However, the accomplishments have not been according to goals envisaged in the PC-I and in
some cases the success rate was much lower than expected such as the training component. Major
reasons for the short fall in achievements have been the cumbersome obligatory mechanisms and
the problems with the account and flow of funds. The gaps between targets and accomplishments
related to technical, logistical and capacity building components of the project are discussed as
follows:
Technical:
The section on the Natural Resources Division focuses on four areas for research viz-e-viz (i)
Land Resources (ii). Water Resources. (iii). Range Management and Forestry and (iv). Honeybee
Management. The gaps in technical accomplishments are discussed accordingly:
Land Resources
Although sub-projects for all the themes and activities of the PC-I were executed but scope of
most of these was limited to a particular ecology/area as apparent from the discussion in the
previous section of the report. Vast areas of the country could not be attended. The following PCI activities have to be reconsidered for proper implementation:



Integrated plant nutrient management
Saline soil and brackish water management
Development of bio-fertilizer and composting technologies
In addition to above several new issues and concepts have emerged during the course of
implementation of the project i.e. from the year 2007 – 3013. Some of these need immediate
attention and have been included in the future requirements.
Water Resources
The state of accomplishments under water resources sector has been the same as explained for the
land resources above. There are considerable gaps between targets and the achievements. Quite a
few research studies have yet to be undertaken to meet objectives of the PC-I from technical
aspects. Some of the important gaps identified are as follows:



Considering the theme water productivity under rainfed system no project was launched.
As such there is a dire need to launch projects for devising mechanism and develop
package of technologies to enhance the water productivity in barani areas.
Another big gap is in capacity development. No formal training has been arranged under
RADP for specialized or otherwise professional development.
In water sector, strengthening is required through acquiring of research equipment and
instruments. In the sector of agricultural energy management, conducting research on
renewable energy, efficient operation of prime movers, input-output measurements are
63
very essential. Yet Water Resources Research Institute does not have many of the gadgets
essentially required for improvement measurements.
More research work is also required on canal irrigation, renewable energy and climate
change aspects.

Range Management and Forestry
This is one of the most important themes of RADP keeping the extent of range resource and its
significance for the country. However, the themes and the activities under it could not be duly
attended. Few sub-projects were developed but could not get through the approval process while
some were dropped after approval for administrative and financial reasons. The research activities
still to be carried out include:



Range inventory for current ecological status of range resources
Range biodiversity conservation
Identification of promising grasses, fodder trees and shrubs
Honeybee Management
Reasonable progress was made to cover the PC-I component on honeybee management for honey
production and pollination. Some gaps identified during execution of the project are:




The honey analysis lab established under the project is yet to be fully operationalized.
Further, the lab has to be supported with the required chemicals and trained manpower
for carrying the honey analysis work.
The research on pollination in Pakistan is limited to few crops. This has to be extended to
other crops as well as pollinators particularly the wild insects.
The production technology for honey by-products like royal jelly, pollen, propolis and
bees wax has been developed. But it has to be perfected and promoted for the benefit of
the end users.
Genetic stock improvement for increased honey yield
Apart from above research on other aspects of honeybee productivity and protection with respect
to genetic stock improvement and disease control are direly needed.
64
Future Requirements:
Along with the projects on the missing activities outlined in the RADP PC-I, the following activities need
proper attention and should be duly considered in future.
Land Resources
 Evaluation of humic acid based products for increasing crop productivity
 Validation of temporal soil water movement models for different tillage and irrigation
systems in wheat-maize cropping system
 Enhancement of nutrient and water use efficiency in fruit orchards through fertigation
 Enhancing phosphorus and nitrogen use efficiency in major cropping system through
integrated nutrient management.
 Evaluation of soil fertility status in high input agriculture area and determination of nutrient
requirements of high yielding hybrid cultivars of rice, cotton, maize and vegetables.
 Bio-reactor commercialization
 Micronutrient deficiencies survey and analysis in collaboration with soil fertility directorate
for recommendation in different crops.
 Introduction / adaptation of salt tolerant new crops in rainfed areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
for increased agricultural productivity.
 Development of techniques for nutrients responsive crops in rice- based areas
Water Resources
 Project initiated in Balochistan needs to be extended in addition to launch of more projects.
The deciduous fruit propagation project also requires an extension to enable the MARC to
generate revenue to the tune of Rs.2.00 million from deciduous fruit plant nursery and sustain
the orchards established under this project.
 Specialized training should also be imparted to scientists, particularly from Umerkot, Quetta
and Giligt-Baltistan.
 Reliability and timely releases of funds must be ensured. Momentum gained in the beginning
of the project (RADP) was very badly affected during the 2nd year of the project due to nonavailability of funds. In later stage momentum could not be regained and most of the projects
suffered in achieving their objectives.
Range Management & Forestry
 Development of state of the art technologies for rangeland monitoring based on GIS/Remote
Sensing/photogrametry.
 Assessment of rangeland productivity in all ecologies of Pakistan
 Developing strategies for other important uses of rangelands such as eco-tourism, trophy
hunting, bee keeping, medicinal plants etc.
 Studies for assessing the possibility of co-management of rangelands in various ecologies of
the country
 Studying vegetation dynamics of rangelands and participatory range management for
sustainable land use.
 Promotion /dissemination of black cumin cultivation technology, Biofuel plant cultivation
technology.
65
Honey Bee Management
 Research on the genetic improvement of the honeybees is very much needed to improve the
honey quality and quantity. Similarly honeybee species needed to be developed /screened out
for cold areas.
 Honey analysis Lab should be accredited for issuing fitness certificate for export quality
honey.
 Production of more byproducts along with dissemination of the technologies developed is
needed. Plan for commercial production of by products through PATCO / private sector is
needed.
 Pollination potential of honeybee for higher crop productivity needs to be investigated in
details in various ecologies of Pakistan.
 Promotion /dissemination of royal jelly and other by production technology are needed.
Follow up projects may be initiated.
Office, Lab and Field Equipment
Some of the equipments identified in the PC-I could not be purchased whereas NRD has regularly
informing the PIU, RADP about its requirement with respect to office, lab and field equipments.
The activities of most of the sub-projects were hampered due to non-availability of the
equipment. The availability on time is also important. Requisite mechanism for procurement
needs improvement.
Short Term Trainings
The details of requirements for short term trainings have also been provided to PIU, RADP along
with cost. Such trainings are needed to equip the scientists with the latest knowledge and
technologies. Presently the opportunities in this respect have substantially declined. The facilities
provided in the RADP project could not be availed for various reasons, one being the absence of
specialized personnel in RADP team for taking advantage of such facilities. The
mechanisms/approval process may be improved and simplified.
Civil Works
Several requests were received for civil works and tube-wells from various NRD establishments
during the course of implementation of RADP. These were mostly related to construction of
boundary walls and extension in the office buildings. Budget for civil works may be allocated for
NRD establishment in new/extended projects.
66
Theme: Realization of improved rangeland productivity
Project/Activity: Cultivation of biofuel plants on marginal lands in Pakistan Mr. Ghulam Shabir
Bohio, P.I: Director AZRI, Umerkot
Start date: 01-07-2009
Total Cost: Rs. 2.496 Million
Completion Date: 30-06-2012
Expenditure: Rs. 0.668 million
Objectives:



To cultivate the selected bio fuel plant species/varieties on marginal lands and develop appropriate
protocol for propagation of these plants.
To investigate the oil potential of important non-edible oil plant species grown in Pakistan.
To develop an appropriate package of technology for promising bio fuel plants and introduce it
among the farmers.
Outputs/Progress:








Germ plasm / seed of three varieties Jatropha curcas viz. (India, Thai and Malaysian) were received
from a private company based at Karachi. The seed of Castor bean and Sukh chain have been
arranged form local market of Umerkot and Mithi. Nursery of (10,000) plants was developed with
received seed at AZRI farm. After development of nursery plants an appropriate set of various
experiments on production technology of J. curcas was laid out.
Three nusery and three field experiments of J. curcas were conducted. I). Three varieties viz, (India,
Thai and Malaysian) were tested on various planting dates under nursery condition ii). Assessment of
nursery raising techniques viz (Flatbed, Polythylene bags, iron tray and earthen pots ) and iii). Effect
of maturity stages (green, half yellow and black full mature seed). Besides that field experiments were
also conducted for all three varieties to evaluate different planting densities, irrigation intervals and
fertilizer (NPK) levels, for heir response to growth and yield.
The data of various parameters related to growth and yield of J. curcas was recorded and analyzed.
The results proved that March is the best time for nursery planting, maximum germination 90-93%
was found in Thai variety, flat bed method proved best result and it’s cheaper and less laborious than
other methods. The black ripened seed 92% germination followed by half yellow 85% and green 50%
germination. In planting densities method (2.15 x 3.00 m) proved excellent results. In irrigation
experiments (15 days irrigation interval) showed best performance in all parametes. The fertilizer
level (60-60-60) of NPK proved maximum yield.
A comparative study of four varieties of Castor bean viz (Nangar Parker, Mithi, DS-30 and local
check) was evaluated under bio-fuel project at AZRI farm. Nangar Parkar variety performed better in
all growth parameters.
Collected (400 kg seed) in second year from AZRI farm.
Established (10000) nursery plants of three varieties of Ja. Curcas.
Ten acres of marginal land were cultivated with J. curcas at various growers field included Army
Cant. Chhor. Unfortunately, due to heavy rain and flood during last year 2011 in Sindh, the crop
damaged severely. Whereas practice of re planting of same areas has been completed.
Extraction of oil from all varieties have been resulted, 33, 29, and 28% oil from Thai, Malaysian and
India variety, respectively.
67

After 30 months of successful research, this institute has organized one day seminar on dated 18-052012 on Bio – Diesel Plant (Jatropha Curcas) to disseminate the findings among farmers, teachers and
researchers. (50) Persons comprising, local farmers, teachers of Sindh Agriculture University
Tandojam, scientists of different organizations and Agriculture extension workers have been
participated. Mr. Ali Murad Rajar (MPA) and Dr. Noor Ali Shah Progressive grower were the Chief
guetss. Dr. Ulfat-ul-nabi D.G, SARC also presided the seminar.
Final recommendations and conclusions of the findings are as under:
 J. curcas should be planted on only marginal and less productive lands.
 More research is still needed for bio diesel crops particular their effects on soil, genetically
improvement of cultivars and use of its bio products.
 To create local demand for its seed and oil
 It produces less income as compare to other local crops, therefore genetic improvement will be
required.
 At the end of project three acres land is covered with various experiments of J. curcas and castor bean
crops at AZRI farm. Moreover, nursery of (15000) plants of J. curcas is available at the farm. Ten
acres of marginal land are covered with J. curcas plantation at different locations on farmers’ field
(300) kg seed of J. curcas and (150 kg) seed of castor bean is available at AZRI farm.
Way forward:
 National level policy required on biofuel production to promote cultivation of biofuel plants.
68
Theme: Realization of improved rangeland productivity
Project/Activity: Cultivation of bio-fuel plants i.e. (jatrophacurcas, pongamia pinnanta and caster
bean) on marginal land in Pakistan, P.I: Dr. Rahmat Ullah Khan, AZRI, D. I. Khan
Start date: 01-10-2009
Total Cost: Rs. 2.496 Million
Completion Date: 01-06-2012
Expenditure: Rs. 0.748 million
Objectives:
 To cultivate the selected bio-fuel plant species/varieties on marginal lands and develop
appropriate protocol for propagation of these plants
 To investigate the oil potential of important non-edible oil plant species grown in Pakistan
 To develop an appropriate package of technology for promising bio-fuel plants and introduce it
among the farmers
Outputs/Progress:
 45 grown up(2 year old) plants of Jatropha are already planted.
 2.5 kg seed of one Jatropha variety collected for nursery raising.
 150 plants of Sukhchane shifted in the fields.
Way forward:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Experiments on sowing techniques, irrigation methods, plant density rate, sowing time,
fertilizer requirements for Jatropha curcas and castor bean will be continued.
Agronomic Evaluation
Crop management
Response to Insect/pest/diseases of all plants and crop
Seed production and oil yield parameters to be recorded
Evaluation of bio-oil for physio-chemical and performance characters
Technology package will be prepared for the farmers
Final report and research publications will be prepared
69
Theme: Realization of improved rangeland productivity
Project/Activity: “Cultivation of biofuel plants on marginal lands in Pakistan” P.I: Dr.
Muhammad Anwar Arain, PSOGQTL, SARC, PARC, Karachi
Starting date: 1-6-2009
Completion date: 1-6-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 2.496 Million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.035 Million
Objectives:
 To cultivate the selected bio-fuel plant species/varieties on marginal land and develop appropriate
protocol for propagation of these plants.
 To develop appropriate package of technology for promising bio-fuel plants and introduce it to
the farmers.
 To investigate the oil potential of important non-edible oil plant species grown in Pakistan
Outputs/Progress:





About 10 acres of Jatropha was planted at farmers’ field / Govt. farmers from the raised nursery
at SARC.
About 50 acres castor was planted from seed on marginal land at Gulam Qader Palejo farm near
on National Highway near Gharo. However, the farmers were not willing for planting Sukhchain
due to its slow growth and delay fruiting in 5 to 6 years.
The best sowing of jatropha nursery raising starts from March while best time of plantation in
field in Sindh was found to be pre monsoon in the month of June
The cutting of Jatropha taken from top, middle and bottom was planted .The best sprouting in
bottom cutting was found followed by middle and top.
The best time for fertilizer application is during pre-monsoon and during monsoon, mainly
nitrogen potash and phosphatic fertilizers is applied after prunning as basal dose.
Way forward:
 National policy on biofuel production to promote cultivation of biofuel plants.
70
Theme: Realization of Improved Rangeland Productivity
Project/Activity: Conservation of native flora of Cholistan through rejuvenation technique. Mr.
Mumtaz Hussain, SO, AZRI, Bahawalpur
Start date: 01.07.2009
Completion date: 30.06.2012
Total Cost: Rs. 5.995 million
Expenditure: Rs. ------- million
Objectives:
 To conserve and restore ecological balance of Cholistan desert by conservation of biodiversity
through the establishment of more productive pasture.
 To develop sustainable pasture-livestock farming system by increasing desert land productivity on
regular basis through the use of locally available resources, which can lead to profitable farming,
sound pastoral development and environmental protection.
 To optimize economic gains by effective pasture improvement and livestock development, this will
ultimately support poverty alleviation.
Outputs/Progress:
 Seed of three desert grasses, three shrubs and four trees collected from Cholistan desert. Nursery
has been raised approx. three thousand plants of each species and demonstration plots of all the
grasses have been established.
 Material transplanted on four acres in Cholistan and two acres in AZRI farms. More area to be
covered.
71
Theme: Soil Management for Improving Crop Productivity and Environment.
Project/Activity: Soil Environment pollutants loading fate and management, Dr. Mahmood-ulHassan SSO, PARC/NARC Soil Environment Group Land Resources Research Program.
Start date: 01-07-2007
Completion date: 30-06-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 48.957 million
Expenditure: Rs. 7.088 million
Objectives:
 Monitor Shallow ground water soil and crop produce quality agricultural system under long term
sewage and waste water applications.
 Understand the dynamic and kinetics of heavy metal releases processes redistribution (leaching)
and transformation processes.
 Improve the health of metal contaminated soil and quality of produce for food safety.
 Simulate soil environment pollutants using transport model (s) based on information generated
through studies for this project.
Outputs/Progress:
i. Monitoring of Sewage Sludge Derived Heavy Metals Loading in Peri-urban Soil and Produce
Quality
 Edibility of 324 summer and winter vegetables samples collected from peri-urban areas of were
analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and found that cadmium and chromium concentrations
were above the recommended permissible limits (RPL) in all the examined vegetables and Pb
was exceeded in 90% of vegetables. More than 238 soil samples analysed to evaluate the
suitability for growing vegetables and Cd, Pb and Ni concentrations in almost all soil samples
were above the RPL with Cr higher than the RPL in 62 % of soils and Cu higher in 26 %.Quality
of sewage sludge/ wastewater for irrigation was assessed by analysing 68 municipal effluent
samples collected from peri-urban areas of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas,
Karachi, Kausor and Multan. The Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr concentrations in the
municipal/industrial effluents from all sites were above the RPL and were not suitable to dispose
of to water bodies and arable lands.
 Apparent balance sheets for Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu were prepared by growing maize fodder and
spinach crops in Gujranwala peri-urban soil under municipal/ industrial effluent irrigation. Net
positive balance revealed that the addition of metals through municipal/ industrial effluent was
more than the removal of metals by growing crops.
ii. Management of Heavy Metals Polluted Soils
 Natural and chemically enhanced phyto-extraction potential of seven crops, i.e. spinach,
Mustard, maize, sorghum, oat, pigweed and sesbania has been explored by growing on heavy
metal contaminated Pacca and Gujranwala soils for phyto-remediation of heavy metal polluted
soils.
 More than 19 fungi were isolated from the metal contaminated soils, purified, morphologically
characterized and screened for metal tolerance. These fungal isolates showed great potential for
removal of metals from aqueous solution when loaded in bioreactor.
 Similarly diversified bacterial were strainsisolated, purified, characterized and screened for
metal tolerance and were used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated soil. They showed
great potential to solubilize metal in soil and facilitate its uptake by plant.
iii. Heavy Metals Transport Behavior in Soil Profile
Soil Structure structured had significant effect on metal transport parameters. In massive soils,
metals move with uniform wetting front while in structured soil metals move preferentially.
iv. Removal of Metal from Aqueous Solution (Synthetic Wastewater) in Glass Column Bioreactor
72
The metal retention capacity of natural and modified corn cob, press mud, wheat straw and sunflower
head were evaluated. These products have the potential for removing heavy metal ions from
wastewater and hence issue of environmental pollution caused by heavy metals can be addressed.
73
Theme: Improving Water Productivity Under Irrigated and Rainfed Production System
Project/Activity: Evaluation of Resource Conservation Technologies for Improving Water
Productivity in Rice-Wheat Cropping System, Qurban Hussain, WRRI, NARC
Start date: 1.10.2007
Completion date: 30.09.2010
Total Cost: Rs. 5.311 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.647 million
Objectives:
 Determination of potential crop evapotranspiration for rice and wheat crops.
 Evaluation of different irrigation regimes / strategies and cultivation practices for water use efficiency
under rice-wheat cropping system
 Improving water productivity under rice-wheat cropping system through resource conservation
technologies.
Outputs/Progress:
 Crop water requirement for wheat and rice crop was determined as 383 and 600 mm respectively.
 Double zero tillage increased water productivity by 28% for basmati rice as compared to
conventional method.
 Saturation and alternate wetting and drying irrigation strategies for rice increased water
productivity by 22 and 19% respectively for basmati rice.
 Bed planting with hybrid rice using mechanized process in district Kasur on farmer’s field saved
35% water as compared to conventional method. Paddy yield of 5.5 t/ha were same under both
the bed and conventional planting method. Whereas, at Faisalabad, hybrid rice on bed saved 25%
water with 15% increase in yield
 Zero tillage and bed planting under wheat crop increased water productivity by 16 and 11%
respectively.
74
Theme: Integrated Plant Nutrient Management (INM) for Major Cropping System Using
Conventional and Biotechnological approaches
Project/Activity: Plant nutrition Management for sustained crop production in northern areas of
Pakistan. Sher Ahmed SSO, KARINA, Juglote Gilgit.
Start date: 01-06-2009
Completion date: 31-05-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 5.960 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.490 million
Objectives:
 To develop research based package of technology in integrated plant nutrient management.
 To improve the fruit and crop yield for major crops and fruits of the area.
 To observe the effects of different nutrient levels on the yield and quality of fruit and crops.
Outputs/Progress:
 The data of the two remaining experiments on almond and apple were completed in this quarter.
Leaf sampling was done and prepared for analysis. Soil samples were collected from various sites
and prepared for analysis. Among the on-going experiments the following titled experiments
were completed in this quarter and data was noted i.e. 1) almond yield and yield parameters as
affected by different combinations of NPK at MARC Juglote and 2) effect of different nitrogen
and potash level on apple yield at MARC. The detail of experiments and data is presented in the
section 5.
75
Theme: Realization of Improved Rangeland Productivity, (Bio-fuel Range Plant Technology)
Project/Activity: Cultivation of Biofuel Plants on Marginal Lands in Pakistan, Dr. Rukhsana
Anjum, Director AZRI, Bahawalpur.
Start date: 01-07-2009
Completion date: 31-12-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 11.708 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.780 million
Objectives:
 To cultivate the selected bio-fuel plant species / varieties on marginal lands and develop
appropriate protocol for propagation of these plants.
 To investigate the oil potential of important non-edible oil plant species grown in Pakistan.
 To develop an appropriate package of technology for promising bio-fuel plants and introduce it
among the farmers.
Outputs/Progress:
Procured germplasm of Jatropha curcase fro six different sources. Raised plants of
Pnogamia pinnata (Sukh chain) from the locally available seed. Seed of Ricinus communis (Castorbean)
was procured from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad for its successful multiplication at
AZRI, Bahawalpur. Seed has been multiplied a a large scale and is being sold to the local farmers.
A large scale bio fuel nursery was established at AZRI, Bahawalpur in May, 2010 and
was made fully functional wherein more than 36,500 plants of biofuel species have been grown including
Jatropha curcas from Australia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Africa and seed produced (last year) from
AZRI farm of Bahawalpur.
More than 28,000 plants of Jatropha and 8,500 plants of Castor and Sukh Chane have
been transplanted on 5 acres at AZRI farm, Bahawalpur and 4 acres at Cholistan farm. Success rate is
remarkably high.
A very good amount of seed has been produced and collected during last two years from
5 acres of bio fuel plants cultivation at AZRI’s farm. Collection of Jatropha and castor seed is being
carried out on a regular basis. Meanwhile, seed of Jatropha and castor bean has been collected for the first
time from the Cholistan farm.
Intercropping of Jatropha with Sukh chain, castor, Jajoba and iple is being tested at both
farms of AZRI, Bahawalpur. Success rate is quite high.
On going studies include Jatropha curcas seed showing in nursery bags Vs vegetative
propagation through cutting method. Both these methods have been found equally good but the later one
is relatively faster (success rate – 100%). Both types have been transplanted in the field.
The best sowing time (for bio fuel plants) identified is March, and September during the
year. Transplanted saplings have done very well with organic fertilizer/soil conditioner. 2% foliar spray of
urea has shown quite good results. A new fertilizer (namely IDEAL) has been used on 4 acres field at
AZRI farm, which has shown very good results in terms of growth, flowering and seed setting on plants.
Meanwhile, a very interesting experiment on the comparison of growth performance and
yield potential of caster ean variety (DS-30) and an advance line received from NRD is still continued.
Evaluation will be done within the next quarter.
After having made achievements in the nursery and field, two brochures has been
published to introduce the methods of cultivation of valuable bio fuel plants to the farmers.
A technical workshop is also being organized for the farmers during the first quarter of
2012.
76
Theme: Soil Management for Improving Crop Productivity and Environment
Project/Activity: Establishment of vermiculture and vermicomposting Research unit at NARC,
Shahida N. Khokhar, PSO, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, LRRI, NARC.
Start date: 01-02-2012
Completion date: 31-01-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 2.503 million
Expenditure: Rs. ------- million
Objectives:
 Establishment / maintenance of vermiculture and mass production of vermicompost.
 Quality assessment and evaluation of vermicomposting for its effects on soil productivity.
 Development / demonstration of technology package to farmers through visits, training and
print/electric media.
Outputs/Progress:
 5 Kg of indigenous earthworms from ten sites (1/2kg each) of Islamabad, Burewala and Attock
area were collected and two of them were multiplied each from 1/2Kg to 5kg.
 Standarization of conditions (substrate, temperature, moisture) for EW rearing/multiplication
 Development of Infrastructure and Establishment of Vermiculture & vermicomposting Research
Unit with capacity of producing 2000 kg of vermicompost per season. (The capacity can be
increased if heating facility is installed in the tunnel).
 Capital Purchased (UPS and digital balance)
 Vermicompost analysis for physical and nutrient content from Pheritima spp. as well as from E.
fetida shows that vermicompost from wheat straw or Parthenium or Sesbania bispinosa with AD
are of good quality (Color, Texture, C/N 16:1; N,0.69-1.23%; P, 0.15-0.25%;K,0.17-0.27%) Zn
was highest (100mg/kg) in Parthenium derived vermicompost.
 Evaluation of two mature vermicomposts on Spinach is in progress on Field as well as pot. Two
months data on spinach foliage biomass shows 8% increase as compared to when AD was applied
in equal amount in pot experiment. Vermicompost in enough quantity for field experiment was
available in December and field experiment was launched in January 2013. The results would be
presentable in April 2013
 M.Phil Thesis on ‘Composition of Vermicompost of earthworms raised on different organic
media’ is ready for submission.
 Brochure on ‘Vermiculture and Vermicomposting’ in urdu is in the process.
 Farmers’ demonstration would be held in April, 2013.
77
Theme: Realization of Improved Rangeland Productivity
Project/Activity: Rangeland Improvement by Re-Vegetation of Suitable Species and Development
of Model Pasture at NARC, Dr. Sarfraz Ahmad, PSO, RRI, NARC
Start date: 01-11-2012
Completion date: 31-10-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 1.475 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.125 million
Objectives:
 Development of pasture area by monitoring the growth and production potential of grasses,
shrubs, tree species and rainfed fodder crops for re-vegetation of degraded rangelands.
 Develop and test various range management interventions like grazing potential and grazing
response of different species by small ruminants.
Outputs/Progress:
 Land preparation, ploughing, leveling and weeding of the area was carried out for various
activities.
 Nursary of Acacia modesta, Acacia niotica, Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba,
Zizyphus mauritana and Gleditshia tricanthos raised for field planation.
 Trial I: Growth and production potential of annual sown forage legumes under rainfed conditions
Species: Three (Vicia dasycarpa, V. sativa, V. narbonensis)
Design: RCBD
Different growth and production parameters will be recorded.
 Trial 2: Growth and production of barley and oat under rainfed conditions
Barley Varieties: Sanober-96 & Rakhshan-10
Oat (PD-65)
Different growth and production parameters will
be recorded.
 Trial 3: Reseeding Potentail of Winter Grasses
 Species: Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea
 Germination is good, just seedling stag
 Trial 4: Reseeding Potential of Native Legumes
 Species (Medicago scutellata, Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium repens,
Medicago sativa
Germination is good, other parameters will be recorded at suitable plant growth stages
 Trial 4: Growth and Forage Production of Fodder Trees
Gleditshia triacanthos
414
Acacia modesta
250
Mulberry
500
Iple Iple
83
Black Siris
50
78
Theme: Improving water productivity under irrigated and rainfed production system
Project/Activity: Capacity Development for demonstration and comparative evaluation of different
irrigation systems on the farmers field in Balochistan, M. Yaqoob, SSO, HRI, PARC, Khuzdar
Start date: 1-10-12
Total Cost: Rs. 59.980 million
Completion date: 30-9-15
Expenditure: Rs. 3.745 million
Objectives:
 To establish a reliable database of resources and farming practices of the targeted three districts
(Khuzdar, Kalat and Lasbela) with special reference to irrigation
 To select, design and install most suitable irrigation infrastructures for selected farms in order to
improve the crop water productivity.
 To demonstrate and disseminate the performance of state of the art irrigation systems to local farmers,
extensionists, developers, researchers and local planners.
Outputs/Progress:
 Tender is called for construction of water pond and water channel at CARI Lasbella and water
courses were digged.
79
Theme: Improving Water Productivity under Irrigated and Rainfed production System
Project/Activity: Water Productivity Improvement through Deficit Irrigation Scheduling
under Centre Pivot Irrigation System, Dr. Muhammad Munir Ahmad, PSO, NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-076-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 1.050 million
Expenditure: Rs 0.77 million
Objectives:
• To determine evapotranspiration of selected crops
• To evaluate water productivity of crops through different deficit irrigation scheduling strategies
• To develop management strategies for optimizing water productivity of selected crops
Outputs/Progress:
• Climatic related to daily mimimum termperature relative humidity rainfall wind speed and sun
shines hours were collected from 1996 to 2004 NARC Islamabad.
• Potential evapotranspiration (ET) of 109 mm in July, 90 mm in August, 87 mm in Sept. And 71
mm in October, NARC Islamabad.
• Sunflowers evapotranspiration (ET) varied 3.83-5.95 mm per day in July 51.3 in August and it
varied to 2.14 to 1.41 mm per day in Sept.
• The crop coefficient varied as 0.35 to 0.53 at the initial stage. 0.74 to 1.15 at the development
stage and at the last stage it varied from 0.53 to 0.35. The whole crop of 90-120 days,
• Soil samples were collected from study site at depth 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Soil
analysis shows that soil was laom with Ph 7.8 EC 0.37 to 0.90 DS /m. The organic matter was
0.44-1.0 %. The field capacity of the soil is 25% (vol )and wilting point is 11% (vol). The total
oluable salt irrigation water was 441 ppm SAR 0.05 carbonate 0.2 and bicarbonate 5.1 me/i.
• Sunflowers three varieties are shows in last week of July 2012 under four irrigation scheduling
strategies I1 (1.20 *ET), I2 (100*ET) I3 (0.80*ET) and I4 (0.60*ET) and recommended NPK was
applied.
• The rainfall after sowing the crop was 72mm in July, 3.11 mm in Aug. And 127mm in Sept,
2012. The rainfall meat crop water requirement and even there was surplus water. One irrigation
was applied in the start of Oct. And 2nd in the 2nd 10 of October, 2012.
• The detail data of crop yield parameter will be collected at the crop harvests time.
• Water productivity analysis will be carried out and then report will be submitted.
• Wheat grain yield can be enhanced up to 180 % more than the rainfed by adopting full irrigation
requirement management strategies
• Under limited water areas, Wheat yield can be increased up to 150 % with irrigating 8 % less than
water requirement
• Canola grain yield can be enhanced up to 80 % more than the rainfed by fulfilling 100 % crop
water requirement
• Under limited water areas, Canol yield can be increased up to 50 % more than the rainfed with 15
% less water requirement
Way forward:
• Farm level water management strategies are required to be demonstrated in Fathejang and
Chakwal (low rain than Islamabad) area in small/mini dams command area to optimize
crop/water productivity under sprinkler system (not centre pivot)
• Sunflower crop especially in spring season may also be considered in future for optimizing
crop/water productivity.
80
Animal
Sciences
81
Introduction:
Livestock wealth of Pakistan consists of 36.9 million cattle, 32.7 million buffaloes, 28.4 million
sheep, 63.1 million goats, 1.0 million camel and 721 million poultry. These animals are raised for
production of milk, meat and eggs in the country for human consumption. The livestock sector
contributed approximately 55.1% to the agricultural value added and 11.6 % to national GDP during
2011-12. Gross value added of the livestock sector at constant factor cost has increased to Rs. 700 billion
(2011-12). The export of meat (beef, mutton and camel meat) has increased from US $108.54 million
(2010-11) to US $123.61 million in 2011-12. More than 35 million people are involved in livestock
raising and derive 30-40% of their income from livestock activities.
Pakistan possesses some of the finest dairy breeds like Nili-Ravi and Kundi breeds of buffalo, and
Red Sindhi and Sahiwal breeds of cattle. The average milk production under minimal management
conditions ranges from 2000 to 2700 litres per lactation of 305 days. However, sizeable proportion of
stock does exist, which produces approximately 5000 litres of milk per lactation under good management
conditions. Major issues that confront with improvement in livestock productivity include low
productivity per animal due to shortage of feed resources in quantity & quality, poor genetic potential and
reproductive efficiency, higher incidence of diseases, lack of organized marketing, small holders’
production system, etc.
Research Sub-Projects Undertaken:
RADP research activities were undertaken to address these issues under the following four research
themes in Animal Sciences Division:
i. Improving feed resources and technologies
ii. Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and re-emerging infections of animals
iii. Genetic improvement and reproduction of animals
iv. Genetic improvement of carps/trout and breeding of catfish
The following nine research activities/sub-projects of Animal Sciences discipline to address the
said four themes were approved for implementation under RADP since its inception in 2007.
i.
Cryopreservation and Evaluation of Buffalo and Goat Semen
ii.
Comparison of Oestrous Synchronization Protocols to Improve Fertility in Buffalo
iii.
Study on Production Potential of Different Sheep and Goat Breeds for Mutton Production
under High Input System
iv.
Stair-Step Heifer Development Program for Induction of Early Puberty
v.
Characterization of Avian Influenza and FMD Viruses and Development of Immunogenic
Vaccines
vi.
Study of dairy traits in Saanen crossbreds with goat breeds of Pakistan
vii.
Study on Biology, Captive Breeding and other Behavioural Aspects of Indigenous
Endangered Wild Animals and Birds
viii.
Diagnostic and Control of Parasitic and Microbial Infestation in Exotic and Indigenous Carp
Culture in Fish Farms of Punjab
ix.
Feed Formulation and Disease Diagnostic Studies of Trout Fish in Northern Areas
82
Research Output:
It is evident from the above listed activities/sub-projects that research and development work
envisaged in the RADP PC-1/Document has been carried out in all the identified research areas. Out of
nine projects, six have been completed, one was terminated prematurely and two projects have been
extended up-to June 2013.
Approved cost of the nine-sub-projects was Rs.164.667 million, out of which Rs. 40.14 million
(24.4%) only were released for these sub-projects/research activities and Rs. 38.00 million was actually
expended and thus 95% of the released amount has been utilized by the scientists.
In respect of the salient achievements/outputs of research activities out of nine projects, it is
narrated that one sub-project was terminated pre-maturely and hence research work could not initiated to
address the objectives. Out of remaining eight sub-projects, six completed sub-projects have achieved
approximately more than 70-80% of the envisaged objectives and two extended sub-projects are most
likely to achieve the objectives by the same standard.
Individual output/achievements of each the sub-projects are as follows:
i.
ii.
Cryo-preservation and Evaluation of Buffalo and Goat Semen
 Developed milk based extender for the cryo-preservation of buffalo semen. Results indicated
better post thaw semen-motility (72 vs 54%), membrane integrity (74 vs 63%) and conception
rate (72 vs 54%) by using this extender.
 A cost effective and short duration heat synchronization protocol was devised and effectively
used for fixed timed artificial insemination in goats under field conditions. The findings clearly
indicated that the breeding during low (May to August) breeding season can be accomplished in
does.
Comparison of Oestrous Synchronization Protocols to Improve Fertility in Buffalo
 70% conception rate was achieved in buffaloes after estrus synchronization with hormonal
treatments/devices during peak breeding season (winter).
 More valuable finding was that 80% buffaloes showed estrus in low breeding season
(summer) after the application of hormonal treatment/device and 40% treated animals became
pregnant. In this way seasonality of breeding was partially overcome in buffaloes.
 So these treatments could be used to popularize artificial insemination in buffaloes.
iii.
Study on Production Potential of Different Sheep and Goat Breeds for Mutton Production
under High Input System
 Fattening potential of Beetal goats and Thalli & Sipli lambs was assessed under three feeding
regimes. Supplemental feeding along with grazing/traditional feeding was found more
economical for lamb/kid fattening. Cost of production per kg body weight ranged from Rs.
117 to Rs. 181 for Beetle kids and Rs. 161 to 221 for Thalli lambs under the three feeding
regimes.
iv.
Stair-Step Heifer Development Program for Induction of Early Puberty
 Based on the results achieved so far, it can be concluded that better growth rate, efficient
nutrient utilization, attainment of early puberty (18-23 month of age), and conception in NiliRavi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle heifers can be achieved at comparatively lower cost without
any performance loss with the help of SSFS-Stair Step Feeding Scheme (6 phases of 4-2-4-24-2 months i.e., low energy diet (80 % ME of NRC) for 4 months (1st phase) followed by
high energy diet (120 % ME of NRC) for 2 months (2nd phase), low energy diet for 4
months (3rd phase), high energy diet for 2 months (4th phase) and so on) as compared to
83
NRC feeding requirements. SSFS offered a simple, practical and cost effective method for
raising dairy cattle and buffalo heifers.
v.
Characterization of Avian Influenza and FMD Viruses and Development of Immunogenic
Vaccines
 Basic infrastructure with bio-safe labs, first of its kind in animal health sector in the country
has been set up at AHP, ASI, NARC for handling class I-II microbes. This system would
continue collection of new FMD and AIV isolates for molecular characterization and genome
sequencing to develop DNA recombinant vaccines.
vi.
Study of dairy traits in Saanen crossbreds with goat breeds of Pakistan
 Project output could not be achieved as M/S High Hope Int’l, China failed to supply required
number of animals of Saanen breed due to out break of diseases like PPR, FMD and Pleuropneumonia in the flock in China leading to encashment of LC equivalent to US$ 57967.21
with minimum time left in the project life period for seeking alternate supplier. So expected
output of the sub-project could not be achieved
vii.
Study on Biology, Captive Breeding and other Behavioural Aspects of Indigenous
Endangered Wild Animals and Birds
 Facilities for breeding of endangered wild animals and birds were established at ASI, NARC.
Currently 10 wild animals and 18 wild birds are maintained at this facility. Breeding of Hog
deer, Black Buck, Jungle fowl, Pheasants and Peafowl under captivity was achieved
successfully for their conservation and further propagation. Breeding results and data on
captive breeding are being compiled to share with students, researchers, farmers and wildlife
lovers to start wildlife farming on scientific lines for exploring alternate meat sources.
viii.
Diagnosis and Control of Parasitic and Microbial Infestation in Exotic and Indigenous Carp
Culture in Fish Farms of Punjab
 Prevalence of external parasitic (Lernaeasis and Argulosis), bacterial and fungal diseases in
fish farms of Punjab (Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Rawalpindi divisions) was studied
and appropriate diagnosis and control measures have been developed.
ix.
Feed Formulation and Disease Diagnostic Studies of Trout Fish in Northern Areas
 Least-cost and balanced trout-fish feed has been formulated. Introduction of balanced feed
reduced the occurrence of bacterial diseases
 Seven bacterial diseases were identified and successfully treated with 90% recovery rate
 The research findings have been communicated through personal contacts to the local trout
farmers and extension workers of G-B Fisheries Department.
Additional outputs of the sub-projects:
 Two research papers have been accepted and would be appearing soon in: 1- Advances in
Environmental Biology (AEB) International, 5(1)71-73, 2011, ISSN 1995 – 0756. 2. Punjab
University Journal of Zoology (PUJZ).
 Two M.Phil students of Dept. of Animal Genomics and Biotechnology, PARC Institute of
Advanced Studies in Agriculture (PIASA) at NARC compiled their thesis using the subprojects data in 2011 & 2012.
 Five Ph.D. students have completed their dissertation using data generated from five of the
RADP-ASD sub-projects.
84


Findings from one of the sub-projects led to attracting an ARS-USDA grant on long term
basis for the AHP ASI NARC.
Establishment of Cell culture (BHK-21) setup for growth of FMD viruses was shared with
FMD Centre, VRI Lahore for propagation of FMDV which led to replacement of its 30 year
old cell line stock and production of polyvalent FMD vaccine has started at VRI, Lahore.
Innovation/replication and scaling up:
New knowledge generated:
In almost all the sub-projects this aspect of the research output replication and scaling-up was not
foreseen properly and hence no funds were allocated in the sub-projects’ budget break-ups for further
dissemination of the new scientific information and knowledge generated. However, a few follow-up
activities/new-projects prepared by different ASI scientists and at different implementation stages are
listed below:
i.
Improving reproductive efficiency of cows and buffaloes through estrous synchronization
and time Artificial insemination
ii.
Surveillance Pathogenesis and Management Strategies Against Major Emerging Avian
Diseases
iii.
Molecular characterization of Zoonotic Avian Influenza Viruses H9N2 to exploit their
immunogenic and pathogenic potential for the safety of avian & public health
iv.
Characterization of local isolates of foot & mouth disease virus (FMDV) and
development of vector based vaccines.
v.
Epidemiology, Vaccine and Control of FMD in Pakistan
vi.
Intensification of Fish Culture to Increase Per Unit Area Fish Production in Farm Ponds
Using Different Managemental Inputs
* New information/knowledge regarding collection of new FMD and AIV isolates for molecular
characterization and genome sequencing to develop DNA recombinant vaccines has been generated
under the above listed projects # iii to v.
Human Resources development
No foreign degree/short term training was availed by the ASD scientists under the RADP/subprojects. However different trainings/seminars/workshops conducted under different sub-projects are as
follows:
 A training was organized at AHP ASI in collaboration with another ongoing MOU Project
on “FMD cloned vaccine development” for 15 scientists working in the field in field
sampling and shipment of clinical specimens for the diagnosis and isolation of FMDV
 Training of 10 master trainers in a day long “Inception Workshop for FMD Vaccine Project
was organized on October 15, 2009 at AHP ASI NARC
 Two internees (one from PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi and one from
Islamia University, Bahawalpur) completed their internship under the Project.
 Organized a three day training course for the staff of Semen Production Unit, Harichand,
KPK from November 17-20, 2010 on “Cryopreservation of cattle and buffalo semen” at
ARP ASI NARC on the request of L&DD Dept. Govt. of KPK, Peshawar
 Imparted training on the request of Directorate of Breed Improvement, L&DD Dept
Peshawar to the technical staff of Semen Production Unit Harichand, Charsadda on “Fourth
Generation Semen Extenders (Bioexcell and Andromed)” from 22 to 22 October, 2010.
85
Civil Works:
Major
follows:
i.
ii.
iii.
civil works related to Animal Sciences Division completed under the project are as
Construction of buffalo sheds at LRS, NARC at a cost of Rs.5.760 million
Construction of 10 E-type residences for staff at LRS, NARC at a cost of Rs.6.08 million.
Construction of deer enclosures, birds’ aviary and office building at LRS, NARC at a cost
of Rs. 4.52 million.
However, there has been a considerable amount of adjustments made in the civil works
component included in the project as per emerging priority areas with the approval of Program Steering
Committee. Rs. 63.49 million were envisaged in the PC-I for capacity enhancement of Animal Health
Division related research and development activities. Out of eleven items of civil work included in the
PC-I worth Rs. 63.49 million, only three major items worth Rs.16.36 million have been completed so far.
One of the high priority major items that has to be completed is the construction of Animal
Sciences laboratory unit buildings at LRS. Original approved cost of this item as per RADP PC-I was
Rs.10.73 million. However, as per latest cost estimates prepared by PARC Works Directorate, this cost
has inflated to Rs.18.00 million. Necessary budget allocations/re-appropriations may be made in RADP
Budget to undertake this construction work on top priority basis.
Procurement of laboratory and field equipment/machinery:
The procurement of scientific equipment was restricted to buy only the lab-equipment, vehicles,
machinery, etc. not available with a laboratory or research station/program. A total of two hundred and
ninety-two (292) items of equipment have been purchased for the Animal Sciences related laboratories
and research stations of PARC. Office equipments and transport vehicles of different types have been
procured and distributed to different research entitles by a Resources Distribution Committee. The
physical verification of all capital items has been carried out. All the lab-equipments procured for ASD
have been installed in the respective Program Labs and are being properly utilized. No equipment has
been declared a surplus/useless by the RADP Lab verification Committee.
Constraints:
Major constraints faced by most of the PIs during the implementation include:
 Delayed release of Funds
 Technology Transfer was not built in to the sub-project rather virtually did not exist in most of
the sub-projects
 Change of PIs during implementation of some of the sub-project has been a major constraint in
achieving the project objectives
Recommendations:
 Delay in release of funds to the sub-projects creates serious hurdles in research work, so it is
recommended that the mechanism for timely release of funds may be improved.
 In future mechanism for technology transfer to the end users may be delineated and described in
the project documents very clearly indicating action to be taken by PARC and budget allocated
for the purpose
Future Priority Research Areas:
Any of the research activities/sub-project listed in the RADPP PC-1 if not addressed so far would
be undertaken under the following research priority areas in future sub-projects:
1. Developing novel feed resources and feeding strategies/technologies for food animals.
86
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Studies on feed born nutritional disorders of milk and meat animals and poultry.
Improving techniques for conservation of farms animals genetic resources.
Promoting ‘one health concept’ for the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases.
Studies on Patho-biology of highly pathogenic and emerging diseases (HPED) of livestock and
poultry.
Improving Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) for enhancing productivity of food animals.
Improvement in production practices of highland bovine and ovine species
Development and dissemination of appropriate milk products technology for small milk
producers.
Genetic improvement for enhancing rural/backyard poultry productivity.
Introduction of improved procedures for enhancing the shelf life of fish in coastal areas.
Brood-stock development and quality seed production of fish.
87
Theme: Improving feed resources and technologies
Project/Activity: Stair-step heifer development program for induction of early puberty, Dr. Imdad
Hussain Mirza, Director, ASI, NARC
Start date: 01-07-2007
Completion date: 31-03-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 59.509 million
Expenditure: Rs. 8.424 million
Objectives:
 To determine the effect of stair-step feeding scheme on weight gain, nutritional input and feed
efficiency in buffalo and cattle heifers.
 To evaluate the effect of stair-step feeding scheme on pubertal development, conception and
pregnancy rate in buffalo and cattle heifers.
Outputs/Progress:
 Based on the results achieved so far, it can be concluded that better growth rate, efficient nutrient
utilization, attainment of early puberty (18-23 months of age), and conception in Nili-Ravi
buffalo and Sahiwal cattle heifers can be achieved at comparatively lower cost without any
performance loss with the help of SSFS-Stair Step Feeding Scheme (6 phases of 4-2-4-2-4-2
months i.e., low energy diet (80& ME of NRC) for 4 months (1st Phase) followed by high energy
diet (120% ME of NRC) for 2 months (2nd phase), low energy diet for 4 months (3rd phase), high
energy diet for 2 months (4th phase) and so on) as compared to NRC feeding requirements, SSFS
offered a simple, practical and cost effective methods for raising dairy cattle and buffalo heifers.
88
Theme: Genetic Improvement of carps, trout and catfish
Project/Activity: Cultural and breeding of ornamental fishes (Goldfishes, koi carp and guppies) and
feed development for their different development stages, Dr. Abdul Rab, PSO, Fisheries, NARC.
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-09-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 2.58 million
Expenditure: Rs. ------- million
Objectives:
 To study the culture prospects of fresh water ornamental fishes (Guppies, Goldfishes and koi
carp) in our local environment conditions.
 To develop sustainable technology for ornamental fishes culture, breeding, larval rearing and
development of balanced nutritional diets for ornamental fishes in the country.
Outputs/Progress:
Acclimatization:
 Broodstock of ornamental fish i.e. Goldfish Shubunkin (Crassius auratus auratus), Double tail
(Oranda Goldfish), Koi Carp (Local), Imported Koi Carp White and high fin, Rainbow shark
(Epalzeorhynchos frenatus), Albino Shark (Epalzeorhynchos munense) and Guppies (Poecilia
reticulata ) has been procured from the Local Market.
 Ornamental fish infected with ectoparasites i.e. Learnea and Argulus were successfully treated
with Trichlorfon (Dimethyl ( 2,2,2 trichloro – 1-hydroxyethyl) phophate) @ 0.5mg/100 liters.
 Ornamental fish infected with fungal diseases were treated with the solution of formalin(0.025
ml/l and malachite green(0.1 mg. /l)
 Acclimatization of different procured ornamental fishes has been done at aquaria, circular tanks
and raceways for a period 15 days.
 During acclimatization the fish were fed at libitum with locally developed diet containing 35%
CP.
Natural Breeding
 Successful breeding of ornamental fish i.e. Shubinkin (Carassius auratus), Oranda gold fish
(Carassius auratus), local koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), hi fin koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), guppies
(Poecilia reticulata) and mollies (Poecilia vivipara) has been achieved.
 Breeding season of ornamental fishes has been determine such Double tail (Carassius auratus
auratus) breeds in December, Shubinkin (C. auratus) breeds in January, Local Koi Carp (orange
and white) (Cyprinus carpio) and Hi fin Koi Carp (C. carpio) breeds in February and March.
Induced Breeding
 Induced breeding ensures the availability of seed during the whole breeding season. In this
regards successful breeding trials of ornamental fish were attempt on Local Koi Carp (orange and
white), Shubinkin (C. auratus) and Double tail (Carassius auratus auratus) during April 2013.
Broodstock development
 Fingerling of Double tail (Carassius auratus auratus), Shubinkin (C. auratus), Local Koi Carp
(orange and white) (Cyprinus carpio) and Hi fin Koi Carp (C. carpio) from previous breeding
trials has been stocked in eathern ponds for the brood stock development having average initial
weight of 10.90 gm, 11.50 gm, 11.25 gm and 10.25 gm respectively.
 Two Experimental diets were prepared containing 25 and 30 % Crude Protein (CP) and
compared with imported pelleted diet (37% CP) as a control.
 All the species showed better growth fed on diet containing 30% CP level and can be used as a
replacement of Imported pelleted diet.
89
Average weight gain (g) of Ornamental Fishes fed on Artificial diet containing 25%, 30% and
imported feed (37%) during July to October 2012
Species
25 % CP
30 % CP
Control (Imported 37%)
Double Tail (Carassius auratus)
135±0.25b
165±0.85a
168±0.41a
210±0.52b
Shubinkin
(Carassius auratus)
Local Koi Carp (orange and 258±0.45b
white)
(Cyprinus carpio)
214±1.21b
Hi fin Koi Carp
(Cyprinus carpio)
295±0.19a
299±0.25a
312±0.75a
319±0.74a
265±0.85a
267±0.25a
Diet development as color enhancer







Three different diets supplemented with 1) spirulina (blue green alga), 2) red beet root and 3)
carrot were compared with locally developed diet (30 % CP) for color enhancement and
augmented aesthetic appeal.
Diets supplemented with red beet root were found more effective as color enhancer whereas
mixture of above three diets showed further better result.
Dissemination of ornamental fish culture technology to local fish farmers
Germplasm of Shubunkin, Double Tail, Koi carp (orange and white) and High fin Koi carp has
been transplanted to different farmers, Directorate of Fisheries Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Peshawar,
Directorate of Fisheries, Gilgit Baltistan, Punjab Fisheries Department, Lahore and Aquaculture
and Fisheries Department, University of Veterinary and Animal Sceinces, Lahore .
Display of ornamental fish at FAO Kisan Mela at NARC, FAO World food Day at NARC and
Autumn Festival at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. The participants
shows enthusiasm and appreciated the efforts of AFP scientists for the development of culture
and breeding technology of ornamental fish.
Succeful breeding of ornamental fish (Shubunkin and High fin Koi carp) has been achieved at
farmer’s farm of Potohar Region (Jand, district Attock) working in collaboration.
Development of ornamental fish Culture and breeding technology in the local environment and
establishment of ornamental fish industry in the country
90
Theme: Improving Feed Resources and Technology.
Project/Activity: Study on the production potential of different sheep and goats for mutton
production under high input system, Dr. M. Fateh Ullah Khan, Coordinator/PSO, National
Coordinated small Ruminants Research Program, ASI, NARC
Start date: 01-07-2009
Total Cost: Rs. 5.949 million
Completion date: 30-06-2013
Expenditure: Rs. 2.968 million
Objectives:
 To compare high input system with low input system for small ruminant production.
 To examine the carcass quality of lambs and kids as affected by various planes of nutrition.
 To determine the economic feasibility of raising sheep and goat under high input system in the
prevailing production circumstances.
Outputs/Progress:
• The feedlot model for various small ruminant breeds at their appropriate age has been developed
for the future entrepreneur.
• Dissemination of this model to the stock holders to enhance mutton production and this has been
disseminated to 100 farmers.
Message for the Farmers




Trials conducted on different sheep and goat breeds revealed that animals from the age of 6
months to 9 months did not give good weight gain.
The animals weight gain started after 9 months and onwards.
The feedlot activities are more profitable in winter than summer. In summer, the animals did not
gain weight due to heat stress and weight gain is more attainable during winter season.
The animals should be given less concentrate as recommended by NRC requirement, if grazing
and fodder availability is there.
91
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis & control of emerging & re-emerging infections of animals.
Project/Activity: Establishing the sero-diagnosis and sero-surveillance system for the control of
warble fly in Pakistan. Dr. Munib Hussain, SO, Animal Health Program, NARC
Start date: 01-12-2011
Total Cost: Rs. 2.10 million
Completion date: 30-11-2013
Expenditure: Rs. 0.151 million
Objectives:
 Identification of protective antigen of H. lineatum and P. silenus for cattle and goats, respectively.
 Development of a sero-diagnosis assays (ELISA).
 Determination of timing for instituting effective treatment.
Outputs/Progress:
Warble fly is an economically important pest of cattle and goats in hilly, semi-hilly and sandy areas of
Pakistan. The major economic loss inflicted to livestock and leather industry by the larvae of this fly is
perforation in the hides and skins. Degradation in meat quality, poor weight gains in growing calves/kids
and lowered milk production in lactating animals are the other economic losses caused due to this disease.
Khan et al., (2006) estimated an economic loss of Rs.20.6 and 2.2 million due to warble fly infestation in
cattle & buffaloes in D.G. khan &Rajanpur districts, respectively. Diagnosis of warble fly infestation in
live animals is based either upon the observation of clinical signs during winter or upon serological
methods. Direct clinical examination, generally results in an underestimate of infestation levels unless
animals are examined regularly throughout the emergence period. Therefore, there is a dire need to
establish a reliable serological diagnostic test for diagnosis of warble fly. The project was initiated with
an objective to determine the efficacy of ELISA for diagnosing warble fly infestation in local cattle and
goats using local isolates of Hypodermalineatum and Przhevalskianasilenus.



Field blood sampling for the whole year has been completed from selected experimental
animals stationed at BLPRI, Kherimurat. (In total 1920 cattle and 1740 goats were sampled).
Sera of all blood samples has been extracted and stored at stored at -20 oC at parasitology
Lab. The samples will be subjected to ELISA for determination antibodies against warble fly.
Antigen (Hypodermin C)has been prepared from first stage larvae of warble fly for the
development of ELISA.
Way forward:


Development/Standardization of ELISA for the detection of warble fly infested animals
(which is under process).
Determination of accurate timing for the treatment and effective control of warble fly
infestation(Will be determined after the analysis of the whole serological data through ELISA
technique).
92
Theme: Epidemiology, diagnosis & control of emerging & re-emerging infections of animals.
Project/Activity: Carrier potential of small ruminants in the persistence and transmission of PPR
virus, Dr. Aamer bin Zahur, SSO, ASI, NARC.
Start date: 01-12-2011
Completion date: 30-11-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 5.29 million
Expenditure: Rs. 1.705 million
Objectives:
 To quantify the risk factor of PPR in small ruminant population of the country.
 To study the persistence and transmission of PPR virus under field conditions.
 To monitor the changes in virulence of virus circulating in small ruminants population of country
through genetic characterization.
Outputs/Progress:
 Results of longitudinal studyare suggestive of PPR virus shedding in recovered sheep and goats
16 weeks post outbreak. This evidence is supported by HA test and RT-PCR.
 These findings have added to the knowledge of globalPPR epidemiology
 This evidence will be helpful in devising an effective control strategy for the progressive control
of this disease
93
Theme: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infections of Animals
Project/Activity: Diagnosis and Control of Parasitic and Microbial Infestation in Exotic/ Indigenous
Carp Cultured in Fish Farm of Punjab. Dr. Muhammad Afzal, SSO, Aquaculture & Fisheries
Program, NARC
Start date: 01.04.2009
Completion date: 31-03-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 6.795 million
Expenditure: Rs. 2.34 million
Objectives:
 To study the incidence, occurrence and prevalence of parasitic and microbial pathogens and their host
susceptibility levels in fish ponds and hatcheries of selected division of central and northern Punjab.
 To study control of most prevalent parasitic and microbial diseases of the areas under study.
Outputs/Progress:
 Diagnostic facilities established.
 Seasonal microbial disease occurrence surveys are in progress (sampling methodology to be
changed).
 Retrospective study of diseases to be under taken in proposed regions and farming systems.
 Microbial and fungal diseases diagnosed and treated
 Farmers training through extension workers, seminars and printing of Urdu booklet to start.
94
Theme: Genetic Improvement and Breeding of Carps, Trout and Catfish
Project/Activity: Studies on biology, captive breeding and behavioral aspects of indigenous
endangered wild animal and birds, Saleem Zahid, Poultry & Wildlife Program, NARC
Start date: 01-12-2011
Completion date: 30-11-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 6.95 million
Expenditure: Rs. 5.580 million
Objectives:
 To establish and maintain conservation/breeding research facilities at NARC.
 To conduct studies on captive breeding of wildlife species and transfer knowledge to both public
and private wildlife management and conservation organizations and wildlife farmers through
Field visits, training and printed material.
 To sell the surplus stock of indigenous wild animals and birds, if any, as a result of captive
breeding to wildlife farmers and lovers.
Outputs/Progress:
 Procurement of wild animals and birds will be carried out on provision of funds in capital
expenses as one enclosure is lying empty.
 Permanent Availability of research facility on wildlife management/farming at NARC.
 Successful Captive breeding of indigenous endangered wild animals and birds. Mating observed
Three hog deer females are expected pregnant
 Behavioural studies on different aspects of feeding, resting, breeding social interactions are
observed. Participated in Pakistan Zoological congress and presented findings and achievements
 Observation on Different Fodders and wild grasses in different combination to Wild ungulates
started first experiment completed.
 Twenty (20) internee veterinarians are facilitated on conservation of wild animals and birds
through captive breeding.
 Increasing number of wild animals to maintain maximum stock
 Increase in Number of Stock at Poultry &Wildlife Research Section
ANIMALS
TOTAL
Hog Deer
Black Buck
Urial♂
Kagani ♀
cross bred
Peafowl
Jungle Fowl
TOTAL
8
4
9
STOCK IS PRESENT
PRESENT
FEMALE
MALE
2
6
2
2
2
7
14
3
38
5
1
12
95
9
2
26
Weight comparison of different young wild ungulates and graphic representation
Duration
(days)
Hog deer (male)
kg
Black buck
(male)kgs
Cross bred
(Male)kg
Cross bred
(Female)kg
4
5
Hog deer
(female)
kg
3
5
1
10
4
5
2.2
3.75
4.1
5.4
20
30
40
50
6
7
13
15
6
8
10
13
6.5
7
8
10
5.4
7.2
8.1
12.2
7.2
9.4
13.2
17.7
General information table of Ungulate for farmers
S/no
Name of animal
Sex
Urial
Number
of animal
1
1.
Captive
area/encl.
65X150 ft
Habitat provided
Feed offered
Natural Grass,
trees, shelter,
feeding drinking
points.
1 male
1 female
65x125ft
Natural Grass,
trees, shelter,
feeding drinking
points.
1 male
2 female
65x125ft
Natural Grass,
trees, shelter,
feeding drinking
points.
Oat, Maize,
Sorghum, SS
Hybrid, Alpha
Alpha, wild
spinach. Iple
Iple leaf and
Different cattle
feed ingredients
Oat, Maize,
Sorghum, SS
Hybrid, Alpha
Alpha, wild
spinach, Iple
Iple leaf and.
Different cattle
feed ingredients
Oat, Maize,
Sorghum, SS
Hybrid, Alpha
Alpha, wild
spinach, Iple
iple leaf and
Different cattle
feed ingredients
2.
Black buck
2
3.
Hog deer
3
1 male
96
General birds feed intake and vaccination detail for farming
Name of
specie
Common
peafowl’s
Black
shoulder
peafowl’s
Ring neck
pheasant
Jungle fowl
Health
Habitat
Food
Good
Aviary
Good
cages
Poultry
feed
Poultry
feed
Good
cages
Good
cages
Golden
pheasant
Good
cages
Poultry
feed
Poultry
feed
Poultry
feed
Feed
Water
intake
intake
300g/day 500ml
Disease
noted
300g/day 500ml
200g/day 250ml
200g/day 250ml
200g/day 100ml
97
ND
Treatment
Supplements
Vaccination
of ND
Vaccination
of ND
Antibiotics and
vitamins
Antibiotics and
vitamins
Vaccination
of ND
Vaccination
of ND
Vaccination
of ND
Antibiotics and
vitamins
Antibiotics and
vitamins
Antibiotics and
vitamins
Social
Sciences
98
1.
2.
Name of the project:
Location:
3.
Authorities Responsible:
Research for Agricultural Development Program
PARC Research Institutes/Stations
i. Sponsoring
ii. Execution
iii. Operation and maintenance
iv. Concerned federal ministry
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock
4.
Program Objectives and its Relationship with Sector Objectives:
The knowledge economy with emphasis on science and technology has featured prominently in
the MTDF and Vision 2030 to promote sustainable and equitable economic growth and
development in Pakistan. The strategic thrust of agriculture sector development (including
livestock and fisheries) is on the following:
a.
Improved productivity per unit through science-based technologies
b.
Diversification into high value agriculture and export competitiveness
c.
Access to agriculture credit, particularly of small holders
d.
Improved market infrastructure and linkages with farms
e.
Strong agricultural institutions for research and extension and linkages with international
research system to stay on the forefront of advanced technology and innovations.
Program Objectives: The proposed Research Program is designed to: (a) address the current and
emerging needs of science based-agriculture development to achieve food security on sustainable
basis, poverty reduction, economic efficiency and export competitiveness as articulated in
MTDF (2005-2010); (b) serve as a mechanism for timely response to emerging research issues
and problems such as pest epidemics for crops and livestock, nutrient deficiency, climate change,
etc; (c) maximize productivity per unit of land, water, animal, labor and capital; and (d) move
from research output to innovations in terms of products and services suitable for smallholders.
In order to achieve these strategic objectives, PARC has placed emphasis on the following
research priorities:
 Paradigm shift from green revolution to gene revolution
 Strategic research to explore new scientific opportunities to improve total factor
productivity and profitability
 Crop intensification and diversification
 Integrated farming system approach for small holders
 Sustainable use of natural resources
 Capacity building of the national agriculture research and extension system
 Enhanced partnership/coordination with all stakeholders (farmers,
national/international research system, civil society, agro-industry, etc.)
 Participatory research and utilization of indigenous knowledge
99
Social Sciences Division Component of RADP
The agricultural sector in Pakistan has grown complex over time with increasing challenges. In
particular, constraints on the availability and quality of land and water, coupled with increasing
natural resource degradation represent major challenges. Globalization has brought additional
challenges with the need for much greater reliance on new crops, activities, institutions and
public-private partnerships. A rapidly increasing population, particularly of poor and small
farmers and increasingly skewed distribution of access to land and resources has created a much
more pronounced need to move from resource-based to science based agriculture.
Socioeconomic research plays a key role in linking crop and livestock improvement and resource
management research into a real-life farming systems; in analyzing how well new innovations
meet farmers needs; and identifying and helping to resolve constraints to technology adoption. It
also bridges the gap between policymakers and growers by making them aware of the problems
confronted by the growers on the basis of the empirical research findings.
Scope of Program:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Research Themes: 07, Research Activities in priority areas: 40
Up-gradation of research facilities (SSI building, Computer Labs etc):
Scientific Equipment for Labs & Fields.
Human Resource Development
International / National Research Collaboration
Objectives
-
-
-
Determine socioeconomic and ecological viability of NARS developed technologies,
identify farm level constraints in their adoption and highlight areas for policy
intervention.
Analyze critically the research and development imitative taken by NARS to achieve the
sustainable agricultural growth.
Undertake research on the issues involved in globalization, poverty alleviation and rural
development, food security, agricultural diversification and environment conservation.
Analyze and evaluate policy impact and options focusing on production, consumption
and trade of agricultural commodities.
Enhance the capacity of the national and provincial agricultural research systems in
socioeconomic research.
Plan, manage and assist in executing contract research and review the research results and
their dissemination to all stakeholders including policy makers, researchers,
entrepreneurs, growers, etc.
Extend socioeconomic support to other Technical Divisions in conduct of research in
biological and physical sciences.
Social Sciences Research Themes
1. Agricultural production and value chains
2. Agricultural growth and poverty
100
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Agricultural diversification
Agricultural policy analysis
Globalization, trade and marketing
Technology transfer and impact assessment
Knowledge management and sharing
Budget of SSD Component of RADP
Budget Allocation for SSD Component:
I.
Establishment budget:
II.
III.
Operational budget:
Capital budget:
Rs. Millions
383.000
9.240
Percent
100.00
2.41
305.750
79.83
68.010
17.76
Duration:
I.
60 months (5 years) (+24 months extended period)
- Start Date:
3rd April, 2007
- Expected Completion Date:
June, 2013 (extension expected)
Financial Progress
Out of total budget of Rs.2963 million of RADP, Rs. 383 million (12.9%) were allocated for
research projects related to social sciences discipline. So far, research projects of Rs. 104.874
million have been approved for social sciences research. Approved cost of the completed
projects was Rs. 79.449 million. However, financial releases of Rs. 29.827 million were made to
the Principal Investigators of these projects and expenditures of Rs.29.312 were incurred on
undertaking projects research activities (Please see Appendix-I for details). Approved cost of ongoing research projects of the division is Rs.26.425 million (Details are given in Appendix-II).
Out of the approved capital budget of Rs.68.01 million, expenditures of Rs.39.57 million were
made on the construction of building of Social Sciences Institute at NARC and ware house and
two room of FO&S orchard. Office equipments (computers, laptop computers, scanners, multimedia, photocopies, etc.) and field vehicles were centrally purchased by the RADP, PARC office
from the remaining capital budget. Total expenditures so far incurred are only one-fourth of the
total budget allocated to social sciences division as per PC-I (Table 1).
Table 1: Financial Progress: Budget Allocation, Releases and Expenditures
Budget Allocation of RADP as per PC-I
(Rs. Million)
Percent
 Total budget of RADP, PARC
2963.000
100.00
 Total budget Allocation to SSD
A. Total Budget Allocation to SSD:
IV.
V.
Establishment budget:
Operational budget:
101
383.000
12.90
383.000
100.00
9.240
305.750
2.41
79.83
VI.
Capital budget:
B. Establishment + Operational Budget
 Total Costs of Approved Sub-Projects
68.010
17.76
314.990
82.24
104.874
27.38
[Completed and On-going since 2007]
 Budget Releases
 Expenditures
C. Capital Budget
 Civil Works Expenditures
 Office Equipments Expenditures
 Field Vehicles Expenditures
D. Expenditures against total budget allocation
29.827
29.312a
7.79
7.65
68.010b
17.76
39.570
10.33
4.352
1.14
24.088
6.29
97.322
25.41
[Expenditures on capital items and operational research]
II.
Technical Progress
Theme-wise Research Plan, Accomplishments and Gaps in RADP Sub-Projects of
Social Sciences Division
Theme 1:
A.
Agricultural Production and Value Chain
Research Plan
I.
Participation of small farmers in the dairy value chains in Pakistan
II.
Analyzing the vertical integration in horticulture sector of Pakistan
III.
Assessment of post-harvest losses of selected fruits and vegetables in Pakistan
IV.
Vertical coordination in fisheries sector in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan
V.
Growth of poultry sector and emergence of vertical links with farmers, private sector and
multinationals
B.
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
I.
II.
III.
Participation of small farmers in the dairy value chains in Pakistan.
Assessment of post-harvest losses of selected fruits and vegetables in Pakistan.
Analyzing the vertical integration in horticulture sector of Pakistan.
102
Salient Findings of Research Projects Covered under Theme 1:
1. Vertical Coordination towards Dairy Value Chain in Punjab, Pakistan: Implications
for Smallholders and Agribusiness
Approved cost of the project was Rs. 8.513 million; While, Rs. 5.294 million were released and
expenditures of Rs.5.265 million were made to accomplish the objectives of the project. Under
this project, value chains for dairy and poultry sub-sectors were characterized; effect of vertical
coordination on profitability of smallholders dairy and poultry farmers was assessed,
stronger/different forms of integration were identified and policy implication for different
stakeholders were determined. In dairy farming, highest value added was found for chain with
private dairy industry (Rs.16.40 per liter), followed by milk collection by private dairy industry
(Rs.16.20 per liter), milk supplied to multinationals (Rs.15.30 per liter), to cooperatives
(Rs.14.50 per liter), with a lowest to milkmen (Rs.6.40 per liter). Highest profit margins were
earned by small dairy farmers selling to cooperatives, followed by private dairies, wet market
and multinationals. It was concluded that full potential of dairy sector is still unexploited. There
exists large genetic and management yield gaps. Milk processing sector is working nearly at 50
percent installed capacity. So the sector could yield high returns on the investment. In case of
poultry farming, it was found that cost of production of boiler was low in environment control
houses (Rs.35 per kg) than in conventional open houses (Rs.40 per kg). The main beneficiaries
of broiler chain are commission agents and large scale producers. In high supply situation, prices
prevail at low levels and vice-versa. Such a situation creates uncertainty in the market and as a
result farmers face difficulty in planning their businesses. It was suggested that conventional
open houses be converted into environmental control houses for better production and less risk
involvement. In order to stabilize and maintain quality prices, poultry coordination boards should
be established at federal as well as provincial levels. Breeding farms should be developed in
public sector and good quality feed at controlled prices should be made available. Public sector
should also initiate regular training programs/ workshops for poultry farmers. Value chain
analysis in crop produce, horticultural produce and processed agricultural products are also
required for achieving higher productivity and competitiveness goals through suggesting cost
effective alternatives for domestic and export markets.
2. Vertical Coordination towards Horticultural Value Chain in Punjab Pakistan:
Implications for Smallholders and Agribusiness
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of vertical coordination on transaction costs
and farm profitability of smallholders in horticulture sub-sector; to identify forms of integration
that could sustainably improve wellbeing of small farmers in horticultural value chains and to
determine the policy implications for smallholders, agribusiness, public policy and investment
priorities. The project focuses on value chain analysis of mango, citrus and tomato. Value chain
analysis revealed that limited availability and access to quality seed/seedlings, expensive and
poor quality inputs (fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides), inefficient irrigation application, low
level of mechanization and high credit cost are major production constraints of these crops.
Moreover, small sizes of horticultural farms impose socioeconomic and technical production
restrictions the production, which result into low productivity and profitability for the growers.
Inadequate backward and forward linkages of the farmers, poor market mechanisms, traditional
marketing methods, exploitation of the market situation by the middlemen are major constraints
103
hindering market access to the growers. Thus, they have to contract out their orchards and are
deprived of the benefits resulting from seasonal price variations, particularly in early and late
seasons. Postharvest handling issues include unskillful fruit handling, lack of cool chains, costly
packaging, absence of processing facilities at the farm level and lack of market road
infrastructure. The government has a major role in setting quality standards for farm inputs and
formulation of policies for creation of a pro-business environment. Based on the findings of the
study, network structure (horizontal and vertical market channel relationships); value added (key
competitive aim of any business chain) and governance (covering organizational arrangements
between value chain actors) are proposed as key elements for a balanced analysis of horticultural
value chains in future. Reorientation of subsistence horticulture to sustainable commercial
farming, establishment of rural business hubs for input provision as a first segment for chain
development, establishment of model on farm packing houses, encouragement of private sector
investment as well as public and private partnership, and capacity building of chain stakeholders
of the horticulture sub-sector etc. are proposed as possible strategies for the improvement of
horticultural value chains in the study area.
3. Assessment of Harvest and Post Harvest Losses of Selected Fruits in Pakistan
Approved cost of the project was Rs.6.544 million. Financial releases of Rs.1.017 million were
made and same amount was expended for the execution of project activities. Harvest and post
harvest losses were estimated around 28.0 and 26.3 percent in citrus and mango. The worth of
theses losses was Rs.991 per ton in citrus and Rs.9369 per ton in mango. Main reasons of losses
in citrus are improper picking/dropping of fruit on the ground, and pressing of fruit to overfilling
or use of little filing material. The cuts and bruises at fruit took place due to use of improper
techniques from harvesting to wholesaling. Due to which fruit get rotten and fungus infested at
retail level. In case of mango, the major cause of loss was injuries at different stages of fruit
handling from harvesting to wholesale levels. Reasons of injuries were improper fruit picking
methods and over packing of fruits in crates. Second major factor was bruises and cuts due to
improper and careless harvesting of fruits. In fresh dates (Khajoor) and dried dates (Chohara)
harvest and post harvest losses were reported at 26.2 and 35.9 percent, respectively. Worth of
these losses was Rs. 20716 and Rs. 8583 per ton in case of fresh and dried dates, respectively.
Major reason of post harvest losses in dates were drop of fruits on the ground during picking.
Grading, packing, transport and retail level sale were reported as critical stages of post harvest
losses.
To minimize post harvest losses in selected fruits, efforts are required for up-scaling the capacity
of growers and contractors and labor involved in fruit picking and packing through imparting
skills. Efforts are also required to educate and train businessmen and labor at various levels of
post harvest management. Experts from engineering, biological sciences (commodity experts),
food technology, social sciences and agricultural extensions disciplines should world in a
coordinated manner for development of cheap, technically, economically and socially acceptable
post-harvest technologies. Moreover, special emphasis should be given on improved fruit storage
and handling systems along with up-scaling the capacity of processing units.
104
4. On-farm research and Development for Improved Drying, Grading, Packaging,
Branding and Marketing of the Dates in District Khairpur
Approved cost of the project was Rs.0.858 million. Financial releases of Rs. 0.654
million were made to the PI of the project and expenditure of Rs. 0.661 million were
incurred on the project.
C.
I.
II.
D.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
Vertical coordination in fisheries sector in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan
Growth of poultry sector and emergence of vertical links with farmers, private sector and
multinationals
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 1:
Theme 2:
A.
I.
II.
50 %
Agricultural Growth and Poverty
Research Plan
Research strategies for Agricultural growth and poverty reduction
Agricultural productivity and rural poverty nexus
III.
Role of infrastructure, education and health in agricultural productivity and poverty
reduction
IV.
Role of livestock sector in poverty alleviation
V.
Impact of social capital on poverty reduction
B.
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
I.
Research strategies for agricultural growth and poverty reduction
Approved cost of the project was Rs. 4.950 million. Financial release of Rs.0.854 was
made to the PI of the project and expenditures of Rs.0.773 were made; however, project
was not completed.
C.
I.
II.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
Agricultural productivity and rural poverty nexus
III.
Role of infrastructure, education and health in agricultural productivity and poverty
reduction
Role of livestock sector in poverty alleviation
IV.
Impact of social capital on poverty reduction
D.
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 2:
105
10 %
Theme 3:
A.
Research Plan
I.
Determinants of spatial agricultural production diversification, diversification potentials
and costs associated in major cropping and agro-ecological zones of Pakistan
Determinants of consumption diversity, disease incidence and labor productivity in
farming and non-farm households in rural environment of Pakistan
Role of urbanization in production stimulating agricultural diversification in peri-urban
areas
Determinants of consumption diversity, disease incidence and wage earnings in major
urban centers of Pakistan
Economic analysis of policies and measures for promoting production and consumption
diversification in Pakistan
II.
III.
IV.
V.
B.
Agricultural Diversification
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
 Determinants of consumption diversity, disease incidence and labor productivity in
farming and non-farm households in rural environment of Pakistan
I.
C.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
D.
Research Projects Approved “An Analysis of Food Consumption Diversification in
Pakistan”
Approved cost of the project was Rs.0.762 million. Financial releases of Rs.0.297
million were made and expenditures of Rs.0.281 million were incurred on the project
activities.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
Determination of spatial agricultural production diversification, diversification potentials
and costs associated in major cropping and agro-ecological zones of Pakistan
Role of urbanization in production stimulating agricultural diversification in peri-urban
areas
Determination of consumption diversity, disease incidence and wage earnings in major
urban centers of Pakistan
Economic analysis of policies and measures for promoting production and consumption
diversification in Pakistan
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 3:
10 %
Theme 4:
Agricultural Policy Analysis
A.
Research Plan
I.
II.
Demand and supply projection for food grains (i.e. wheat, rice, maize) sugarcane and
cotton at national and regional level
Demand and supply projections for livestock and livestock products (i.e. milk, meat) at
national and regional level
106
III.
IV.
V.
B.
Impact of pricing, credit, subsidies and agricultural tax policies on sustainability, growth
and poverty alleviation
Water governance, pricing and valuation of agricultural productivity
Political economy of sugar production in Pakistan
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
I.
II.
Political economy of sugar production in Pakistan
Demand and supply projections for livestock and livestock products (i.e. milk, meat) at
national and regional level
Salient Findings of Research Projects Covered under Theme 4:
1. Political Economy of Sugar Production in Pakistan
Approved cost of the project was Rs.4.086 million. Financial releases of about Rs.1.558
million were made to the PI of the project and expenditures of Rs.1.474 were made to
execute the project.
C.
I.
2. Demand and Supply Estimations and Projections for Meat in Pakistan (Ongoing)
Approved cost of the project is Rs.0.940 million.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
III.
Demand and supply projection for food grains (i.e. wheat, rice, maize) sugarcane and
cotton at national and regional level
Impact of pricing, credit, subsidies and agricultural tax policies on sustainability, growth
and poverty alleviation
Water governance, pricing and valuation of agricultural productivity
D.
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 4:
II.
Theme 5:
A.
I.
II.
25 %
Globalization, Trade and Marketing
Research Plan
III.
IV.
V.
Impact of globalization and trade liberalization on domestic food production
Market structure and institutional arrangement to analyze market access for export
commodities
Impact and Implication of globalization and WTO intervention on agriculture
Impact of trade liberalization on the livelihoods of the poor and gender disparities
Impact of import liberalization on Pakistan
B.
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
------ Nil -----107
C.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Impact of globalization and trade liberalization on domestic food production
Market structure and institutional arrangement to analyze market access for export
commodities
Impact and Implication of globalization and WTO intervention on agriculture
Impact of trade liberalization on the livelihoods of the poor and gender disparities
Impact of import liberalization on Pakistan
D.
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 1:
Theme 6:
A.
0%
Technology Transfer and Impact Assessment
Research Plan
I.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
Analyzing the governance structure of agriculture extension and reforming the system in
Pakistan
Evaluating the existing extension approaches and methods used by public, private, NGOs
and community based organizations
Analyzing the political dimension of agriculture extension reforms in Pakistan
Analyzing and reforming the livestock extension and advisory services in Pakistan.
Adoption, impact, and economic analysis of transgenic/BT cotton in Pakistan
Property rights of land and water in Pakistan: Issues and options
Transfer of promising technologies to the selected communities in Pakistan
B.
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
II.



Transfer of promising technologies to the selected communities in Pakistan.
Adoption, impact and economic analysis of transgenic/Bt cotton in Pakistan.
Analyzing the governance structure of agriculture extension and reforming the system in
Pakistan.
Salient Findings of Research Projects Covered under Theme 6
1. Phulkari as Empowerment of Women and Girls in Pakistan
The project on “Phulkari as Empowerment of Women and Girls in Pakistan” falls under
“Technology Transfer and Impact Assessment” theme of SSD-RADP. The project partially
achieved its objectives, as it was closed before stipulated time. Approved cost of the project
was Rs. 12.985 million, out of which Rs. 2.610 million was released and Rs. 2.328 was spent
to achieve the objectives of the project. Under this project, a baseline survey was conducted
and social mobilization through meetings of rural community was initiated. Moreover, more
than one hundred poor women were engaged in various productive activities to increase their
potential income. Closure of “Phulkari as Empowerment of Women and Girls in Pakistan”
project resulted into partially accomplishment of its objectives. Thus, way forward is
initiation of new project on same lines or revival of the old one for the larger benefit of poor
and marginalized rural women folk.
108
2. An Analysis of Adoption and Impact of Cultivation of new Cotton Varieties in Pakistan
Approved cost of the project was Rs.1.360 million. Financial releases of Rs.0.880 and
expenditures of Rs.0.878 were made to execute the project. In the crop year 2008-09, about
half of the cotton area (47.5 percent) was planted under Bt-cotton varieties, which increased
to 63.0 percent in 2009-10. Among transgenic varieties Bt-121 and among traditional
varieties NIAB-78 was dominant one. Largest acreage under transgenic cotton varieties was
in Punjab (81.2 percent), followed by in Sindh (55.0 percent) and Balochistan (35.8 percent).
Mostly conventional varieties of NIAB-78 and CIM varieties (49, 442, 473, 506 and 534)
were replaced by transgenic ones. Mean yield of transgenic varieties was higher (64 mounds
per ha) than conventional (47 mounds per ha) and fake Bt-cotton varieties. Similarly, net
returns per hectare were also highest in case of transgenic varieties (Rs.69047 per ha),
followed by from conventional (Rs. 45008 per ha) and fake cotton varieties (Rs.29905 per
ha). Land, labour and fertilizer costs are significant factors of cotton production in the
country. Production of Bt-cotton highly depends on agro-climatic conditions, genotype of the
variety and crop management practices. There is a need to conduct research on these issues.
3. Farmers Training and Facilitation Centre for Technology Transfer
Approved cost of the project was Rs.1.914 million; while, total releases of Rs.0.603 million
were made and approximate expenditures of Rs.0.598 were made to execute the project.
4. Analyzing and Reforming Farm Advisory Services in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP)
Approved cost of the project was Rs. 0.660 million. While, expenditures of Rs.0.527 million
were made to execute the project.
5. Strengthening/ Up Scaling of Audio Visual Communication (Ongoing)
Approved cost of the project is Rs.5.790 million. So far, financial releases of Rs.2.298
million have been made to the PI of the project.
C.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Analyzing the political dimension of agriculture extension reforms in Pakistan
Evaluating the existing extension approaches and methods used by public, private, NGOs
and community based organizations
Analyzing and reforming the livestock extension and advisory services in Pakistan
Property rights of land and water in Pakistan: Issues and Options
D.
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 6:
30 %
Theme 7:
Knowledge Management and Sharing
A.
Research Plan
I.
II.
Seminars/lectures on analytical techniques in agricultural economics
Computerization and management of secondary data
109
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
B.
Computerization and management of full text research reports
Computerization and management of full text research articles
Management of ‘Tacit’ knowledge
Workshops, seminars and conferences on the issues related to agriculture and its
linkages to the other sectors of the economy
Research Accomplishments (Areas Covered Partly/Completely)
I.
II.
Seminars/lectures on analytical techniques in agricultural economics
Management of ‘Tacit’ knowledge
Salient Findings of Research Projects Covered under Theme 7
1. Scientists Capacity Building through Training Phase I
The project “Scientists Capacity Building through Training” comes under RADP theme
“Knowledge Management and Sharing”. Approved cost of the project was Rs.1.129 million;
while, Rs.0.933 were released and expenditures of Rs.0.909 were incurred. Under this project
data analysis training were imparted to 68 scientists (48 social and 20 biological). They were
trained about use of statistical procedures, application of econometric methods, use of
agricultural production economics tools, international trade theory/ analysis along with hands
on statistical soft-wares viz. STATISTICA, SPSS and E-VIEWS. Training manual and CDs
comprising lecture notes/ materials were also distributed to the participants of the courses.
Based on successful completion of the pilot project at federal level, there is great demand for
the agricultural scientists’ capacity building in statistical and econometric tools at provincial
level.
2. Scientists Capacity Building through Training Phase II (Ongoing)
Approved cost of the project is Rs.1.509 million. The project is being executed for
strengthening analytical capacity of provincial research scientists.
3. Skill Development/Capacity Building of the farmers of Balochistan (Ongoing)
Approved cost of the project is Rs.3.996 million.
4. National University of Agricultural Sciences
Approved cost of the project was Rs.34.688 million. Financial releases of Rs.14.600
million were made and same amount was spent up to 30th June, 2011. The project is still
on going with approved cost of Rs.14.190 million.
C.
I.
Research Gaps/Uncovered Research Areas
Computerization and management of secondary data
II.
Computerization and management of full text research reports
III.
IV.
Computerization and management of full text research articles
Management of ‘Tacit’ knowledge
110
V.
Workshops, seminars and conferences on the issues related to agriculture and its linkages
to the other sectors of the economy
D.
Approximate Coverage of Research Areas under Theme 7:
III.
Un-Accomplished Agenda/Plan of SSD - RADP
30 %
Out of total budget of Rs. 383 million allocated for research activities related to social sciences
discipline, sub-projects of total costs of Rs. 104.874 million were approved by the PEC of
RADP, PARC against which so far Rs. 29.827 million were released to PIs of sub-projects and
expenditures of Rs. 29.312 million were incurred. However, budget allocated for capital items
Rs. 68.01 million has been spent all on purchase of office equipments and completion of civil
work under SSD. Therefore, total expenditures made under SSD were Rs. 97.322 which is 25.4
percent of the total budget allocated for SSD component and unspent amount of approximately
Rs. 259.253 million will be available after deduction on-going sub-projects costs of Rs. 26.425.
Similarly, objectives of research activities were partially achieved under different SSD research
themes. However, not a single research activity is undertaken under Research Theme 5
“Globalization, Trade and Marketing”. Research activities related to other research themes are
also not achieved more than 20 percent. Therefore, un-finished research work under SSD is more
than 80 percent of the research plan in PC-I. Theme-wise un-finished agenda/future research
activities of SSD under RADP are given below for accomplishment during the project extension
period:
Theme 1:
Agricultural Production and Value Chain
Vertical coordination in fisheries sector in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan
Analyzing the vertical integration in horticulture sector of Pakistan
Growth of poultry sector and emergence of vertical links with farmers, private sector and
multinationals
Theme 2:
Agricultural Growth and Poverty
Research strategies for Agricultural growth and poverty reduction
Agricultural productivity and rural poverty nexus
Role of infrastructure, education and health in agricultural productivity and poverty
reduction
Role of livestock sector in poverty alleviation
Impact of social capital on poverty reduction
Theme 3:
Agricultural Diversification
111
Determinants of spatial agricultural production diversification, diversification potentials
and costs associated in major cropping and agro-ecological zones of Pakistan
Determinants of consumption diversity, disease incidence and labor productivity in
farming and non-farm households in rural environment of Pakistan
Role of urbanization in production stimulating agricultural diversification in peri-urban
areas
Determinants of consumption diversity, disease incidence and wage earnings in major
urban centers of Pakistan
Economic analysis of policies and measures for promoting production and consumption
diversification in Pakistan
Theme 4:
Agricultural Policy Analysis
Demand and supply projection for food grains (i.e. wheat, rice, maize) sugarcane and
cotton at national and regional level
Demand and supply projections for livestock and livestock products (i.e. milk, meat) at
national and regional level
Impact of pricing, credit, subsidies and agricultural tax policies on sustainability, growth
and poverty alleviation
Water governance, pricing and valuation of agricultural productivity
Theme 5:
Globalization, Trade and Marketing
Impact of globalization and trade liberalization on domestic food production
Market structure and institutional arrangement to analyze market access for export
commodities
Impact and Implication of globalization and WTO intervention on agriculture
Impact of trade liberalization on the livelihoods of the poor and gender disparities
Impact of import liberalization on Pakistan
Theme 6:
Technology Transfer and Impact Assessment
Analyzing the governance structure of agriculture extension and reforming the system in
Pakistan
Evaluating the existing extension approaches and methods used by public, private, NGOs
and community based organizations
Analyzing the political dimension of agriculture extension reforms in Pakistan
Analyzing and reforming the livestock extension and advisory services in Pakistan.
Property rights of land and water in Pakistan: Issues and options
Transfer of promising technologies to the selected communities in Pakistan
Theme 7:
Knowledge Management and Sharing
Seminars/lectures on analytical techniques in agricultural economics
112
Computerization and management of secondary data
Computerization and management of full text research reports
Computerization and management of full text research articles
Management of ‘Tacit’ knowledge
Workshops, seminars and conferences on the issues related to agriculture and its linkages
to the other sectors of the economy
113
Theme: Technology Transfer and Impact Assessment
Project/Activity: Impact Assessment of farmers field school based on IPM approach in different
production zones of Pakistan, Mr. M. Zubair Anwar, SSO, SSI, NARC
Start date: 01-10-2011
Completion date: 30-09-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 1.241 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.915 million
Objectives:
 To analyze the effectiveness of FFS approach in terms of change in knowledge, skills and production
practices across different production systems.
 To evaluate impacts of social, economic and environmental aspects of the participating vs nonparticipating communities.
 To develop empirical basis for recommending policy interventions, institutional changes and up
scaling of validated FFS-based production packages.
Outputs/Progress:
 During the 1st quarter (July – Sept, 2012) funds were not provided therefore to some extent the
activities planned for this period was delayed. Presently, data related to Sindh province is in
analysis stage and hopefully it will be completed in the month of October, 2012.
 Questionnaire designed
 Data Collected from Sindh (148 farmers interviewed) from Sukhur and Khairpur Districts
 Data Collected from Punjab(224 farmers interviewed) from Bahawalpur and Vehari Districts
 Data was edited and entered in SPSS Software
 Data analysis and tabulation is in progress
 Partially report writing is also in Progress
114
Theme: Knowledge Management and Sharing
Project/Activity: Scientist’s Capacity Building through Training – Phase-II, M. Asif Masood
Ghumman, SSO/ SSI, NARC
Start date: 01-03-2012
Completion date: 28-02-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 1.772 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.490 million
Objectives:
 To enhance the understanding and analysis skills of agricultural researchers about statistical methods,
experimental designs, statistical and economic analysis of experimental data.
 To impart training in statistical software (MINITAB, STATISTIX, SPSS, MSEXCEL) and
interpretation of computer outputs generated by using such software for performing statistical as well
as economic analysis in agricultural research.
Outputs/Progress:
Under this project, seven training courses were approved on “Statistical and Economic analysis of
experimental data using statistical software” for provincial agricultural researchers/NARC researcher.
Out of seven four training courses were organized covering the following course contents/topics listed
below:
 Introduction of statistical softwares
 Exploratory data analysis (EDA), (Partial Budget analysis, Marginal analysis sensitivity analysis)
 Statistical analysis of single factor experiments
 Statistical analysis of factorial experiments
 Economic analysis of experimental data
 Stability analysis
 Creation of Reports
Duration of each course was one-week. Target audiences were drawn from the National Agricultural
Research System (NARS) and NARC/PARC. Professionals/Experienced resource persons were invited
from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF), University of Agriculture Khyber Pakhton Khwa
Peshawar, Sindh Agriculture, University, Tando Jam, SSRI, NARC , Tarnab, Peshawar, and AJK.
Summary of Four Training Courses
Courses title
Venue
Duration &
Date
Partic
ipants
Statistical and Economic analysis of
experimental data using statistical software
ARI, Tarnab,
Peshawar
May 21-26,
2012
22
Statistical and Economic analysis of
experimental data using statistical software
Agri, Complex
Muzaffarabad,
AJK
Dec. 17-21,
2012
15
Statistical and Economic analysis of
experimental data using statistical software
ARI, Tando Jam
Sindh
March 11-16,
2013
20
Statistical and Economic analysis of
experimental data using statistical software
PIASA, NARC,
Islamabad
April 22-27,
2013
19
Total Participants = 76
115
Overall, 76 agricultural researchers benefited from first 4 courses and around 60 more a respected to be
benefited in terms of in terms of updating their knowledge and analytical skills, use of statistical
procedures, statistical Lay-outs, designs and statistical as well as economic analysis along with practical
training for performing statistical and economic analysis using statistical softwares like MINITAB,
STATISTIX, SPSS and MSEXCEL.
The researchers were also given practical training on developing scientific recommendations through
economic analysis of experimental data considering price and yield variability risks along with potential
returns to farmers. CDs comprising lectures notes/materials were also distributed to the course recipients.
After these courses, the participants shall be expected to contribute in improving the quality of research
being carried in their respective fields by using the analytical tools learned during these courses.
116
Theme: Knowledge Management and Sharing
Project/Activity: PARC institute of advanced studies in agriculture (PIASA), HRM, Dr. Tariq
Hassan, P.I/Registrar, (PIASA)
Start date: 01-07-2012
Completion date: 30-06-2014
Total Cost: Rs. 14.190 million
Expenditure: Rs. 0.097 million
Objectives:
 To produce quality research scholars in the emerging field of Agriculture through M.Phil and
Ph.D degree programs
 Pursue PARC research agenda through degree research programs
 Through Diploma/Certificate in Agricultural Journalism, equip the journalist/media community
with rich back ground knowledge on diversified issues of Agriculture;
 Capacity building of the faculty, specially in pedagogy:
 Arrange capacity building training courses for PARC/NARC Scientists
Outputs/Progress:
 196 Students enrolled , 648 lectures delivered, mid/ final examination for (PGB, AGB, PEP, AE
& NRM) and submission of award lists and transcript
 For thesis/synopsis evaluation and to manage allied academic issued with shared wisdom (8
meetings of Board of Studies were held)
 Satisfactory progress has been made in achieving the objectives of the project as 161 Students
remained enrolled for M.Phil and Ph.D programs, 35 M.Phil students successfully completed
their degree program. The detail of enrollment/degrees awarded is as under:
Degree / Courses
Total
Students
2012-13
Degree
Awarded
Present
Studying
PGB
Ph.D.
17
-
17
M.Phil
17
14
03
Ph.D.
04
-
04
M.Phil
17
04
13
Ph.D.
02
-
02
M.Phil
01
01
-
Ph.D.
06
-
06
M.Phil
44
-
44
Ph.D.
26
-
26
M.Phil
22
06
16
SES
(NRM)
Ph.D.
06
-
06
M.Phil
06
01
05
BRS
(NRM)
Ph.D.
01
-
01
M.Phil
05
02
03
AGB
ILP
AE
PEP
117
WRM
(NRM)
Ph.D.
06
-
06
M.Phil
10
03
07
EMA
(NRM)
Ph.D.
02
-
02
M.Phil
04
04
-
196
35
161
Total

Besides that academic linkages has been developed with following Institutions
 International Islamic University
 Pir Mehar Ali Shah Arid Agricultural University
 Quaid-e-Azam University
 Allama Iqbal Open University
 The University of Agriculture Peshawar
 Agricultural University, Tandojam
As PIASA capacity building institute the following training workshops have been conducted for PARC
employees at PARC/NARC and outstations:
i
ii
iii
Topic
No. of Events
No.
of
beneficiaries
Training workshop for P.Is in PARC Financial Management System
NARC
SARC, Karachi
Training Workshop on official management
at NARC
2
1
1
118
45
25
25
Theme: Knowledge Management and Sharing
Project/Activity: Skill Development/ Capacity Building of the Farmers of Balochistan, Dr.
Muhammad Aslam, Director, API, NARC
Start date: 01-11-2012
Completion date: 31-10-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 3.996 million
Expenditure: Rs. 2.66 million
Objectives:
 To train farmers in different agriculture techniques.
 To create awareness among farming community to improve agriculture technologies.
Outputs/Progress:
1. Eighty-nine farmers and 15 Extension Officers of the following five districts of flood affected
areas of Balochistan were trained under this project:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Qila Saif Ullah
Kachi/Bolan
Jaffar Abad
Jhal Magsi
NasirAbad
2. The above farmers and extension officers were trained in following five training courses:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Artificial Insemination
Large/Small Ruminants & Poultry Production
Fruit and Vegetable Production
Water Harvesting and Conservation
Farm Mechanization
Balochistan had suffered six major disasters during last eleven years including drought, heavy
rains and floods. The destruction due to these disasters was not over yet. Nonetheless, a huge number of
flood-affected people still depend on assistance from the humanitarian community to meet their basic
needs. A big threat looms in way of development in agriculture sector and the government is trying hard
to rebuild this sector. Training and education is considered the direct way to improve productivity in
agriculture, food production and the most effective means to reduce poverty and encouraging sustainable
development. It also ensures that information on new technologies, plant varieties and cultural practices
reaches farmers and those who need them most as farming is a unique skill unlike others. It does not
depend purely on the amount of money you have but it is a skill of time, patience and a bit of strategic
thinking.
Keeping in view the importance of the training, API started a RADP Sub-project entitled “Skill
Development / Capacity Building of the farmers of Balochistan” to educate the people of the flood
affected areas of Balochistan. Therefore, farmers of the flood affected areas were educated in different
agricultural fields to boost up sustainable agriculture in Balochistan. Hopefully, the training and education
conducted under this project will go a long way for developing agriculture base in Balochistan.
119
Theme: Agriculture Policy Analysis
Project/Activity: Demand and Supply Estimates and Projections for Meat in Pakistan, Dr. Khalid
Mahmood Aujla, PSO/Director, Directorate of Agricultural Sciences, SSD, PARC
Start date: 01-10-2012
Completion date: 30-09-2013
Total Cost: Rs. 0.940 million
Expenditure: 0.700
Objectives:
• To study the effect of prices, income and other variable on the demand and supply of red and
white meat.
• To make projections for demand and supply of red and white meat towards 2020 and 2030 under
different scenarios and
• To examine the prospect of attaining different growth rates in output of red and white meat to
meet the growing domestic demand and suggest policy measures to attain a different set of output
growths.
Outputs/Progress:
First Quarter (Oct-Dec 2012)
 Literature was reviewed for designing draft questionnaire for formal field survey.
 Drafted field survey questionnaire, circulated for comments; and final version of the
questionnaire was prepared after incorporation of the technical division’s comments.
Second Quarter (Jan-Mar 2013)
 Field survey of Islamabad/Rawalpindi location was carried out after pre-testing questionnaire in
the surveyed area. 104 respondents were interviewed from rural and urban areas of
Islamabad/Rawalpindi districts.
 The data file of first surveyed location (Islamabad/Rawalpindi) was prepared after entering of the
data of rural and urban areas in the computer for analysis.
 Household income & expenditure survey (HIES) data for the year 2010-11 was collected from
Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan.
 National level published / secondary data on certain aspects of supply and demand of meat was
collected for the last thirty years.
Third Quarter (Apr-Jun 2013)
 Data of the first surveyed location (Islamabad/Rawalpindi) was analyzed: Preliminary results of
data analysis revealed that per capita consumption (per annum) of chicken meat, beef & buffalo
meat, fish meat and mutton & goat meat were 19.0, 5.5, 1.8 and 0.7 kg. Consumption of all types
of meat was lower in rural areas than urban areas, except beef & buffalo meat. Per capita
consumption (per annum) of beef & buffalo meat was 6.6 and 4.5 kg in rural and urban areas of
the districts, respectively.
 HIES data for the year 2010-11 of the all project locations viz. Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore
and Faisalabad was converted into desired format for statistical analysis: The share of monthly
household expenditures on meat consumption was 3.8 percent. Results of the pooled data
revealed that per capita consumption (per annum) of chicken meat, beef & buffalo meat, fish
meat and mutton & goat meat were 5.3, 2.3, 0.3 and 1.3 kg in the selected districts.
 Field survey of the 2nd project location (Lahore) was conducted and 103 respondents were
interviewed from rural and urban areas of Lahore district.
After survey of all project sites, this project aims at estimating the supply response functions for beef,
mutton, and poultry meat. Then these estimates in combination with the estimates of demand parameters
will be used to project both the supply of and the demand for these products. We consider a polynomial
distributed lag model to determine the lagged response of the livestock food producers to changes in their
prices. It is generally believed that in the agricultural sector, in response to a given change in the price
120
level, the production first increases over time and then declines. This polynomial distributed lag model
allows a great degree of flexibility to detect this type of phenomenon.
121
Theme: Knowledge Management and Sharing
Project/Activity: Strengthening / Up-Scaling of Audio Visual Communication Facilities at NARC,
Ms. Qurat ul Ain, Director
Start date: 01-07-2012
Total Cost: Rs. 5.790 million
Objectives:
Completion date: 30-06-2014
Expenditure: Rs. 0.700 million
To support and supplement the PARC ongoing efforts for knowledge management, skills development
and dissemination of research based, tested, reliable and useful information and advisory services to
farming communities and all other stake holders to improve productivity and production of agricultural
commodities through knowledge management software tolls and communication technologies:
The target is to:
•
To strengthen the existing audio-video library and develop an archive and research & reference
knowledge repository for students and researchers & upgrade the existing recording and
production facilities at AVC.
• To support creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information.
• To create awareness and educate farmers to market their products.
• To document and support PARC research endeavors to improve productivity of agriculture
commodities to induce confidence and promote the creative thinking among the stakeholders.
• To enhance presentation skills of research scientists for increased exposure on mass media.
Outputs/Progress:
To strengthen and upgrade the existing production facilities at Directorate of Audio Visual
Communications, it is worth mentioning that the state of the art AV equipment has been procured. The
production work of documentaries/ TV programs containing significant and research based information is
in progress.
MoUs with Such TV and Rohi TV has been signed for collaboration and co-production of
programs for the dissemination of information and Agricultural practices in Pakistan. About 100
informational Agricultural TV programs have been on aired through different TV channels and weekly
four programs are going On-Air regularly which are creating awareness to farmers as well as scientists
who are enhancing their communication and presentation skills by increased exposure on mass media.
More than one hundred scientists have availed the opportunity to present their work on media.
AVC studio and NLE systems has been made functional and 3 weekly TV programs are being
recorded at AVC studio and going on air from Such TV and Rohi TV.
Way forward:


Preparations of Video documentaries/ TV programs with research information
Capacity building program of AVC team to get better out put
122
CIVIL WORK
Civil Works is another important component of this project. A number of construction and maintenance
activities have been identified in the PC-I for rehabilitation of infrastructure, uplift of research facilities
and addition of new structures at NARC and outstations to support research activities. Similarly provision
was made to replace outdated equipment like more than two decade old exchange and elevators at NARC
and PARC. The new data and voice communication system has greatly facilitated NARC research
establishments and offices spread over 1400 acres of NARC as well as PARC and NARC by
interconnectivity.
Following allocations were initially made for this purpose:




Repair & Maintenance of Office Buildings
Repair & Maintenance of Residential Buildings
Construction of Buildings
Construction of Glass Houses
Total
Rs. 57.32 million
Rs. 10.00 million
Rs. 185.51 million
Rs. 21.00 million
Rs. 273.83 million
Another Rs. 20.00 million were re-appropriated from “Delegation Abroad” budget head 62-65 to budget
head 62-40 (5.00 million), 63-22 (10.00 million) and 63-29 (5.00 million) in 3rd PSC meeting under
Agenda Item No.6, para-23.
Allocations of Rs. 30 million existed in the PC-I for Data and Voice communication system at PARC and
NARC and Rs. 15 million for replacement of elevators at PARC HQ building.
The project was conceived in year 2006 with very low preliminary costs estimates taken in PC-I which no
longer was workable at execution stage especially for good quality scientific structures like laboratories
etc. The inflation during past 7 years remained in double digits despite which significant achievement has
been made in the Civil Works component of the project. Some of the major activities are as mentioned
below:
Sr.
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Name of Work
Construction of Buffalo Sheds at
LRS, NARC.
Construction of 10 type F.
Residences for staff at NARC.
Construction of Boundary Wall &
Guard Rooms around NARC.
Construction of Social Sciences
Institute Building at NARC.
Construction of Deer enclosures,
Birds Aviary and ancillary buildings
at LRS for Captive breeding
Installation of Five Tube Wells at
NARC
PC-I Cost
(Million Rs)
4.19
Completion Cost
(Million Rs)
5.76
Completed; Jan 2009
7.28
6.08
Completed; May 2009
25.45
26.05
Completed; May 2009
22.01
36.25
Completed; June 2011
4.10
3rd PSC
4.52
Completed; June 2010
13.00
11.53
Completed; Feb 2010
123
Status
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Construction
of
Laboratory
Building at MARC, Juglote, Gilgit.

Construction of
Containment Facility Glass
House
 Construction of Insectary
Building & Glass House
 Funds diverted to ICARDA
Remodeling and rehabilitation of
Old Coordinator’s block into Girls
Hostel at NARC.
Repair, Maintenance &
Improvement of Farm Roads,
Improvement and re-lining of the
existing irrigation channel and
strengthening of shoulder of
adjacent road at NARC.
Rehabilitation of CSI Building at
NARC.
Rehabilitation of NSCRI buildings,
Makkly, Thatha
Replacement of 25 years old HVAC
System of NARC Auditorium.
Repair and maintenance of
Herbarium building
Providing and installation of two
EPABX’s at PARC & NARC with
data and voice cabling networking.
Replacement of 25 years old
elevators at PARC HQ
Construction of Community Centre
& Cafeteria at NARC.
Construction
of
Laboratory
Building at LRS, NARC
2.15
2.70
Completed; June 2011
23.67
7.87
Completed; April 2009
8.78
Completed; May 2010
7.02
21.89
Completed; April 2010
17.46
2nd PSC
42.95
39.81
Subjudice
3.00
3.13
Work suspended since
July 2009.
Contractor not letting it
become rule of court
and dragged PARC in
prolonged litigation.
Completed; Dec 2008
10.19
3rd PSC
3.2
5th PSC
3.00
5th PSC
30.00
10.50
Completed; April 2013
3.2
Completed; June 2013
1.57
Completed; July 2012
36.35
Completed; April 2009
15.00
6.93
Completed; Jan 2009
25.19
Tendered Cost
47.67
Tendered Cost
16.724
Arbitral Award was
in favour of PARC
7.79
In progress
In Progress
Most of the Civil Works envisaged in the project have either been successfully completed and in effective
utilization or in progress except construction of eight officers residences at NARC and constriction of
boundary wall around CARS Farm, Landhi Karachi to protect it from land grabbing mafia. The amount
allocated in PC-I for construction of 8 Officer’s residences is Rs. 19.78 million which is far too
inadequate compared with the engineer’s cost estimate of Rs. 45.5 million prepared in 2009. The matter
was discussed in 3rd PSC meeting and go ahead was given. However the work could not be initiated due
to insufficient fund allocations. Similarly the tenders for construction of boundary wall around CARS
Farm were invited and work awarded subsequent to the approval granted by the PSC in its 2 nd meeting
held on 03-03-2009. The boundary wall however couldn’t be constructed due to interference of
neighboring population who did not let the work proceed. The present estimated cost to construct the wall
is Rs. 9.41 million which will be taken in hand after approval of the PSC.
124
TRAININGS
The provisions have been made in the RADP for delegations abroad, short term training (foreign/local)
and visits abroad.
Training and Visits
The short term training and HR development component remained behind the schedule because of the
lack of details regarding training areas and duration in the PC-I. This was done to keep the training
component more flexible in order to make it need/activity base and use accordingly. In this regard several
meetings were held with Technical Divisions, and senior management to finalize the areas, duration and
institution of training. In year 2007-08 the priority training areas in all the four sectors and Planning/PIU
were identified and scientists short listed. It is pertinent to point out that only five cases out of 21
submitted to MINFA were cleared. This further delayed the placements and in many cases dates were
passed. MINFA was requested to promptly process the cases for timely availing the facility or give block
approval to be availed with the sanction of Chairman PARC, but there was no positive response.
In year 2008-09 all the areas and scientists identified were scraped by PARC management and new
directions were given on the implementation of this component. As a result the Plant Sciences and
Natural Resources Divisions re-designed their short term foreign training plans which remained under
discussion and approvals/ process for long time and later it was decided by the management that there is
no need for short term training aboard which is expensive and non-productive. Therefore, only direly
needed trainings will be availed on emerging need basis. The remaining un-utilized funds will be diverted
to other components on need basis through PSC approval or / project revision. The PARC management
once again has tried to avail these facilities and recently has constituted a committee to scrutinize and
recommend need based cases for approval.
125
WAY FORWARD
The economic crisis and overall financial constraints has affected every segment of economy and PSDP
funded projects were no exception. There was not only severe cut in allocation of resources but cash
flows and releases remained low and erratic in last four years. Therefore, activities could not sustain as
per work plan. Prices of all commodities and services increased manifold. This led to rescheduling of
activities as well re-prioritization in use of resources. RADP had to face brunt of all these and as a
consequence it had to delay / postpone activities and depart from the original work plan with the approval
of Program Steering Committee (PSC), a built in mechanism for correcting to such external /internal
shocks. The project had to complete in June, 2013. However, a number of activities were delayed due to
non-availability of resources, therefore project extension for another two years was proposed. For this
purpose a case was submitted for the extension of the project in order to cater on-going and new research
and development activities and to achieve targets / objectives of this project. After deliberations the
project was extended for another two years. i.e. upto June, 2015.
The project is facing number of challenges which need special efforts and support from the PARC
management, and Ministry of National Food Security and Research to overcome the issues it is facing in
order to meet project objectives. Some of these are discussed here:
Extension / Re-designing of the project: The extended period of the project will be completing in June,
2015. The current scenario shows that total releases and so expenditure will be about 40% of total capital
cost, thus the output will commensurate with resources. To address the emerging challenges of food
security and self reliance, agriculture research has to play pivotal role to generate new technologies for
higher productivity in crops and livestock sectors. The current budget of PARC is hardly meeting running
expenses of the establishment and research activities will depend upon development funds. At this stage
the best option is to extend the project by June, 2015, and redesign the project for further five years within
the total capital cost and objectives, but with refinement in activities and new research proposals. The
recommendations and agenda proposed by independent evaluators be given priority and should be part of
revised PC-I.
Research activities/projects: PARC scientists have to prepare sound project proposals focusing on the
areas / activities, not covered so far. Technical Division must own the research agenda and put extra
efforts to initiate research on priority areas. International and national collaborative activities are needed.
New procedure of Payment: Assignment Accounts; the research organization must be exempted from
this system. This new mechanism of payment through PARC HQs has made research life very difficult
especially at outstations. Finance Division, PARC must get exemption from assignment A/c and withdraw
the new financial procedures adopted vide letter No. F.1-4/2010-11/Fin, dated 11-03-2011.
Project Staff: Currently, there is shortage of technical manpower in the project. There is no Dy. Project
Director (T) and Dy. Project Director (F); some other positions are also lying vacant which create lot of
troubles for completion of report and activities. Hence, it is requested as project staff may be completed
on priority. It is really very difficult for PD-PIU to handle all project activities without technical support
of Dy. Project Directors.
126
Commercialization / Adoption of project products, technology packages, and research findings: A
number of project outputs have to be translated into products, tech packs and recommendations, as these
are passing through procedures / mechanism of testing, registration multiplication so that these can be
marketed and adopted in order to create impact of project outcomes. Management and Technical
Divisions must take lead and keep on pushing for this to happen.
127
Annexes
128
Annex-I
Program Steering Committee (PSC)
Terms of Reference:
•
Overall supervision of programme implementation;
•
Oversee the annual research plan and review progress;
•
Provide guidance and resolve operational and financial issues occurring during the project
implementation; and
•
Authorize technical revision and re-appropriation of funds within over approval cost and scope of
the project
Composition:

Secretary, Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Chair

Chairman, PARC
Member

Additional Secretary-I, Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Member

Additional Secretary, Finance Division
Member

ADC, Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Member

Technical Members of PARC
Member

Member (Finance), PARC
Member

Director (Planning), PARC
Member

Representative of PCCC
Member

Project Director (M&E), Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Member

Project Director
Secretary
129
Annex-II
Program Executive Committee (PEC):
Terms of Reference:
•
Review and approve research programs/projects
•
Review annual and mid term progress
•
Identify and accommodate new & emerging research areas
•
Identify and approve training needs etc.
Composition:

Chairman, PARC
Chair

Technical Members of PARC
Member

ADC, Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Member

JS (Plan) Ministry of National Food Security and Research
Member

Director (Planning), PARC
Member

Project Director
Member / Secretary
130
Annex-III
Cumulative Expenditure of RADP FY 2006-07 to 2012-13
Cumulative
Sr.
Major Items
No.
expenditure upto
30-06-2013
1
Operational expenses
348.931
2
Lab. Equipment/machinery
258.762
3
Office equipment
59.984
4
Furniture & fixture
11.655
5
Farm Machinery / vehicles
126.502
6
Books
2.345
7
Livestock
11.481
8
Construction of Research Facilities
179.907
(Civil works)
9
Consultancy
31.211
10
Delegation and training abroad / visits
3.721
11
Establishment expenses
36.008
Total
1070.507
131
Annex-IV
RESEARCH THEMES UNDER RADP
S#
CROP SCIENCE
1
7
Genetic improvement of crops through the application of bio-technology and molecular
genetics
Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of emerging and reemerging infections of crops
Diversification of agriculture emphasizing horticulture for improved profitability and
value addition
Integrated pest management models for cotton-wheat, rice-wheat, horticulture systems
and their field implementation, scaling out and scaling up strategies
Fate of Agrochemical Pollutants in food chain and Environment and their Impact on
Human, Animal Health and Environment
Reduce post-harvest losses, and improve product quality through improvement of
equipment, facilities and methods to make them more efficient and less costly
Developing and improving machinery for planting, harvesting, grading and processing
S#
NATURAL RESOURCE
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
Soil Management for Improving Crop Productivity and Environment
Improving water productivity under irrigated and rain-fed production system
Realization of improved rangeland productivity
Apiculture for quality honey production and increased crop productivity
S#
ANIMAL SCIENCES
Genetic Improvement and Enhancing Reproductive Efficiency of Animals
1
Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infections of
Animals
Improving Feed Resources and Technologies
Genetic Improvement and Breeding of Carps, Trout and Catfish
2
3
4
S#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Agricultural Production and Value Chain
Agricultural Growth and Poverty
Agricultural Diversification
Agricultural Policy Analysis
Globalization, Trade and Marketing
Technology Transfer and Impact Assessment
Knowledge Management and Sharing
132
Annex-V
List of On-going Sub-Projects under RADP
S.
No.
Name of P.I. /
Location of Project
Project Title
Total
Cost
Duration
(Rs. Mil)
CROP SCIENCES
Making NARC Campus Rodent Free
through Operational Research
Genetic diversity analysis of brassica
2. oilseeds and adaptability testing of
elite lines at different ecologies
Determination of the severity of HLB
3. and CTV in citrus growing areas of
Punjab & Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
1.
4. Assessment of garlic viruses and
their management
Establishment of Botanical Garden
for cultivation of wild plants of
5. Pakistan to introduce nonconventional crops in cultivation
crops for value addition
Development of sun flower and
6. canola hybrids and canola type
mustard varieties (second phase)
Development of Sorghum Sudan
7. grass hybrids for high forage yield
and quality characters(2nd phase)
Extraction and analysis of essential
8. oils from rose, jasmine and aromatic
herbs
Acquisition and Improvement of
9. Mushroom Production Technology in
Pakistan
Production and Propagation of
10. Quality Deciduous Fruit Plants in
MARC, Gilgit (Component-I)
Production and Propagation of
11. Quality Deciduous Fruit Plants at
Rawal Watershed in Satrameel,
Islamabad (Component-II)
Dr. Shahid Munir,
SSO, IPEP, NARC
Dr. Abdul Ghafoor
(PSO), IABGR, NARC
Dr. Shahid Hameed,
SSO, CDRP, IPEP,
NARC
Mr. Talat Shaheen
Gillani, SSO, CDRP,
NARC
Dr. Rubina Akhtar,
PSO, National
Herbarium, IABGR,
NARC
Dr. Muhammad
Ayub, PSO, Oil
Seed, NARC
Mr. Shafique Zahid,
PSO, Coordinator,
Fodder Program,
NARC
Dr. M. Naeem Ullah,
PSO, IABGR, NARC
Mr. Umer Iqbal,
SSO, CSI, NARC,
Islamabad
Mr. Muhammad Din,
SO, MARC, Juglot,
Gilgit
Mr. M. Saleem
Pomee, SO/PI SWC,
WRRI, NARC
133
1.639
30 months
2.855
24 months
2.847
24 months
2.189
24 months
4.055
24 months
5.675
24 months
1.934
24 months
3.73
24 months
6.056
36 months
5.310
12 months
2.300
12 months
Dr. M. Ashiq
Director, NIB,
NARC
Development and evaluation of
Mr. Hafiz Sultan
turmeric curing and drying
Mahmood, AEBI,
technology
NARC
Strengthening of National Insect
Dr. M. Athar Rafi,
Museum
PSO, NIM, NARC
Investigation of factors causing low
Dr. Tanveer Ahmed,
head rice recovery
PE, ABEI, NARC
Dr. Muslim Abbas
Development and evaluation of
Zaidi, PE, ABEI,
vegetable planter and transplanter
NARC
Evaluation and commercialization of Dr. Muslim Abbas
mango picking and de-sapping
Zaidi, PE, ABEI,
machine
NARC
Mr. Shabir Ahmed
Development and evaluation of a
Kalwar, PE, ABEI,
PTO driven disk plough
NARC
Seed Production and Popularization
Dr. Asghar Ali,
of Lentil Variety, Markaz-2009.
PSO/Coordinator
Pulses, Pulses
Program, CSI,
NARC
Evaluation of Locally Developed
Mr. Mukhtar Ahmed,
Mandarin Hybrids in Potential Citrus PSO, Fruit Crops
Growing Areas (Phase-II).
Research Program,
HRI, NARC
Effect of Leveling Practices on Crop Mr. Babar Raza Qazi,
Productivity in Farmers’ Fields in the DG-AZRC (PARC),
Districts of Punjgoor, Khuzdar and
Western Bypass
Lasbela, Balochistan
Brewery, Quetta,
Balochistan.
Adoption and Commercialization of
Mr. Liaqat Ali
a Small Scale Olive Oil Extraction
Shahid
Unit
Principal Engineer,
ABEI, NARC
Transfer of Rodent Control
Dr. Amjad Pervez,
Technologies through
PSO, VPCI, SARC
Commercialization and Services in
(PARC), Karachi
the Province of Sindh
University Campus,
Karachi.
NATURAL RESOURCES
12. Strengthening of Institute Bio
Remediation., NARC
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24. Establishment of Vermiculture and
Vermi-composting Research Unit at
Ms. Shahida N.
Khokhar, PSO,
134
31.146
36 months
2.800
24 months
3.00
24 months
2.750
24 months
3.00
24 months
3.12
6 months
4.980
24 months
2.215
24 months
0.892
24 months
25.550
36 months
6.800
36 months
2.320
48 months
7.100
12 months
NARC, Islamabad.
Water Productivity Improvement
25. through Deficit Irrigation Scheduling
under Centre Pivot Irrigation System.
Carbon Sequestration and Organic
26. Matter Dynamics under Crop
Residue Management in Rice- Wheat
System.
Plant Nutrition Management for
27. Sustained Crop Production in
Northern Areas of Pakistan
LRRI, NARC
1.773
24 months
2.750
24 months
5.960
36 months
Capacity Development for
Muhammad Yaqoob,
Demonstration and Comparative
SSO, HRI (PARC),
28. Evaluation of Different Irrigation
Bahgbana, Mir,
Systems on the Farmers’ Field in
Chakar Khan Road,
Balochistan
Khuzdar, Balochistan
Rangeland Improvement by ReDr. Sarfraz Ahmad,
vegetation
of
Suitable
Species
and
PSO, Rangeland
29.
Development of Model Pasture at
Research Institute
NARC
(RRI) NARC
SOCIAL SCIENCES
13.460
36 months
1.475
24 months
Impact Assessment for Farmers Field
30. School Based on IPM Approach in
Different Production Zones of
Pakistan.
1.241
24 months
1.772
24 months
21.242
36 months
0.940
24 months
3.996
12 months
31. Scientists' capacity building through
training – phase-II
PARC Institute of Advanced Studies
32. in Agriculture (PIASA)
Strengthening / Up-Scaling of Audio
33. Visual Communication Facilities at
NARC.
Demand and Supply Estimates and
34. Projections for Meat in Pakistan
35.
Skill Development/Capacity
Building of the Farmers of
Balochistan.
Mr. Munir Ahmed,
PSO, WRRI, NARC
Dr. Ghulam
Nabi,PSO, LRRI,
NARC
Mr. Sher Ahmed
SSO, MARC,
Jaglote, Gilgit
Mr. Muhammad
Zubair Anwar, SSO,
SSI, NARC
Mr. M. Asif Masood
Ghuman, PSO, SSI,
NARC
Dr. Tariq Hassan,
Registrar (PIASA)
NARC
Mr. Muhammad
Aslam Alwari,
Director AVC,
NARC
Dr. Khalid Mehmood
Aujla, PSO/Director
(AE) SSD, PARC
Dr. Muhammad
Aslam, PSO /
Director, Agricultural
Poly-technique
Institute (API)
NARC
135
ANIMAL SCIENCES
36.
37.
38.
39.
Culture and breeding of ornamental
fishes (Goldfishes, koi carp and
guppies) and feed development for
their different developmental stages.
Establishing the Sero-diagnostic and
sero-surveillence system for the
control of warble fly in Pakistan
Carrier potential of small ruminants
in the persistence and transmission of
PPR virus
Study on the Production Potential of
Different Sheep and Goats for
Mutton Production under High Input
Systems.
Stair-step Heifer Development
40. Program for Induction of Early
Puberty
Studies on biology, captive breeding
41. and other behavioral aspects of
indigenous endangered wild animals
and birds (Phase-II).
2.58
24 months
2.10
24 months
Dr. Aamir bin
Zahoor, SSO, ASI,
NARC
Mr. Fateh Ullah
Khan, PSO, National
Coordinator, ASI,
NARC
Dr. Imdad Hussain
Mirza, Director, ASI,
NARC
7.50
24 months
Mr. Saleem Zahid,
PSO, Poultry and
Wildlife Program,
ASI, NARC
Dr. Abdul Rab, PSO,
Fisheries, NARC
Dr. Munib Hussain,
SSO, ASI, NARC
136
5.949
48 months
59.506
60 months
1.770
12 months
LIST OF COMPLETED PROJECTS UNDER RADP
Sr.
No.
Name of Project and P.I
Start &
Completion
Dates
CROP SCIENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Pilot Project for Adoption of Water Saving Cultivation
Pot, Dr. Syed Ijaz Hussain Shah, Director, HRI, NARC
Development of Bt transgenic and colored cotton in
Pakistan in collaboration with China, Dr. Yousaf Zafar,
P.I – NIGAB, PGRP, NARC
Fabrication of liquid bio-herbicide processing unit
Dr. Yousaf Hayat Khan, PSO, Institute of EBI, NARC
Fabrication of Liquid Bio-Pesticides and Micro Nutrients
Formulation/Processing Unit. Mr. M. Azhar Javed, SSO,
Directorate of Organic Farming, NARC
(i) Development of New Pakistani Wheat Varieties
Tolerant to Key A-biotic stresses
(ii) Securing Key Biotic Stress Resistance in Wheat
Varieties of Pakistan around Targeted Gene and
Varietal Development Strategies Emphases on
Recombination Breeding Aided by Molecular
Technologies, Dr. A. Mujeeb Kazi, HEC Foreign
Faculty Professor, Wheat Wide Crosses and
Cytogenetics, NARC
Intra and Inter-specific Variation of Oilseed Brassicas
using Biochemical and Molecular Markers, Dr. M. Ashiq
Rabbani, IABGR, NARC
Pest Risk Analysis of Ctirus, Mango, Rice and Dates,
NARC, Dr. Ghulam Jilani, CSO/Sr.Director, IPEP,
NARC
Pest Risk Analysis of Ctirus, Mango, Rice and Dates,
SARC, Dr. Mubarik Ahmed
01-07-07
30-06-09
01-05-09
30-06-09
(2-months)
01-11-2009
31-10-2010
01-06-2009
30-05-2010
01-07-2007
to
30-06-2010
01-07-2007
30-06-2010
01-07-2007
14-03-2010
-do8.
9.
Fate of Pesticide Residues in Cotton Agro-ecosystem and
their Impact on Human Health and Livestock. Dr. Karam
Ahad, SSO, IPEP, NARC
Integrated Management of American Bollworm
Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) on Cotton-Wheat System
in Southern Punjab, Mr. Attaullah Khan, SSO, B.Z.
University, Multan
137
01.01.2008 to
31.12.2010
01.01.2008 to
30.12.2010
Establishment of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Station at Sakrand, Shaheed Benazir Bhuttoabad District
(Component-I&II)” Dr. Sher Muhammad
10.
Mr. Fateh Khan Nizamani
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Neelibar Agricultural Research & Training Station
Burewala, Riazuddin / Malik M. Yousaf
Development of Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrids for High
Forage Yield and Quality Characters, Mr. Ashiq Hussain,
PSO, Fodder, NARC
Intervention for Management of Mycotoxin in Maize and
Groundnut (Component-II&I), Dr. Yasmin Ahmad, PSO,
IPEP, NARC
Intervention for Management of Mycotoxin in Maize and
Groundnut (Component-I), Dr. M. Munir, CSO, DGP&D Division.
Identification/Selection of Parental Lines and Hybrid
Development in Tomato (PGRP Component), Dr. Abdul
Ghafoor, IABGR, NARC
Accelerated Development of Hybrid Wheat, Rice, Cotton,
Sunflower, Non Shattering Canola, Maize and Use of
Innovative Technologies, Dr. Ahmad Bakhsh Mahar,
CSO, CSI, NARC
Characterization of Sugarcane Germplasm for Flowering
Ability (NARC Component), Dr. M. Zubair, PSO, CSI,
NARC
2. Mr. Salahuddin Junejo, SSO, Makli, PARC Colony,
Thatta.
Kitchen Gardening at Internally Displaced Person Camps,
17. Mr. Derawadhan, Incharge, PFRS, Mardan.
Development of sunflower and canola hybrids and canola
18. type mustard varieties. Mr. Akbar Shah PSO, Oilseed
Program, CSI, NARC
Development & Improvement of Mass Production
Techniques of Insect Biocontrol Agent, Dr. Ehsan-Ul19.
Haq, SSO
IPMP, IPEP, NARC
138
01.10.2009 to
30.09.2010
02-09-09
to
30-06-11
01-10-09 to
30-09-10
1.07.2007 to
31.12.2010
April 2099Dec 2010
01-04-09
31-03-12
1.10.2007 to
31.12.2010
01-12-09
to
30-06-11
01-04.2008 to
31-03.2011
01-04-2008
to
31-03-2011
01-04-2009
to
30-06-2011
01-07-07
to
30-06-11
01-01-08
to
30-06-11
Identification/ Selection of Parental Lines and Hybrid
development in Tomato (Vegetable), Mr. Muhammad
20. Farooq Chaudhary,
SSO, HRI, NARC
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Development of Milking Machine for Water Buffaloes and
Indigenization of Milking Machine for Cow, Mr. Jandool
Khan, Principal Engineer, Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC
Development of Picking and Pre-cooling Technology for
Mangoes, Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi,
SSO, ABEI, NARC
Biological Control of Major Cotton Pests including
Mealybug in Pakistan, Dr. Waseem Ahmad Gillani,
PSO, IPEP, NARC
Adoption and Commercialization of a Small Scale Olive
Oil Extraction Unit, Mr. Liaqat Ali Shahid
Principal Engineer, ABEI, NARC
Improvement of Groundnut for Short Duration and Yield
in Rain Fed Wheat cropping System, Mr. Malik Shah
Nawaz, PSO, Oilseed Prog., CSI, NARC
Ginger and Turmeric: Introduction, Acquisition, Kitchen
Gardening and Farm Production Technology, Dr. Ghulam
Mustafa Sajid, PSO, PGRP, IABGR, NARC
Marker Assisted Breeding & Genomic Studies for Stress
Tolerance in Wheat and Rice, Dr. G. M. Ali
CSO, IABGR, NIGAB-NARC
On-Farm Research & Development for Improved Drying,
Grading, Packaging, Branding and Marketing of the Dates
in District Khairpur, Sindh.Dr. Ali Muhammad Khushk,
PSO/Director, SSRI, PARC, Tandojam
Establishment of Microbial Bio- Resource Laboratories:
National Culture Collection of Pakistan (NCCP), Dr.
Iftikhar Ahmed, SSO, NIGAB, NARC
Evaluation and Commercialization of Mango Picking and
Desapping Machine, Dr. Muslim Abbas Zaidi, FMI,
NARC
Acquisition and Improvement of Mushroom Production
Technology in Pakistan, Mr. Umer Iqbal, SO, CSI,
139
31-09-2012
01-07-2009 to
30-06-2011
01-07-2012
to
30-06-2011
Completed on
30-06-2012
31-12-2012
Completed on
30-06-2012
Completed on
30-06-2012
01-07-2007
30-06-2012
July 2011
to
June 2012
Completed on
31-09-12
Completed on
30-09-12
(6 months
project)
Nov 2009
to
NARC
Making NARC Rodent Free through Operational Research
32. Dr. Shahid Munir, SSO, IPEP, NARC
Strengthening of Institute Bio Remediation at NARC, Dr.
Muhammad Ashiq, Director, NIB, NARC
Evaluation of Locally Developed Mandarin Hybrids in
34. Potential Citrus Growing Areas (PHASE-I), Mukhtar
Ahmed, PSO, HRI, NARC
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Scientist’s Capacity Building Through training, Mr. Asif
35. Masood Ghumman, SSO, SSI, NARC
33.
36. Political Economy of Sugar Industry in Pakistan. Dr. Ali
Muhammad Khushk, Tandojam
37. Assesment of harvest and post-harvest losses in selected
fruits in Pakistan. Athar Mehmood/ Mazher Abbas,
TTI, Faisalabad (041-2651367)
38. An analysis of food consumption diversification in
Pakistan. Mr. Ishaq, SSO, TTI, Tarnab, Peshawar.
39. An analysis of the adoption and impact of cultivation of
new cotton varieties in Pakistan, Muhammad Ibrahim
Lashari, SSO, TTI, PARC, Tandojam.
40. Research Strategies for Agricultural Growth and Poverty
Reduction, Dr. Umar Farooq, PARC
41. Vertical Coordination towards High-Value Agriculture in
Punjab, Pakistan, Dr. Sharif, Mr. Hassnain
42. Phulkari as Empowerment of Women & Girls in Pakistan;
Ms. Nusrat Batool, Director, Cottage Industry and
Livelihood, PARC
43. Farmers Training and Facilitation Centre for Technology
Transfer, Mr. Atta Ullah Khan, Inchage/SSO, IPM
Station, BZU Multan
44. National University of Agricultural Science (NUAS).
Dr. Tariq Hassan, NUAS, NARC.
45. Analyzing & Reforming farm Advisory Services Center in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Empowering to Combat Upfront
140
Oct 2012
Completed on
31-03-13
Completed on
31-03-13
01-04-08
31-03-12
01-10-07
30-06-09
01-07-07
30-06-09
01-10-07
30-09-09
01-10-07
30-09-09
01-07-2009
30-06-2010
01.10.2007 to
30.06.2010
01.10.2007 to
30.09.2010
01-07-09
to
30-06-12
(closed on 0102-11)
01.10.2009 to
30.09.2011
01-07-08
to
30-06-11
01-12-11
31-12-13
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
Transfer Technology and Innovation Needs of the
Targeted Farming Community Mr. Arshad Farooq, SO
(TTI) PARCJ, ARI, Tarnab-Peshawar
Impact Assessment for Farmers Field School Based on
IPM Approach in Different Production Zones of Pakistan
Mr. Muhammad Zubair Anwar, PSO, Social Sciences
Research Institute (SSRI) NARC
NATURAL RESOURCES
Development of Bio-Fertilizers Processing Unit for NARC
Mr. Abdul Waheed Zafar Chief Engineer, AZRC,
Brewery Road, Quetta/ Dr. Sher Muhammad, CSO,
Organic Farming, NARC
Evaluation of Resource Conservation Technologies for
Improving Water Productivity in Rice-Wheat Cropping
System” Mr. Qurban Hussain, PSO, WRRI, NARC
A strategic approach of chemical and biological
reclamation of salt affected soils in southern zone of
NWFP. Dr. Abdul Rashid, PSO, AZRI,Ratta Kulachi,
D.I.Khan
Production of Export Quality Honey and Establishment of
Honey Analysis Laboratory for Promotion of Honey
Export. Farida Iftikhar NARC (051-9255023)
Water Productivity and Application Efficiency Evaluation
under Trickle Irrigation System in Stress Environment of
D. I. Khan, Engr. Noman Latif, D.I. Khan
Beekeeping in Mountain Agriculture, NAs Mr. M. Ayub,
MARC, Skardu, Gilgit
53. Improvement in the production techniques of Royal Jelly,
pollen, propolis, beeswax and their value added products
for livelihood. Mr. Rashid Mahmood, SO, HBRI,
NARC
54. Cultivation of Biofuel Plants on Marginal Lands in
Pakistan
1. Dr. Rukhsana Anjum, Director, Arid Zone Research
Institute (AZRI), PARC,
3-A, Railway Road, Bahawalpur (P.O. Box No. 93).
2. Mr. Ghulam Shabir Bohio, Director, AZRI (PARC)
Umerkot, Sindh.
3. Dr. M. Yaqoob, PSO, AZRI (PARC), Ratta Kulachi,
D.I. Khan.
141
Completed on
31-03-13
01-04-2009
31-03-2010
Completed on
30-06-2012
01-07-2007
to
30-06-2011
01.10.2007
to
30.09.2010
01.10.2007 to
30.09.2010
01-01-2008
to
31-12-2010
01-01-2008 to
31-12-2011
Completed on
31-12-12
14-10-12
30-06-12
completed
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
4. Dr. M. Anwar Arain, PSO, SARC (PARC) Karachi
University Campus, Karachi.
Conservation of Native Flora of Cholistan through
Rejuvenation Technique
Mr. Mumtaz Hussain SO, Arid Zone Research Institute
(AZRI), PARC, 3-A, Railway Road, Bahawalpur (P.O.
Box No. 93)
Development, cultivations and propagation of black cumin
as 1st onitiative in Pakistan. Muhammad Qasim, SSO,
MARC,GILGIT
People-centered Agro-based Research and Demonstration
Station at Batal, District Mansehra Mr. Zaheer-ul-Ikram,
PSO/Dir (Trg) PARC
Soil Environmental Pollutants: Loading, Fate and
Management Dr. Mehmood-ul-Hassan, PSO, LRRI,
NARC
ANIMAL SCIENCES
Characterization of Avian Influenza and FMD Virus and
Development of Immunogenic Vaccines. Dr. Khalid
Naeem, CSO, ASI, NARC
Feed formulation and disease diagnostics studies of trout
fish in northern areas, Mr. Muhammad Aziz, MARC,
Juglote, Gilgit.
Comparison of Estrous Synchronization Protocols to
Improve Fertility in Buffalo Dr. M. Anwar, PSO, ASI,
NARC
Cryopreservation and Evaluation of Buffalo and Goat
Semen Dr. Abid Mehmood PSO. ASI, NARC
Study on Biology, Captive Breeding Aspects of
indigenous Endangered Wild Animals and Birds Mr.
Saleem Zahid PSO, Poultry Prog., ASI, NARC
Diagnosis and control of parasitic and microbial
infestation in exotic/ indigenous carp cultured in fish farms
of Punjab, Mr. Muhammad Ramzan Ali, SO (Fisheries),
ASI, NARC
Study of Dairy Traits in Saanen Crossbreeds with Goat
Breeds of Pakistan. Dr. Muhammad Rafiq, SRRP, ASI,
NARC
Stair-step Heifer Development Program for Induction of
Early Puberty. Dr. Imdad Hussain Mirza, Director, ASI,
NARC
142
June 2012
July 2009
to
June 2012
01-07-07
to
30-06-11
Oct 2009 to
Oct 2011
Completed on
31-12-12
01.07.2007 to
30.06.2010
01-01-08
to
31-12-10
01-07-07 to
30-06-11
01-07-07 to
30-06-11
Completed on
30-06-2012
Completed in
April 2012
Nov 2009
to
Oct 2011
Completed on
31-03-13
143