Prototype
Class
Codeine
Opioid antitussives
Mechanism of Action/Site of
Action
Suppress cough by acting on
CNS or peripherally
Decreases cough reflex
Therapeutic Use
Major Side Effects
Major Nursing Implications
Decrease both the
frequency and intensity of
cough
Can suppress respiration
Most effective cough
suppressant
Confusion, sedation,
hypotension,
constipation, nausea
Significant potential for
abuse (alone schedule II
but in mixtures schedule
V)
DDI with MAO inhibitors,
alcohol, antihistamines,
and sedative/hypnotics
Be careful of accidental
overdose – check orders!
Carefully assess LOC and
RR
Educate re: DDI’s
Discontinue gradually to
prevent withdrawal
symptoms
Opioid Analgesics
Drug Name
Mech. of Action
Tx
Side Effects
Morphine
Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist
analgesia, respiratory depression,
euphoria, mental clouding, sedation
Moderate/Severe Pain
Respiratory Depression
Constipation
Orthostatic Hypotension
Urinary Retention
Cough Suppression
Hydrocodone
Codeine
**also Antitussive **
Naloxone (Narcan)
Disease: Asthma
Bronchodilator
Drug Name
Albuterol &
Salmeterol
Anti-Inflammatory
Beclomethasone
(intranasal) &
Prednisone (oral)
Montelukast
Anti-Inflammatory
Anti-Inflammatory
Cromolyn
(inhaled)
Bronchodilator
Theophylline
Mech. of Action
Adverse Effects
Drug Class
Drug Name
MoA
SE & Contradictions
Nursing Implications
CNS Depressants:
Amobarbital,
Phenobarbital
Secobarbital
GABA receptor
agonist
CNS sedation, coma
Cardiac BP, HR , contractility
Respiratory RR
**Tolerance to CNS, not to
respiratory depression
Barbiturates
Liver enzyme Inducer
Category C no use in 3rd trimester
X other CNS depressants
Schedule II
Benzodiazepines
T.U. Pheno used for seizures,
induction of anesthesia, insomnia
Diazepam
(Valium)
Lorazepam
(Ativan)
Alprazolam
(Xanax)
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Pharmacology Drug List Example