Supplemental Files
A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems on College Students’
Academic Learning
Supplemental Table 11
Substantive Features of the Studies Included
Study (independent
ITS name
Intervention
sample)
Conditions
VanLehn et al. (2007) (1) Why 2-Atlas/Why2ITS as principal
AutoTutor
instruction
Comparison
Conditions
human tutoring
Subject
ITS duration
Assessment type Measurement timing
immediately following
Research design Sample
size2
experimental
41
Adjusted Unadjusted
ES3
ES4
-0.10
Physics
short term
specific
VanLehn et al. (2007) (1) Why 2-Atlas/Why2AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials Physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
45
-0.33
VanLehn et al. (2007) (2) Why2-AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials Physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
48
0.88
VanLehn et al. (2007) (2) Why2-AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
do nothing control
Physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
51
0.88
VanLehn et al. (2007) (3) Why2-AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials Physics
short term
specific
delayed
experimental
62
0.26
VanLehn et al. (2007) (4) Why2-Atlas/Why2AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials Physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
103
0.10
VanLehn et al. (2007) (4) Why2-Atlas/Why2AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
printed text
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
64
-0.06
Lane & VanLehn (2005) ProPL (dialogue-based
intelligent tutoring
systems)
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials computer
science
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
25
Wang, Li, & Chang
(2006)
CooTutor (coordinate
tutor)
ITS as principal
instruction
computer-assisted
learning
computer
science
3-12 weeks
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 22
Stylianou & Shapiro
(2002)
Cognitive Tutor
ITS-integrated
class instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
mathematical
subjects
one
semester/above
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 38
Graesser et al. (2003a)
Why/AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
printed text
physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
Arnott, Hastings, &
Allbritton (2008)
Research Methods Tutor ITS-supplemented traditional classroom
(RMT)
class instruction instruction
other subjects
ng
specific
end of semester
quasi-experimental 125
0.01
Graesser et al. (2003b)
AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
printed text
computer
literacy
short term
specific
end of semester
experimental
20
0.23
Graesser et al. (2003b)
AutoTutor
ITS as principal
instruction
do nothing control
computer
science
short term
specific
end of semester
experimental
20
0.99
physics
29
0.58
-0.32
0.52
1.23
Study (independent
sample)
Corbett (2001)
ITS name
Intervention
Conditions
ACT Programming Tutor ITS as principal
(APT)
instruction
Comparison
Conditions
computer-assisted
learning
Subject
ITS duration
Assessment type Measurement timing
immediately following
Research design Sample
size2
quasi-experimental 20
Adjusted Unadjusted
ES3
ES4
0.70
computer
science
short term
specific
Miller & Butz (2004)
Interactive Multimedia
Intelligent System
(IMITS)
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
other subjects
one
semester/above
embedded
end of school year
quasi-experimental 83
0.53
Aberson et al. (2003)
Web Interface for
Statistics Education
(WISE)
ITS-assisted
activities
Self-reliant learning
statistics
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 25
0.78
Reif & Scott (1999)
Personal Assistants for
Learning (PALs)
ITS-assisted
homework
human tutoring
physics
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 30
-0.77
Reif & Scott (1999)
Personal Assistants for
Learning (PALs)
ITS-assisted
homework
Self-reliant learning
physics
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 30
0.85
Grubišić, Stankov, &
Zitko (2006)
eXtended Tutor-Expert
System (xTex-Sys)
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
computer
science
3-12 weeks
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 80
0.15
Livergood (1994)
Multimedia modified
ITS as principal
intellifent tutoring system instruction
printed text
computer
science
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
114
0.52
Livergood (1994)
Multimedia modified
ITS as principal
intellifent tutoring system instruction
computer-assisted
learning
computer
science
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
136
0.62
Stankov, Glavinić,
& Grubišić (2004)
DTEx-Sys: Distributed
Tutor Expert System
ITS as principal
instruction
human tutoring
computer
science
one
semester/above
embedded
delayed
experimental
22
-0.09
Stankov, Glavinić,
& Grubišić (2004)
DTEx-Sys: Distributed
Tutor Expert System
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
computer
science
one
semester/above
embedded
delayed
experimental
22
0.90
Xu, Meyer,
& Morgan (2009)
Assessment and
ITS as principal
Leearning in Knowledge instruction
Spaces (ALEKS)
traditional classroom
instruction
statistics
one
semester/above
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 86
Hagerty & Smith (2005) ALEKS-Assessment and ITS-supplemented traditional classroom
Leearning in Knowledge class instruction instruction
Spaces (ALEKS)
mathematical
subjects
ng
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 195
0.59
Hu et al. (2007)
ALEKS behaviorial
statistics
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
statistics
ng
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 473
0.17
Hampikian et al. (2007)
ALEKS
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
mathematical
subjects
one
semester/above
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 19
0.28
0.96
Study (independent
sample)
Baxter & Thibodeau
(2011)
ITS name
Intervention
Conditions
ITS as principal
instruction
Comparison
Conditions
traditional classroom
instruction
Subject
ITS duration
Assessment type Measurement timing
end of semester
Research design Sample
size2
quasi-experimental 99
Adjusted Unadjusted
ES3
ES4
0.33
business
subjects
one
semester/above
embedded
Conati &VanLehn (2000) Self-explanation coach
(SE-Coach)
ITS as principal
instruction
computer-assisted
learning
physics
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 56
0.17
Aberson et al. (2002)
Web Interface for
Statistics Education
Power Applet (WISE)
ITS-supplemented traditional classroom
class instruction instruction
statistics
short term
specific
end of semester
quasi-experimental 25
1.43
Aberson et al. (2000)
Web Interface for
Statistics Education
Power Applet (WISE)
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
statistics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
-0.25
Bliwise (2005)
Web-based Tutorial for
teaching introductory
statistics
ITS-supplemented traditional classroom
class instruction instruction
statistics
ng
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 225
0.67
Morris (2001)
Link
ITS as principal
instruction
do nothing control
statistics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
34
0.57
Morris (2001)
Link
ITS as principal
instruction
printed text
statistics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
33
-0.21
Koch & Gobell (1999) (1) Design-Statistics Finder
ITS-assisted
activities
Self-reliant learning
statistics
short term
specific
meantime
experimental
26
0.91
Koch & Gobell (1999) (2) Design-Statistics Finder
ITS-assisted
activities
printed text
statistics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
41
0.92
Mitrovic & Ohlsson
(1999)
Structured Query
Language-Tutor (SQLTutor)
ITS-assisted
activities
Self-reliant learning
computer
science
short term
embedded
end of semester
quasi-experimental 46
0.78
Grubišić et al. (2009)
Extended Tutor-Expert
System (xTEx-Sys)
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
computer
science
3-12 weeks
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 39
0.30
Rosé et al. (2003)
Knoledge Construction
Dialogues (KCDs)
ITS as principal
instruction
computerized materials physics
short term
specific
immediately following
experimental
28
0.19
Grubišić, Stankov, &
Hrepic (2008)
eXtended Tutor-Expert
System (xTEx-Sys)
ITS-assisted
activities
computer-assisted
learning
physics
3-12 weeks
specific
immediately following
quasi-experiment 48
0.09
Heyden (1990)
DSM-III-R computer
tutorial
ITS as principal
instruction
printed text
other subjects
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 78
0.68
ALEKS Financial
accounting course
111
Study (independent
sample)
Chang et al. (2003)
ITS name
Intervention
Conditions
Web-Soc tutoring system ITS as principal
instruction
Comparison
Conditions
printed text
Subject
ITS duration
Assessment type Measurement timing
immediately following
Research design Sample
size2
experimental
48
Adjusted Unadjusted
ES3
ES4
0.84
computer
science
short term
specific
Johnson, Phillips, &
Chase (2009)
Transaction analysis and ITS-assisted
recording tutor
homework
Self-reliant learning
business
subjects
short term
specific
meantime
quasi-experimental 55
0.57
Phillips & Johnson (2011) Transaction analysis and ITS-assisted
recording tutor
homework
computer-assisted
learning
business
subjects
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 140
0.10
Shute & Glaser (1990)
Smithtown
ITS as principal
instruction
traditional classroom
instruction
business
subjects
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 20
-0.17
Shute & Glaser (1990)
Smithtown
ITS as principal
instruction
do nothing control
business
subjects
short term
specific
immediately following
quasi-experimental 20
1.26
VanLehn et al. (2010)
Andes Physics Tutoring
System
ITS-supplemented traditional classroom
class instruction instruction
physics
one
semester/above
embedded
immediately following
quasi-experimental 1066
Note. ES = effect size, ng = not given
1
Supplemental Table 1 presents the 48 effect sizes from the 39 independent studies, each indicating ITS’s effectiveness in 48 comparison conditions used in the
studies. Thirty studies each had one comparison condition. Nine studies each provided effect sizes for two comparison conditions.
2
The sample sizes reported in this table are the total sample sizes of each independent study.
3
These are adjusted overall effect sizes corresponding to a type of comparison condition within each independent sample. If a study provided both an adjusted
and unadjusted effect size, we chose the adjusted over unadjusted effect sizes to represent the study.
4
These are unadjusted overall effect sizes corresponding to a type of comparison condition within each independent sample.
0.47
Reference List of Included Studies
Aberson, C. L, Berger, D. E., Healy, M. R., & Romero, V. L. (2002). An interactive tutorial for
teaching statistical power. Journal of Statistics Education, 10 (3), [Online]. Retrieved from
www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v10n3/aberson.html
Aberson, C. L., Berger, D. E., Healy, M. R., & Romero, V. L. (2003). Evaluation of an interactive
tutorial for teaching hypothesis testing concepts. Teaching of Psychology, 30(1), 75-78.doi:
10.1207/S15328023TOP3001_12
Aberson, C. L., Berger, D. E., Healy, M. R., Kyle, D. J., & Romero, V. L. (2000).Evaluation of an
interactive tutorial for teaching the central limit theorem. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 3952.doi: 10.1207/S15328023TOP2704_08
Arnott, E., Hastings, P., & Allbritton, D. (2008). Research methods tutor: Evaluation of a
dialogue-based tutoring system in the classroom. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 694698.doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.694
Bliwise, N. G. (2005). Web-based tutorials for teaching introductory statistics. Journal of
Educational Computing Research, 33(3), 309-325.
Chang, K.-E., Sung, Y.-T., Wang, K-Y., & Dai, C.-Y. (2003). Web_Soc: A socratic-dialect-based
collaborative tutoring system on the World Wide Web. IIEE Transactions on Education, 46,
69-78. Retrieve fromhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1183669&tag=1
Conati, C., &VanLehn, K. (2000). Further results from the evaluation of an intelligent computer
tutor to coach self-explanation. In G. Gauthier, C. Frasson, & K. VanLehn (Eds), Intelligent
Tutoring Systems: 5th International Conference (pp. 304-313). Montreal, Canada. doi:
10.1007/3-540-45108-0_34
Conati, C., Muldner, K., & Carenini, G. (2006). From example studying to problem solving via
tailored computer-based meta-cognitive scaffolding: Hypotheses and design. Technology,
Instruction, Cognition and Learning (TICL), Special Issue on Problem Solving Support in
Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 4(2), 1-52. Retrieved from http://people.cs.ubc.ca/~conati/mypapers/TICL%204.2%20(Conati).pdf
Corbett, A. (2001). Cognitive computer tutors: solving the two-sigma problem. In M. Bauer, P. J.
Gmytrasiewicz, & J. Vassileva (Eds), User Modeling: Proceedings of the Eight International
Conference, UM 2001 (137-147). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Graesser, A. C., Jackson, G. T., Mathews, E. C., Mitchell, H. H., Olney, A., Ventura, M., …
Tutoring Research Group. (2003). Why/AutoTutor: A test of learning gains from a physics
tutor with natural language dialog. In R. Alterman & D. Hirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the
Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1-6). Mahwah, NJ:
Erlbaum.
Graesser, A. C., Moreno, K. N., Marineau, J. C., Adcock, A. B., Olney, A. M., & Person, N. K.
(2003). AutoTutor improves deep learning of computer literacy: Is it the dialog or the talking
head?. In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds), Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping
the Future of Learning through Intelligent Technologies (pp. 47-54). Amsterdam, IOS Press.
Grubišić, A., Stankov, S., & Hrepic, Z. (2008).Comparing the effectiveness of learning content
management systems to intelligent tutoring systems. Proceedings of the IASK International
Conference E-Activity and Learning Technologies &Inter TIC (pp. 93-100). Madrid, Spain.
Grubišić, A., Stankov, S., & Zitko, B. (2006).An approach to automatic evaluation of educational
influence. Proceeding of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Distance Learning and
Web Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 2006.
Grubišić, A., Stankov, S., Rosić, M., & Zitco, B. (2009). Controlled experiment replication in
evaluation of e-learning system’s educational influence. Computers & Education, 53(3), 591602.doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.03.014
Hagerty, G. & Smith, S. (2005). Using the web-based interactive software ALEKS to enhance
college algebra. Mathematics and Computer Education, 39(3), 183-194.Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/235830320?accountid=10598
Hampikian, J., Guarino, J., Chyung, S. Y., Gardner, J., Moll, A., Pyke, P., & Schrader, C. (2007).
Benefits of a tutorial mathematics program for engineering students enrolled in precalculus: A
template for assessment. ASEE Annual Conference. Retrieved from
http://www.icee.usm.edu/ICEE/conferences/asee2007/papers/1998_BENEFITS_OF_A_TUTO
RIAL_MATHEMATICS_PROGR.pdf
Heyden, D. C. (1990). A DSM-III-R computer tutorial for abnormal psychology. Teaching of
Psychology, 13(3), 203-206.doi: 10.1207/s15328023top1703_21
Hu, X., Luellen, J. K., Okwumabua, T. M. Xu, Y. & Mo, L. (2007). Observational findings from a
web-based intelligent tutoring system: Elimination of racial disparities in an undergraduate
behavioral statistics course. Accepted as a paper presentation at the 2007 Annual Meeting of
the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Chicago, IL; April 2007.
Johnson, B. G., & Phillips, F. (2011). Online homework versus intelligent tutoring systems:
Pedagogical support for transaction analysis and recording. Issues in Accounting Education,
26, 87-97.
Johnson, B. G., Phillips, F., & Chase, L. G. (2009). An intelligent tutoring system for the
accounting cycle: Enhancing textbook homework with artificial intelligence. Journal of
Accounting Education, 27, 30-39.doi: 10.1016/j.jaccedu.2009.05.001
Koch, C., & Gobell, J. (1999).A hypertext-based tutorial with links to the web for teaching
statistics and research methods. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31, 713. doi: 10.3758/BF03207686
Lane, H. C., &VanLehn, K. (2005).Teaching the tacit knowledge of programming to novices with
natural language tutoring. Computer Science Education, 15(3), 183-201.doi:
10.1080/08993400500224286
Livergood, N. D. (1994). A study of the effectiveness of a multimedia intelligent tutoring system.
Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(4), 337-344.
Livergood, N. D. (1994). A study of the effectiveness of a multimedia intelligent tutoring system.
Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(4), 337-344.
Mitrovic, A., & Ohlsson, S. (1999). Evaluation of a constraint-based tutor for a database language.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 10(3-4), 238-256. Retrieved from
http://hdl.handle.net/10092/327
Morris, E. (2001). The design and evaluation of Link: A computer-based learning system for
correlation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 39-52.doi: 10.1111/14678535.00175
Reif, F., & Scott, L. A. (1999).Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers
coaching each other. American Journal of Physics, 67(9), 819-831.doi: 10.1119/1.19130
Rosé, C. P., Bhembe, D., Siler, S., Srivasteva, R., &VanLehn, K. (2003). Exploring the
effectiveness of knowledge construction dialogues. . In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds.),
Artificial intelligence in education: Shaping the future of learning through intelligent
technologies (pp. 497–499). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: IOS Press.
Shute, V. J., & Glasser, R. (1990). A large-scale evaluation of an intelligent discovery world:
Smithtown. Interactive Learning Environments, 1, 51-77.doi: 10.1080/1049482900010104
Stankov, S., Glavinić, V., & Grubišić, A. (2004). What is our effect size: Evaluating the
educational influence of a web-based intelligent authoring shell? In IEEE international
conference on intelligent engineering systems 2004 – INES 2004, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Stylianou, D. A., & Shapiro, L. (2002). Revitalizing algebra: the effect of the use of a cognitive
tutor in a remedial course. Journal of Educational Media, 27(3), 147-171.doi:
10.1080/1358165022000081404
VanLehn, K., Graesser, A. C., Jackson, G. T., Jordan, P., Olney, A., & Carolyn, P. (2007). When
are tutorial dialogues more effective than reading? Cognitive Science, 31, 3-62.doi:
10.1080/03640210709336984
VanLehn, K., Van de Sande, B., Shelby, R., & Gershman, S. (2010). The Andes Physics Tutoring
System: An experiment in freedom. Studies in Computational Intelligence, 308, 421-443.doi:
10.1007/978-3-642-14363-2_21
Wang, H-C., Li, T-Y., & Chang, C-Y. (2006). A web-based tutoring system with styles-matching
strategy for spatial geometric transformation. Interacting with Computers, 18(3), 331-355.doi:
10.1016/j.intcom.2005.11.002
Xu, Y. J., Meryer, K. A., & Morgan, D. D. (2009).A mixed-methods assessment of using an online
commercial tutoring system to teach introductory statistics. Journal of Statistics Education,
17(2), 1-17. Retrieved fromhttp://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n2/xu.pdf
Supplemental Table 2
Results of Testing for Moderators on Adjusted Effect Sizes
Variable
Grade level
Undergraduates
Mixed
Graduates students
Prior knowledge2
Yes
No
Compensation3
Yes
No
Not given
Duration
Short term
3-12 weeks
One semester or longer
Not given
Additional time4
Yes
No
Not given
Sample size
Less than 40
40-100
More than 100
Research design
Experimental
Quasi-experimental
Research setting
Real environment
Laboratory
Both
Measurement timing
Immediately after
End of semester/school
Delayed
Meantime
Outcome5
Single outcome
Multiple outcomes
Country
US
Non-US
College type
4 year
Multiple
Other
k1
g
23
2
1
.40
.16
-.32
18
8
.42
.22
6
16
4
.21
.43
.39
17
4
2
3
.32
.11
.50
.59
6
13
7
.51
.37
.22
Fixed
Qb
2.32
.44
.24
.54
.36
.37
19
7
.41
.22
14
8
4
.42
.25
.47
.182
4
.212
1
.492
1
.107
.
.314
1
.44
.25
.54
7.57
16
10
1
.30
.45
2.32
.24
.63
.28
.57
.350
.52
.33
.29
2.59
18
5
2
1
1
.50
.38
.22
1.42
15
10
1
.165
.37
.11
.50
.59
3.10
.24
.45
1
.23
.42
.37
4.86
10
16
.314
.42
.22
2.13
.53
.32
.36
g
.39
.55
-.32
1.93
10
11
5
Rand
p
.056
5
.27
.63
.28
.57
.01
.937
.
.39
.34
1.27
.260
1
.41
.22
1.84
.399
.
.42
.36
.47
Variable
Report type
Journal article
Conference paper
Book chapter
k1
g
18
7
1
.38
.36
.19
Fixed
Qb
.21
Rand
p
.901
g
.
.38
.36
.19
Notes. Qb denotes the heterogeneity status between all categories of a particular variable.
1
The analyses were conducted on the second dataset. It involved the 26 unadjusted effect sizes
extracted from 26 studies.
2
Prior knowledge refers to whether the samples had knowledge background on the subject/topic tutored or
studied.
3
Compensation refers to whether the students received compensation for participating the research.
4
Additional time refers to whether the intervention group used additional time for learning than the
control group did.
5
Outcome refers to whether the effectiveness was measured through a single outcome or multiple
outcomes.
Supplemental Table 3
Results of Testing for Moderators on Unadjusted Effect Sizes
Variable
Grade level
Undergraduates
Mixed
Graduates students
Prior knowledge
Yes
No
Not given
Compensation
Yes
No
Not given
Duration
Short term
3-12 weeks
One semester or longer
Not given
Additional time
Yes
No
Not given
k1
g
32
3
2
.33
.30
.21
23
13
1
.30
.34
.70
Fixed
Qb
.37
22
4
7
4
.38
.22
.40
.12
10
18
9
.26
.43
.23
Rando
Qb
.82
.623
.68
.37
.34
.70
1.17
.33
.30
.45
g
.35
.54
.21
.95
7
23
7
p
.831
.557
.887
.37
.32
.51
6.34
.096
6.88
.43
.22
.40
.12
4.33
.115
3.61
.35
.45
.23
Variable
k1
g
Fixed
Qb
5.25
Sample size
Less than 40
14
.43
40-100
15
.39
More than 100
8
.21
Research design
2.62
Experimental
15
.42
Quasi-experimental
22
.27
Research setting
1.14
Real environment
24
.30
Laboratory
12
.40
Both
1
.46
Measurement timing
8.76
immediately
22
.33
End of semester
10
.27
Meantime
2
.26
Delayed
2
1.04
End of school
1
.09
Outcome
.04
Single outcome
24
.32
Multiple outcomes
13
.31
Country
.01
US
29
.32
Non-US
8
.31
College type
.66
4 year
23
.30
Multiple
8
.34
Other
6
.42
Report type
1.21
Journal article
25
.31
Conference paper
9
.28
Book chapter
3
.46
Notes. Qb denotes the heterogeneity status between all categories of a particular variable.
1
p
.072
g
Rando
Qb
3.56
.43
.40
.21
.106
2.50
.48
.28
.565
.80
.31
.44
.46
.067
4.94
.34
.29
.40
1.01
.09
.846
.44
.38
.30
.944
.12
.36
.32
.720
.66
.32
.43
.42
.550
The analyses were conducted on the third dataset. It involved the 37 unadjusted effect sizes
extracted from 37 studies.
.60
.35
.32
.46
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An Empirical Examination of Sex Bias in Scoring Preschool Children