CHAPTER 23: Circulation: Chapter Objectives
Circulatory Systems
Describe the general functions of a circulatory system.
Compare the structures and functions of gastrovascular cavities, open circulatory systems, and closed
circulatory systems.
Compare the cardiovascular systems of a fish, an amphibian, a reptile, a bird, and a mammal.
The Human Cardiovascular System and Heart
Describe the pathway of blood through the mammalian cardiovascular system. Note the names of all
blood vessels and heart chambers identified in Figure 23.3A, B.
Distinguish between diastole and systole. Explain why blood moves in one direction through the heart.
Explain how heartbeats are controlled.
Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
Relate the structure of blood vessels to their function.
Explain how blood is moved back to the heart.
Explain how blood pressure is measured. Give examples of normal and high blood pressure readings.
Structure and Function of Blood
23.12 Describe the components of blood and their functions.
27: Reproduction and Embryonic Development
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
27.1–27.2 Compare the types, advantages, and disadvantages of asexual and sexual
Human Reproduction
27.3–27.4 Describe the structures and functions of the female and male human reproductive systems.
27.5 Describe and compare the processes and products of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
27.6 Describe the events of and control of the menstrual cycle. Note the specific functions of releasing
hormone, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone.
Principles of Embryonic Development
27.9 Relate the structure of sperm to its role in fertilization. Describe the mechanisms that prevent more
than one sperm from fertilizing an egg and that prevent hybridization between different species.
27.10 Describe the process and results of cleavage. Explain how identical and nonidentical twins form.
27.11 Describe the process of gastrulation and the resulting arrangement of the embryo.
27.12 Explain how organs form after the development of a gastrula.
27.13 Explain how changes in cell shape, induction, cell migration, and apoptosis contribute to development.
27.14 Explain how the one-dimensional information in DNA is used to direct the three-dimensional form of
an embryo.
Human Development
27.15 Describe the initial embryonic stages and the formation and functions of the
extraembryonic membranes in humans.
27.16 Describe the main changes that occur during each of the trimesters of human development.
24: The Immune System
Innate Immunity
Describe the nature of innate defenses in invertebrates and vertebrates.
Describe the steps of the inflammatory response and explain how they help to prevent the spread of
Describe the structure and functions of the lymphatic system.
Adaptive Immunity
Describe the specific nature of adaptive immune system responses. Define the terms antigen, antibody,
passive immunity, and active immunity.
24.5 Describe the development and functions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Define and distinguish
between the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response.
24.7 Describe the process of clonal selection and compare a primary immune response to a secondary
immune response.
24.11 Describe the specific functions of helper T cells and how they interact with other cells.
24.12 Explain how cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells.
Disorders of the Immune System
24.16 Describe how the malfunction or failure of the immune system can cause
24.17 Explain why allergies occur and what causes anaphylactic shock.

Unit 9 II - Hinsdale South High School