Version A
Emery APES: Chapter 4 & 5 Exam
4 November 2014
May the force be with you.
Directions: on a blank sheet of paper, write the letter corresponding to the one correct answer for each multiple-choice
and true/false question.
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Biological evolution by natural selection is when genes ____, individuals ____, and populations ____.
evolve; mutate; are selected
are selected; mutate; evolve
mutate; evolve; are selected
evolve; are selected; mutate
mutate; are selected; evolve
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is not an adaptation that has made humans so successful?
strong opposable thumbs
physical strength
upright walking
complex brain
All of these have made us successful.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
From a scientific point of view, which of the following is true?
Evolution leads to survival of the strongest.
Evolution leads to survival of the most valuable.
Organisms develop traits because they need them.
Fitness is a matter of reproductive success.
Evolution follows a plan of nature.
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The movement of the continents influences evolution in which of the following ways?
increases the level of carbon dioxide
changes the earth's climate in a given area
changes the spin/rotation of the earth
decreases soil nutrient richness
changes magnetic fields and disrupts migration patterns
5.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is not true of the conditions on earth that make life possible?
gravitational mass keeps atmospheric gases from flying off
The spin of the earth keeps the sun from overheating any one part of the planet
balance of consumer and producer organisms keeps oxygen levels at correct level
for last 2 billion years unreliable ozone levels have caused mutations
distance from the sun keeps temperature in a narrow range
6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Geographic isolation may result from which of the following?
volcanic eruptions
migrations of subgroups of organisms
mountain ranges forming
roads
all of these
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Mass extinctions, with 25-95% of species going extinct, have occurred how many times in the history of the earth?
1 or 2
3-5
6-8
9-12
20-23
Version A
8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Biodiversity includes all of the following components except
functional diversity
genetic diversity
intellectual diversity
ecological diversity
species diversity
9.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The diversity that enables life on earth to adapt and survive environmental changes is called
functional diversity
genetic diversity
intellectual diversity
ecological diversity
species diversity
10. The variety of processes, including matter cycling and energy flow within ecosystems, which result from species
interacting with one another in food webs is called
a. functional diversity
b. genetic diversity
c. intellectual diversity
d. ecosystem diversity
e. species diversity
11.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called
emigration
mutation
natural selection
evolution
genetic drift
12.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Mutations are not caused by which of the following?
ultraviolet light
a physical accident happening to a parent
radioactivity
certain chemicals
X rays
13.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
14.
For natural selection to occur, an adaptive trait
Must also be a physical trait
Must also be a physiological trait
Must also be a psychological trait
Must also be a heritable trait
Must not be a physical trait
A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause
the collapse of the ecosystem, is called a(n)
foundation species
indicator species
native species
keystone species
specialist species
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
15. A species in an ecosystem that shapes communities by creating and enhancing habitats in ways that benefit other
species is called
a. foundation species
b. indicator species
Version A
c. native species
d. keystone species
e. specialist species
16.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The primary reason why southern sea otter recovery is important is
They are super cute
They are a keystone species
They encourage tourism
It is unethical to cause their extinction
They have luxurious, thick fur
17.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is the most common interaction between species?
competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
commensalism
18. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the
other?
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism
19. Which of the following is said to occur when one organism feeds on another organism by living on or in the other
organism?
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism
20.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
21.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Biodiversity is believed to be the result of the interaction between
geographic isolation and reproductive isolation
speciation and extinction
mass extinction and background extinction
speciation and genetic engineering
reproductive isolation and extinction
Scientists have used genetic engineering to do all of the following, except
develop modified crop plants
develop human clones
develop new drugs
develop pest resistant plants and animals
develop oil eating bacteria
22.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The number of different species an ecosystem contains is its
speciation
species evenness
species niche
species richness
habitat
23. Which of the following is true?
a. The greater the species richness, the lower the productivity of the ecosystem.
b. The greater the species richness, the lower the sustainability of the ecosystem.
Version A
c. The lower the species richness, the greater the productivity of the ecosystem.
d. The lower the species richness, the greater the sustainability of the ecosystem.
e. The greater the species richness, the greater the sustainability of the ecosystem.
24.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
An ecological niche includes all of the following except
The species’ habitat
How much water and sunlight the species needs
The role the species plays/contributes within the ecosystem
How much physical space the species needs
The temperatures the species can tolerate
25. All of the following would be true of a specialist species, except
live in one type of habitat
use only one or a few types of food
have a narrow range of tolerable climatic conditions
less prone to extinction
can tolerate only a few environmental conditions
26.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is another name for a nonnative species?
native
invasive
keystone
indicator
foundation
27.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following would not be considered predators?
omnivores
herbivores
detritivores
carnivores
All of these are predators.
28. How would you describe the zone of salt tolerance for radish seeds?
a. Radish seeds can germinate in any amount of salt
b. Radishes are a keystone species
c. Radishes are a specialist species
d. Radishes have a very narrow zone of tolerance for salt
e. Radishes have a relatively broad zone of tolerance for salt
29. If a species is endemic, it is most likely also:
a. A keystone species
b. Geographically isolated
c. Reproductively isolated
d. A generalist
e. Tolerant of many environmental conditions
30. Which of the following is not a way that an invasive plant might spread in a new environment?
a. By growing rapidly and producing a lot of seeds relative to native plants
b. Seeds may “hitch a ride” on animals, tires, boats, airplanes that travel greater distances than the plant is
capable of doing naturally
c. Windstorms may carry seeds to the ocean
d. Outcompeting native plants for resources (e.g., sunlight, water, soil minerals)
e. Fending off predators more effectively than native plants
Version A
31. An example of an organism in its zone of physiological stress could be:
a. A female bobcat having only one kitten instead of the usual 2-4
b. Radish seeds unable to germinate in poor soil
c. Nile perch (a type of fish) thriving with no predators
d. Bengal tigers becoming classified as endangered
e. Douglas fir seedlings being choked out (sunlight fully blocked) by adult Douglas fir trees
32.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Which of the following is not a method predators use to capture prey?
pursuit
ambush
camouflage
biochemical warfare
protective shells
33. When populations of two different species interact over long periods of time, changes in the gene pool of one
species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other. This is called
a. competition
b. coevolution
c. coincidence
d. commensalism
e. predation
34.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species in the same geographic region is called a(n)
community
population
ecosystem
biosphere
biome
35.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The relationship between clownfish and sea anemone is
interspecific competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
commensalism
36.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Population size is determined by which of the following?
emigration
deaths
immigration
births
all of these
37. Which of the following is the best reason why the bamboo lemur, like all lemurs, is facing extinction?
a. It is a generalist species
b. It is a specialist species
c. It is endemic to a very narrow geographic region
d. Its habitat has been experiencing substantial destruction and degradation in recent years
e. They have been overexploited in the illegal pet trade
38. How did the invasive water hyacinth in Lake Victoria cause an increase in malaria and schistosomiasis?
a. Water hyacinth causes these diseases when people eat infected plants
b. Increased plant growth allowed more stagnant/standing water, which facilitates/helps these diseases spread
c. Water hyacinth decreases water quality, which caused people to get sick from drinking the water
d. Water hyacinth carries the mosquitoes and snails which cause these diseases
Version A
e. Water hyacinth prevented people from being able to bathe in the lake
39. Which of the following is not a reason why lionfish inhabiting the Gulf of Mexico, like many invasive species, have
rapidly growing populations?
a. The new environment has more available resources than the native environment
b. The new environment has no/fewer predators
c. The new environment is within the zone of tolerance for the invasive species
d. They are typically able to outcompete native species for resources
e. They are not exposed to the same diseases that were present in their native environment
40. Which of the following is not an effective means of controlling an invasive species population?
a. Introducing additional invasive species to prey on the original invasive species
b. Developing legislature that restricts the sale and transportation of the invasive species
c. Encouraging hunting/harvesting of the invasive species (bounties, derbies, etc.)
d. Requesting that people report any sightings to the Department of Fish and Wildlife
e. Emphasis on redistributing the invasive species throughout the nonnative environment
41. Which of the following is an invasive species originally from Asia?
a. Lionfish in the Gulf of Mexico
b. Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria
c. Formosa termites in New Orleans
d. Two of these are correct
e. None of the above
True/False directions: Write “T” for true or “F” for false on your answer sheet for each statement below.
42. Biodiversity is a vital part of the natural capital that sustains all life.
43. Most of what we know about the earth's biological history comes from fossils.
44. A huge body of evidence supports the idea of biological evolution through natural selection.
45. Most mutations occur because of exposure to artificial external agents, such as radiation.
46. Individuals evolve.
47. Mutations are the source of natural selection.
48. Survival of the fittest refers to those individuals that produce the most offspring.
49. Species that are successful during one period of time because of selected adaptations may not be successful when
environmental conditions change.
50. According to the theory of evolution, a giraffe evolved a long neck because it needs it to reach its food source.
51. Long-term climate changes determine where plant and animal species can survive.
52. Under rapidly changing environmental conditions, it is better to be a specialist species.
53. In communities and ecosystems the types and numbers of species change in response to changing environmental
conditions.
54. Invasive species are only introduced to new areas due accidental or deliberate human activities.
55. There are always limits to population growth in nature.
Version A
56. Species whose ecological niches overlap will be in competition for whatever the resource is in the overlap.
57. Predator and prey populations exert tremendous natural selection pressures on each other.
58. The most common interaction between species is commensalism.
59. Humans compete with many other species for space, food, and other resources.
Congratulations! You’re finished. Please turn in your exam and answer sheet on lab station 7 (did you write Version A on it?). Then
sit silently until all exams have been turned in.
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Version A Emery APES: Chapter 4 & 5 Exam 4 November 2014 May