Study of Mechanics of Physically Transient Electronics: A Step Toward Controlled
Transiency
Supporting Information
Simge
Çınar,1
Jamshidi,1
Reihaneh
Yuanfen
Chen,1
Nastaran
Hashemi,1,2,3,4
Reza
Montazami1,2,3,4,*
Dr. S. Çınar, R. Jamshidi, Y. Chen, Prof. N. Hashemi, Prof. R. Montazami
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Ames Laboratory, Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Center of Advanced Host Defenses Immunobiotics and Translational Medicine, Iowa State
University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Corresponding author: [email protected]
a
d
Reduced Viscosity (L/g)
100000
10000
a
1000
b
b
100
c
10
d
1
0
1200
2400
3600
4800
6000
c
7200
time (s)
Figure S1: Viscosity measurements for varying dissolution rates. Dissolution rate increases as
going from a to d. Images collected after the measurements represents the different stages of
dissolution behavior. a) Viscosity decreases, but far from reaching to an equilibrium state
indicating that the substrate is swollen, but it is not fully dissolved yet. Since the decrease is not
a steep one, the dissolution appears to be very slow. In this specific case, since the dissolution
of PVA and its composites with sucrose are known to be much faster, the dissolution rate is
slowed down because of the experimental conditions, lack of enough solvent to complete
dissolution. b) Substrate is swollen greatly, but not fully dissolved. The circuit is disconnected,
but not re-dispersed to individual particles yet. c) Viscosity decreased to very low values after
two transition states and reached to its equilibrium. Dissolution of substrate is completed, and
the circuit is completely re-dispersed to colloidal particles. Device is fully degraded. d) Only one
transition observed at the very beginning of the experiment without showing any other
equilibrium state. Dissolution of substrate is completed too fast before allowing the circuit to redisperse. The results justify that the viscosity measurement involves critical information and can
be used in investigation of the dissolution behavior of polymer substrates and devices. An
example for as prepared device is presented inset.
η0
ηbp
tbp
Figure S2: Parameters defined for dissolution behavior.
Table S1: Critical parameters for dissolution behavior of substrates with varying concentration
and its devices. Values were obtained from viscosity measurements.
η0 (L/g)
tbp (s)
ηbp (L/g)
Sample
(PVA:Sucrose)
Substrate
Device
Substrate
Device
Substrate
Device
1:0
2000 ± 600
2370 ± 710
653 ± 130
7880 ± 1575
3.7 ± 1.1
47.0 ± 14.0
10:1
465 ± 140
860 ± 260
220 ± 45
1355 ± 270
1.7 ± 0.5
4.1 ± 1.2
2:1
1085 ± 325
3050 ± 915
100 ± 20
640 ± 130
1.2 ± 0.4
4.2 ± 1.3
1:1
245 ± 75
750 ± 225
72 ± 15
180 ± 35
1.3 ± 0.4
5.2 ± 1.6
1:2
295 ± 90
695 ± 210
15 ± 3
115 ± 20
0.32 ± 0.10
1.4 ± 0.4
Transmittance (%)
tbp is the break-point time for system transiency, η0 is the initial reduced viscosity and ηbp is the
reduced break-point viscosity.
1:0
10:1
2:1
1:1
1:2
1710
1650
2940-2910
14151329
1142
2990-3700
832
1088
923
1045
991
3650
3150
2650
2150
1650
-1
Wavenumber (cm )
1150
650
Figure S3: Increasing crystallinity of the PVA/Sucrose composite substrates – ATR-FTIR
Spectra
Table S2: Chemical assignments of IR peaks for PVA – sucrose films [1].
Band (cm-1)
Assignment
PVA or Sucrose
2990 – 3700 (very broad)
inter-, intramolecular
H- bands
both
2940 – 2910 (doublet)
C-H stretching
both
1710
1650
ν C=O (OH groups of PVA)
1720, 1735-1750
Deformation vibration of the
adsorbed water molecules
PVA
PVA
CH2 (PVA)
1415
δ C-O-H
(1431, 1440 sucrose)
δ C-O-H
(glucose part of sucrose)
δ C-O-H
(fructose part of sucrose)
PVA - sucrose
1267, 1236
τ CH2
PVA
1142 (shoulder)
symmetric C-C stretching
mode
PVA
(semicrystalline PVA)
1088
-C-O groups
PVA
1045
ν C-O exo
(1052, 1008)
sucrose
991
δ C-O-H
sucrose
917 – 923
ν C-C
(911 fructose, 941 glucose)
sucrose
837
ν C-C
PVA
832 – 850
ν C-C
(867, 849)
sucrose
1377
1329
sucrose
sucrose
References
[1] S. K. Mallapragada, N. A. Peppas, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics
1996, 34, 1339; H. S. Mansur, C. M. Sadahira, A. N. Souza, A. A. P. Mansur, Materials Science
and Engineering: C 2008, 28, 539; J.-J. Max, C. Chapados, The Journal of Physical Chemistry
A 2001, 105, 10681.
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