Quiz
Quiz 13-14-15

Question 1
2 out of 3 points
Daphne has been a member of a research team studying interpersonal aggression among
preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, her team has repeatedly employed a
consistent set of techniques and procedures to study preschoolers as they interact in a
number of settings. The procedures revolve around volunteer mothers bringing their
children to the university child development lab for a “play session” that is the basis of
the formal observations. Settings they have studied so far include: the university preschool, affluent local day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in
the neighborhood school district. All of these settings were fairly racially homogenous.
Daphne has just learned that a friend of a friend can help her gain research access, in the
near future, to preschoolers in an unusually racially diverse though impoverished
preschool setting. Daphne decides she has no time to prepare a formal research proposal
before embarking on the study. “Besides,” she thinks, “this study should go just like all
the others we’ve done.”
Is Daphne leaving herself open to problems in this situation, or is she safe moving ahead
with no formal proposal, given how familiar she is with the study techniques and
procedures?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
It depends, Daphne is in a tight situation. She has to use her time to best of
her ability to use survey and questionaires for the volouteer mothers so that
she can get enough data and resources to help her get a start on her
proposal.
Daphne is setting herself up for potential problems by skipping the formal
proposal. Without the exercise of writing the proposal, Daphne may not
stop and carefully think through all the ways in which this study may not be
like previous studies. For instance, Daphne needs to consider whether the
mothers of the children in this more impoverished setting will be willing or
available to bring their children to the lab sessions. She also needs to
consider whether the techniques being used to record peer interactions are
adequate, given that this sample is more racially heterogeneous than
previous samples. There may be additional or different questions that
should be added to the study to capture the richness of the new situation. It
may turn out that the present design will translate fairly seamlessly to the
new setting. But without the detailed planning that the well-written proposal
forces the researcher to undertake, it is entirely possible that Daphne will
encounter a dearth of research participants and data that do not capture the
richness of the interactions among the participants that do volunteer.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 2
3 out of 3 points
After completing planned analyses, the researcher must interpret the results of statistical
tests. Note several steps that are involved in such interpretation.
Answer
1. Reading the findings to the original research problem and to the specific
Selected
research questions and hypothesis.
Answer:
2. Reading the findings to pre existing literature, concepts, theories, and
research studies.
3. Determing whether the findings have practical significance as well as
statistical significance.
4. Identify limitations of study.
Correct
Steps may include the following:
Answer:
&νβσπ;Relate findings to the original research problem and
study hypotheses.
&νβσπ;Relate the findings to existing research literature.
&νβσπ;Relate the findings to existing theory.
&νβσπ;Determine the practical value of the findings.
&νβσπ;Identify the limitations of the study.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 3
3 out of 3 points
Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents,
taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
In historical research involves getting data sources whether it is primary or
secondary. collecting historical meyhods, online databases for historical
events, evaluating and interpreting historical data, external evidence,
internal evidence, searching for roots, psychological or conceptual historical
research.
Correct
Answer:
In addition to gathering and organizing data, the researcher must
interpret those data if the resulting report is going to be a historical
research study rather than a historical narrative. It is in the
interpretation that the string of events takes on meaning. Students may
also mention that some material of interest will exist in something other
than a written form. For example, the researcher may want to review
videotape, look at photographs, visit historical sites, and interview
relevant individuals.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 4
3 out of 3 points
Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the
findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality
research report.
Answer
An important element of interpreting data is asking what new theories, if any,
Selected
may be suggested by the results of the analyses. Interpretation also should
Answer:
address the broader implications of the data and the research findings. Medical
research, for example, can have important consequences for the practice of
medicine, while social science research findings may have public policy
implications.
Correct
Answer:
The reader should not be left on his or her own to make sense of the
findings of a research project. This leaves the door open for
misinterpretation by novice or uninformed readers and calls into question
the expertise of the researcher. It is incumbent upon the author, who
presumably has expertise in the area of the study, to aid the reader in seeing
how the outcomes shed light on the research problem, advance the
understanding of the field, call into question other findings or assumptions,
and point the way to additional fruitful research problems.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 5
3 out of 3 points
Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as
they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods
are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor
Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions. State a
specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to
a quantitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed
using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.
Answer
How students find ways to adapt to learning?
Selected
This question should be in a form of prediction to confirm and validate the
Answer:
test theory of quantitative data.
Correct Answer:
Suitable research questions will do one or more of the following:
• Represent variables of interest as a score or numeric index
• Utilize descriptive and parametric statistics to analyze data
• Intend, at least implicitly, to draw conclusions of a general category of
people beyond the immediate sample
Suitable research questions will NOT rely solely on
• Creating rich descriptions of the phenomena of interest
• Deep understand of multiple perspectives on a single phenomena
• Deep understanding of the participants’ point of view
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 6
3 out of 3 points
Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions
that affect the research problem?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
It is important for the researcher to articulate, as clearly as possible, all
assumptions that affect the research problem because whereas a hypothesis
involves a prediction that may or may not be supported by the data, an
assumption is a condition that is taken for granted, without which the
research project would be pointless. In research, assumptions are self
evident truths that any reasonable person might accept.
There are at least two reasons to articulate assumptions underlying a research
problem. First, these assumptions will guide the selection of research questions
and/or the formation of hypotheses, as well as the interpretation of the
data. Clearly stating the assumptions assists the reader in evaluating the merits
of the study and the conclusions drawn from it. Second, to the extent that the
researcher is aware of his/her assumptions, these can be incorporated into the
study design as needed to promote the validity of the conclusions drawn from
the study.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 7
3 out of 3 points
In your opinion, what is the one greatest advantage to society of the information
revolution? What is the one greatest disadvantage? Support your answer.
Answer
The Information Revolution is transforming society - creating new careers,
Selected
new industries, new academic disciplines and the need for new programs of
Answer:
education and research. Being an informed citizen in this Information Age
requires knowledge of computing systems, global communications networks,
and interactive information resources. The requisite level of knowledge goes
beyond being comfortable with computing tools. It requires the ability to
design, to writing, to experimentation, to artistic expression, and to problem
solving. In the Information Age, our ideas are no longer constrained solely by
what is physically possible, but by what is computationally realizable
However, we see several significant disadvantages with this model. First, we
believe that the scale of interactions that are required would be unwieldy for
any single department to manage - both in terms of the sheer number of faculty
and the intellectual breadth. We envision research connections and new
educational programs integrating computing with the arts, the humanities, the
social sciences, engineering, the physical sciences, the life sciences, and the
professional schools. The number of faculty involved and their disparate
backgrounds call for focal areas, such as the three we identified above, that in
and of themselves could be as large as many departments. The combination of
these focal areas with core computing and information science could be the
size of a small college, and far broader intellectually.
A second critical problem that we see with the department model is the
necessity of maintaining the strength, identity, reputation, and visibility of core
activities such as the Computer Science Department and the computer
engineering area. Adding a broad range of people to the departments that
contain these core activities could easily be perceived as diluting their strength
with "soft" or "applications" work. Thus we do not see the common home for
broader activities fitting inside any single department. We have also seen,
during campus discussions, that the model of diluting a department with a large
number of joint appointments is damaging to the fundamental nature and
purpose of departments.
Correct
Advantages might include
Answer:
• Easier/quicker access to information, which speeds up the research process
• Wider access to information, which means more people benefit from the
fruits of research
• Wider distribution of research findings, which allows broader discussion and
critique of the findings
Disadvantages might include
• Feelings of being overwhelmed in the face of such large quantities of
information
• The relatively “unpoliced” nature of the Internet (anyone can post any
information on any topic regardless of its veracity)
• The creation of a “digital divide” between those who have access to
computers and Internet resources and those who do not
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 8
3 out of 3 points
One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically
organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the
research project. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge,
including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
One method is the paper and pencil approach. This approach is beneficial if
the project is small and involves only a small amount of data. Large amount
of data would not not be helpful for this approach.
Students may mention a paper-and-pencil approach or a computerized
approach. Their preference and the strengths and weaknesses they identify
with each approach will largely depend on their personal style, particularly
their comfort with computers and the strength of their need to see the data
literally arrayed around them, rather than invisibly housed on a computer
hard drive.
[None Given]

Question 9
2 out of 3 points
Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully
designed research proposal is something to be preached, but not really practiced. Identify
at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered
when doing research. For each problem, explain how a complete and detailed research
proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Manipulation of data
Every researcher tries or does one or the other kinds of manipulation of
data. May bemultiplying the sample size or to make the result in
the way they want. The lack of confidence over the result they may
get after the completion of study is the reason for manipulation of result.
This never reveals the reality, as the intuition of the researcher is
guided by mere theoretical knowledge. In reality sometimes
theory and practicemay be contradictory. Some researchers just
finish off their study by simply sitting intheir home; they don’T t even
interact with their subject or have any one.
Lack of availability or access to literature needed.
This is a major problem faced during the literature review. The lack of
availability of access to Internet, ignorance of the way to search
needed articles from journals andother databases are other
problems. Searching books and newspaper articles
fromc o n v e n t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s c o n s u m e s a l o t o f t i m e a n d
e f f o r t . T h e s e k i n d o f l i b r a r i e s , especially which are situated
away from the capital cities lack copies of new acts/rules
published by the government. There is also timely
unavailability of publisheddata.
Correct
Answer:
Common problems may include the following:
• Variables of interest are not well or fully represented by the chosen
measurement instruments.
• Chosen instruments are not valid or reliable.
• A representative sample is not available to the researcher.
• The researcher is unsure how to analyze the data that have been gathered.
• The data in hand do not lend themselves to the planned analyses.
• The researcher is unsure how to interpret the results of the statistical analyses.
Each of these problems could be avoided if the researcher prepared a detailed
research proposal that included close scrutiny of all issues related to
measures, sampling, analysis, interpretation, and so on.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 10
3 out of 3 points
There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already
in existence (e.g., historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing
out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
The two biggest challenges of historical research are determining the
external and internal evidence of a piece of datum (artifact). Determining
the external evidence is the first priority and involves deciding whether an
artifact is genuine or not. This analysis can be performed with tools such as
carbon dating, hand writing analysis or material analysis. Validating the
genuineness of a historical article in turn validates the research. Once it
has been determined that an article is genuine, the next challenge is to
determine its internal evidence. This involves analyzing what the historical
artifact means. These two types of evaluation are of utmost importance to
historical research, but also pose real challenges to this field of study.
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
When using existing documents or records, it is sometimes difficult to find out
exactly where the documents or records physically exist and exactly
what information is contained in them. This impedes the ability of the
researcher to say for sure whether such sources will shed light on the
research problem. Sometimes obtaining access to existing records or
documents is difficult due to inaccessible location or heavy restrictions
on access.
[None Given]

Question 11
3 out of 3 points
In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very
challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted
in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section
of the proposal.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
It is important not to cut corners during the research proposal because it will
not bring out the best in a proposal. By cutting corners it can keep the
reader lost by lacking essential details like precision and logic of the final
document.
Providing a detailed look at this methodology will ensure an efficient and
productive manner in which the data will be analyze and interpreted. This
can serve several purposes. The methodology for this step of the research is
stated prior to the research and therefore out in the open when the research
begins. If there were any contradictions or opposing opinions to the
methodology used then the research would not be held responsible. This
also ensures that the researcher does not forget to include any analyzing or
interpreting techniques that are listed in the methods. The helps the
researcher complete this step without forgetting anything.
By clearly specifying in advance how questionnaires will be scored or other
measurements used, the researcher avoids gathering data that turn out to not
lend themselves easily to quantification. By specifying in advance what
statistical techniques will be used, the researcher avoids a situation in which
the data gathered are not suitable to the planned analysis (e.g., wrong level of
measurement—ordinal, interval, etc.—in the outcome measures, grouping
information not available, sample size too small). By specifying in advance
how the results of statistical tests will be interpreted in light of the research
question, the researcher avoids ending up with results that do not fully or
adequately address the research problem set forth.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 12
3 out of 3 points
Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about
how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.
Answer
1.Research is not merely gathering information.
Selected
e.g a teacher sent a student to a library to do research on black holes. The
Answer:
student took as going to the library and finding facts. Its is considered
information facts but not research.
Research is not merely rummaging around for hard to locate information.
e.g Finding research of a property a realtor tells you about. This is considered
not research.
Research is not merely transporting facts from one location to another.
e.g a college student transfering info as a source to another
Correct
Student examples will likely include uses such as these:
Answer:
• “Research paper,” referring to a paper based on information found
in a library
• “Do research on product X,” which might include reading
Consumer Reports or consulting relevant professionals or salespeople
• “Research the family history,” which involves the collection of
information related to family history
In none of these cases has the “researcher” produced new information
through the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 13
3 out of 3 points
In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress
the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover
letter? If not, what do you recommend instead?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
In my opinion I would recommend a cover letter for an academic job has a
function similar to one for a business job, but the content differs
significantly in quantity and kind. While the general advice for business
cover letters—such as tailoring your letter for the specific job and selling
your strengths—still applies, a cover letter for an academic position should
be long enough to highlight in some detail your accomplishments during
your graduate education in research, teaching, departmental service, and so
on.
A better approach is to address the needs and interests of the respondent. If
the information in the survey or following from the study might be of
personal interest to the potential respondent, point this out and say how s/he
can gain access to your findings. If the study is linked to attaining goals the
respondent may value (better schools, safer neighborhoods, more efficient
local government, etc.), point this out in the cover letter. At a minimum,
acknowledge the potential respondent’s willingness to invest time in your
project, and give him or her an estimate of how long it will take to complete
the survey. Always be courteous.
[None Given]

Question 14
3 out of 3 points
A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is
effective when it really is not. What type of error is the researcher concerned about
making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the
likelihood of making that type of error. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach
for other types of error in the study.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
If the researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new
medication is effective Type I error (rejecting the null hypothesis when he
should have accepted it). To decrease the probability that he will make a
Type I error the researcher can decrease the risk level of his hypothesis test
from say 0.05 to 0.01. Type II error (accepting a null hypothesis when it
should have been rejected) increases and would not be useful.
The researcher is concerned about making a Type I error: concluding that
there are differences between the medication and placebo groups when
these are really due merely to chance. The researcher can reduce her
chances of making a Type I error by reducing her probability (alpha)
level—from .05 to .01 or even .001, for instance. The more stringent the
probability level, the less likely the researcher will be to make a Type I
error. However, Type I and Type II errors exist in an inverse
relationship. So as the chance of making a Type I error decreases, the
chance of making a Type II error (concluding that the medication is not
effective when, in fact, it is) increases.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 15
2.7 out of 3 points
Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations
regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and
cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and
29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has
generated a lengthy list of research articles. He decides to shorten the list of potential
articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research
journals. He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review. What is your
opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review? Explain.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
This approach was a good by rcognizing the keywords that lead to
thousands of resources for his review. as he shortens his his list. This
would allow him to break down his article in recognizing which direction to
go in whether it is using library catalogs, using indexes and abstracts and
online databasis.
Kirby is right that the quality of the journal in which articles are published
is one factor worth noting when making decisions about what to include in
the literature review. However, there were more important distinctions
Kirby should have made before taking that particular step. The keywords
Kirby used in his search were overly general. His list of articles
undoubtedly contains many that are only remotely related to his research
problem, as well as many that are closely related. To maintain appropriate
focus in the literature review, Kirby needs to first narrow his list of articles
to those most relevant to his particular research problem. It may later make
sense to eliminate additional articles from the list on the basis of journal
quality, but that decision is premature at Kirby’s present state.
[None Given]

Question 16
2.5 out of 3 points
Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent
variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial
designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Factoial design is advantageous because in many situations it provides a
researcher to examine the two effects of two or more independent variables
in a single study.
This is advantageous because researchers are often interested in more than
one effect on the dependent variable. Oceanographers may want to study
effects related to both water temperature and salinity. Child welfare workers
may want to study the effects of family income, mother’s education level,
and history of abuse on coping ability. The factorial design not only allows
researchers to study these various factors independently, but their
interactions can be studied as well. Studying interactions allows researchers
to investigate the extent to which two or more factors influence each
other. Perhaps whales encounter health problems in warmer water only at
certain levels of salinity. Perhaps parents cope more successfully with stress
when both family income and/or education level surpass a certain
threshold. Or perhaps family income influences coping ability only when
there is no history of abuse.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 17
2 out of 3 points
A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug
treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility. Program B is
used at Winterdale adolescent facility. Because random assignment to treatments is not
possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of
sample bias?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Acknowledge the design bias in your research. First, try to include as many
variables as possible to lessen the effects of design bias. Second, understand
that it is nearly impossible to create the perfect, unbiased research paper no
matter how hard you try. Lessen the effects of design bias by
acknowledging the shortcoming of the experimentation in the research
paper. This will give additional credibility to your paper
Suggestions may include the following:
&νβσπ;Use a pretest–posttest design to assess the equivalence of the
two groups on variables relevant to the study.
&νβσπ;Identify matched pairs across facilities, and use only these
people in the study.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 18
3 out of 3 points
Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support
your chief hypothesis. Why might this have happened? Discuss several possibilities.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
If the data fails to support your hypothesis it doesn't mean tht is wong. Look
once again at your methodology and statistical analyses to see if you can
identify one or more weaknesses in what you have done. Your measurement
instruments had lower validity or reliability than you had anticipated and
therefore was not yielding accurate and dependable measures of a critical
variable in your study. Perhaps you gave participants misleading
instructions or asked them misleading questions. This can also be
considered a type II error.
Possibilities include the following:
&νβσπ;The instruments had poor reliability or validity.
&νβσπ;The procedures for data gathering were violated or were not
sound to begin with.
&νβσπ;The power of statistical tests was low due to small sample
size.
&νβσπ;The data were analyzed in an inappropriate manner.
&νβσπ;An inappropriate sample was used for investigating the
research problem.
&νβσπ;Thee hypothesis was wrong.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 19
3 out of 3 points
Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before
writing a research proposal.
Answer
1. It can reveal sources of data you may not have known existed.
Selected
2. It can introduce you to measuremnt tools that other researchers have
Answer:
developed and used effectively.
3. It can reveal methods of dealing with difficulties similar to those you are
facing in tackling your research problem
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
Benefits noted might include
&νβσπ;Determining whether the question of interest has already
been addressed in some fashion
&νβσπ;Discovering new insights, perspectives, approaches, or
methodologies that are relevant to the research proposal
&νβσπ;Becoming informed about related work done by others
&νβσπ;Discovering valuable sources of data
&νβσπ;Aiding interpretation of findings
Avoiding the pitfalls encountered by others doing similar research
[None Given]

Question 20
3 out of 3 points
A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any
complex phenomenon or situation. What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this
usage?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
In a qualitative world, no single, determinable truth exists. Instead, there are
truths to be found, and these truths are bound by the time, the context, and
the individuals who believe them. Often, shared beliefs or shared realities
are what constitute truth.
Qualitative methodologists generally do not believe in one objective
“Truth.” Rather, they understand that there are many truths, depending on
point of view, circumstance, motivation, and so on. Particularly in regard to
complex phenomena or situations, it is important to look for lots of
“truths”—from people who hold different points of view and exist in
different relationships with the phenomenon or situation. Only in this way
can the researcher hope to approach some completeness of understanding
[None Given]
Quiz 1

Question 1
2 out of 2 points
(1) What is the main purpose for RESEARCH? (2) List and explain four categories that
describe the existing types of research: Methodology, Applicability, Locality, and
funding. (3) Describe the two types of research based on Methodology: Empirical and
Theoretical.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Research has given rise to various, enormously beneficial products through the
fields of science and technology.
Research, in science and technology, is one of the most important factors
responsible for changes in society.
Methodology: Empirical versus theoretical research.
Applicability: Basic versus applied research and development.
Locality: University versus non-university research.
Funding: Public versus private funding of research.
Basic research embraces research in which the scientists pursue their
investigations with the main purpose of finding out how nature works.
In applied research and development, the goal is to extend the findings from basic
research into useful techniques that may be developed into products to cover
needs in society. There is little doubt that society wants useful products as end
results from any kind of research, whether it be basic or applied
Correct
Answer:
[None]

Question 2
0 out of 0.5 points
Which of the following types of research is conducted to evaluate specific courses of
action or forecast current or future value?
Answer
Selected Answer:
Prediction studies
Correct Answer:
Description studies

Question 3
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Are any of the following not a good reason for managers to be well grounded in basic
research?
Answer
Selected Answer:
All are good reasons.
Correct Answer:
All are good reasons.

Question 4
0.5 out of 0.5 points
which of the following is not an example of research?
Answer
Selected Answer:
a decision to change the firm's method of accounting.
Correct Answer:
a decision to change the firm's method of accounting.

Question 5
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Applied research:
Answer
Selected Answer:
Is problem directed and closely related to policy or action needs.
Correct Answer:
Is problem directed and closely related to policy or action needs.

Question 6
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Which of the following observations on research is correct?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Increasing complexities in technology and business increase the need
for research.
Increasing complexities in technology and business increase the need
for research.

Question 7
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Data was analyzed and it showed that: a salesperson's performance is directly and
positively related to the salesperson's level of education. this is an example of what type
of research?
Answer
Selected Answer:
Explanatory
Correct Answer:
Explanatory

Question 8
0 out of 0.5 points
A predictive study showed that a company would gain a 10% market share if it reduced
its product price by $5. The study assumed competitions would keep the prices of their
products unchanged.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
A new study focusing on a smaller number of variables is required.
As the conpany cannot control the price decisions of its conpetitors so
the study is not very useful.

Question 9
0.5 out of 0.5 points
An estimate of next year's market share is an example of what type of research?
Answer
Selected Answer:
Predictive
Correct Answer:
Predictive

Question 10
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Good research studies:
Answer
Selected Answer:
Declare their limitations and flaws in procedure.
Correct Answer:
Declare their limitations and flaws in procedure.

Question 11
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Which of the following is basic rather than applied research:
Answer
Selected Answer:
Work towards the discovery of a possible new element.
Correct Answer:
Work towards the discovery of a possible new element.

Question 12
0.5 out of 0.5 points
To ensure that the best possible research is done:
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Managers should indicate their problems to researchers as decision
choices rather than information requirements.
Managers should indicate their problems to researchers as decision
choices rather than information requirements.

Question 13
0.5 out of 0.5 points
The value of applied research in a managerial environment comes from:
Answer
Selected Answer:
Its help in decision making.
Correct Answer:
Its help in decision making.

Question 14
0.5 out of 0.5 points
Which of the following is a true statement?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
research can provide guideposts even to experienced and intuitive
people.
Correct Answer:
research can provide guideposts even to experienced and intuitive
people.

Question 15
0.5 out of 0.5 points
research involves:
Answer
Selected
Answer:
An application of scientific methods to information collection and
analysis.
Correct Answer:
An application of scientific methods to information collection and
analysis.

Question 16
1.5 out of 1.5 points
What is research?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Research is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting
information data in order to increase our understanding of a phenomenon
about which we are interested or concerned.
Research is information gathering
Research is transportation of facts from one location to another.
Research is rummaging for informatio
Research is a catchword used to get attention.

Question 17
2 out of 2 points
What are eight distinct characteristics about research?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
1. Research originates with a question or problem
2. Research requires clear articulation of a goal.
3. Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable
sub problems.
4. Research is guided by the specific research problem, question or
hypothesis.
5. Research requires a specific plan for proceeding.
6. Research rests on certain critical assumptions.
7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt
to resolve the problem that initiated the research.
8. Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.
Correct
Answer:
&νβσπ;Research originates with a question or problem.
&νβσπ;Research requires a clear articulation of a goal
&νβσπ;Research follows a specific plan of procedure.
&νβσπ;Research usually divides the principal problem into more
manageable subproblems.
&νβσπ;Research is guided by the specific research problem, questions,
or hypothesis.
&νβσπ;Research accepts certain assumptions.
&νβσπ;Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an
attempt to resolve the problem that initiated the research.
&νβσπ;Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.

Question 18
2 out of 2 points
Explain “Research usually divides the principal problem into more
manageable subproblems”.
Answer
Selected This characteristic basically explains a standpoint, to break a main research
Answer: problem into several sub problems that when solved can resolve the main
problem.
Breaking down principal problems into small, easily solvable sub problems is
a strategy we use in everyday living.
example:
Driving to town A to town B. The goal is to get from one location to the other
as expeditiously as possible. You soon realize that the problem involves sub
problems such as what route appears to the most direct one and which is the
more important to minimizing travel time.
Correct
Answer: From a design standpoint, it is often helpful to break a main research problem
into several subproblems that, when solved, will resolve the main problem.
Breaking down principal problems into small, easily solvable subproblems is
strategy we use in everyday living. for example, suppose you want to get
from your town to a town 50 miles away. Your principal goal is to get from
one location to the other as expeditiously as possible. You soon realize,
however, that the problem involves several subproblems:
Main problem: how do I get from Town A to Town B?
Subproblems: 1. What is the most direct route?
2. How far do I travel on the highway?
3. Which exit should I take to leave the highway?
What seems like a single question can be divided into at least three smaller
questions that must be addressed before the principal question can be
resolved.

Question 19
2 out of 2 points
What is a theory?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
A theory is an organized body of concepts and principals intended to
explain a particular phenomenon.
A theory is an organized body of concepts and principles intended to
explain a particular phenomenon.

Question 20
1.5 out of 1.5 points
What is a hypothesis?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
A hypothesis is a logical supposition, a reasonable guess, an educated
conjecture. It provides a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under
investigation. It may direct your thinking to possible sources of information
that will aid in resolving one or more sub problems and, as a result, may also
help to resolve the principal research problem.
A hypothesis is a logical supposition, a reasonable guess, an educated
conjecture. It provides a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under
investigation.

Question 21
2 out of 2 points
What is an assumption of a hypothesis?
Answer
Selected
Answer:
An assumption of a hypothesis is a condition that is taken for granted,
without which the research project would be pointless. Assumptions are
equivalent to axioms in geometry, self evident truths that any reasonable
person might accept..
Correct
Answer:
An assumption is a condition that is taken for granted, without which the
research project would be pointless. Assumptions are usually so self-evident
that a researcher may consider it unnecessary to mention them.

Question 22
2 out of 10 points
Explain the research cycle.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
The research cycle has 6 steps:
1. Research begins with a problem: an unanswered question in the mind of
the researcher.
2. Research defines the goal in terms of a clear statement of the problem.
3. Research subdivides the problem into appropriate sub problems.
4. Research posits tentative solutions to the problems through reasonable
hypotheses. These hypotheses direct the researcher to appropriate data
5. Research looks for data directed by the hypotheses and guided by the
problem and research methodology. The data are collected and organized.
6. Research interprets the meaning of the data, which leads to a resolution of
the problem, thus supporting or not supporting the hypotheses or providing
an answer to that question that began the research cycle. At this point, one or
more new problems may emerge.
&νβσπ;Research begins with a problem: an unanswered question in the
mind of the researcher.
&νβσπ;Research defines the goal in terms of a clear statement of the
problem.
&νβσπ;Research subdivides the problem into appropriate subproblems.
&νβσπ;Research posits tentative solutions to the problems through
reasonable hypotheses direct the researcher to appropriate data.
&νβσπ;Research looks for data directed by the hypotheses and guided by
the problem. The data are collected and organized.
&νβσπ;Research interprets the meaning of the data, which leads to a
resolution of the problem, thus confirming or rejecting the hypotheses
and providing an answer to the question that began the research cycle. At
this point, one or more new problems may emerge.
Quiz 9

Question 1
2 out of 2 points
Explain eight different approaches to sampling designs.
Answer
1. Simple random sampling- Simple random sampling is exactly is exactly the
Selected
process just described: Every member of the population has an equal chance
Answer:
of being selected.
2. Stratified random sampling- Has three different layers of distinctly different
types of indiviuals. In stratified random sampling, the researcher samples
equally from one of the layers in the overall population.
3. Proportional stratified sampling- In the simple stratified random sampling
design just described, all strata of the population are essentially equal in size.
4. Cluster sampling- a sample of study through normal randomnization
procedures. It is important that the clusters be as similar to one another as
possible, with each cluster containing an equally heterogeneous mix of
individuals.
5. Systematic sampling- involves sampling selecting individuals, or perhaps
clusters according to a predetermined sequence.
6. Convience sampling- also known as accidental sampling makes no pretense
of identifying a representative subset of a population.
7. Quota sampling- Quota sampling is a variation of convenience sampling. It
selects respondents in the same proportions that they are found in the general
population, but not in random fashion.
8. Purposive sampling- pople or other units are chosen.
Correct
Simple random sampling
Answer:
Stratified random sampling
Proportional stratified sampling
Cluster sampling
Systematic sampling
Convenience sampling
Quota sampling
Purposive sampling
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 2
1.9 out of 2 points
Define and give an example of correlational research.
Answer
Correlation research examines the extent to which differences in one
Selected
characteristic or variable are relasted to differences in one or more other
Answer:
characteristics or variables.
A scatter plot is an example of correlation which allows a visual inspection
of the relationship between two variables.
Correct
Answer:
A correlational study examines the extent to which differences in one
characteristic or variable are related to differences in one or more other
characteristics or variables.
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 3
2 out of 2 points
Explain how to conduct an interview in a quantitative study.
Answer
1. Identify questions in advance.
Selected
2. Consider how participants cultural backgrouunds might influence their
Answer:
responses.
3. Make sure your interviewees are representative of the group.
4. Find a suitable location
5. Get written information
6. Establish and maintain rapport
7. Focus on the actual rather than on the abstract or hypothetical
8. Don't put words in people's mouth
9. Record responses verbatim
10. Keep your reactions to yourself.
11. Remember that you are not necessarily getting the facts.
Correct
Make sure your interviewees are representative of the group
Answer:
Find a suitable location
Take a few minutes to establish rapport
Get written permission
Focus on the actual righter than on the abstract or hypothetical
Don’t put words in people’s mouths
Record responses verbatim
Keep your reactions to yourself
Remember that you are not necessarily getting the facts
As you write the questions, consider how you can quantify the
responses, and modify the questions accordingly.
Consider asking questions that will elicit qualitative information
as well
Pilot-test the questions
Restrict each question to a single idea
Save controversial questions for the latter part of the interview
Seek clarifying information when necessary
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 4
2 out of 2 points
Explain what a bias in research sampling is, and how to identify possible bias in
questionnaire research.
Answer
In research, bias is any influence, condition, or set of conditions that singly or
Selected
in combination distort the data.
Answer:
Studies involving mailed questionaires frequently fall victim to bias without to
researchers awareness. Bias attacks the integrety of facts. It is especially
vicious when it enters surreptitiously into the research system and goes
undetected.
Correct
Answer:
In research, bias is any influence, condition, or set of conditions that
singly or together distort the data.
Three strategies as followings will use to identify possible bias:
Carefully scrutinize the questionnaire for items that might be
influenced by one’s education level, interest in the topic, or
other factors that frequently distinguish respondents from
nonrespondents.
Compare the responses on questionnaires that were returned
quickly with responses on those that were returned later,
perhaps after a second reminder letter or after the deadline you
imposed. The late ones may, to some extent, reflect the kinds of
responses that nonrespondents would have given.
Randomly select a small number of nonrespondents and try
to contact them by mail or telephone.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 5
2 out of 2 points
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face and telephone interviews,
questionnaires.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Face to face interviews have the distinct advantage of enabling the researcher
to establish rapport with potential participants and therefore gain their
cooperation. The disadvantage is the time and expense involved may be
prohibitive if the needed interviewees reside in a variety of states, provinces, or
countries.
Telephone interviews are less consuming and less expemsive, and the
researcher has potential access to virtually anyone on the planet who has a
landline telephone or cell phone. The disadvantages of telephone interviews
cannot establish the same kind of rapport that is possible in a face to face
situation, and the sample will be biased to the extent that people without
phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw
inferences.
Questionaires have an advantage for participants to respond to questions with
some assurance that their responses won't come back to haunt them. Thus,
they may be more truthful than they would be in a personl interview, especially
when addressing sensitive or controversial issues. The disadvantages are: the
majority of people who recieve questionnaires don't return them.
Face-to-face interviews have the distinct advantage of enabling the
researcher to establish rapport with potential participants and therefore
gain their cooperation, thus, such interviews yield the highest response
rates in survey research. Personal interviews also allow the researcher
to clarify ambiguous answers and, when appropriate, seek follow-up
information. However, such interviews take time and so may not be
practical when very large sample sizes are important. And, of course,
the time and expense involved may be prohibitive if the needed
interviewees reside in a variety of states or countries.
Telephone interviews are less time-consuming and less expensive, and
the researcher has ready access to virtually anyone on the planet who
has a telephone.
The researcher cannot establish the same kind of rapport that is
possible in a face-to-face situation and the sample will be biased to the
extent that people without phones are part of the population about
whom the researcher wants to draw inferences.
Questionnaires may save the researcher travel expenses and postage is
typically cheaper that a long-distance telephone call.
However, it has its drawbacks as well. The majority of people who
receive questionnaires don’t return them, and the people who do return
them are not necessarily representative of the originally selected
sample.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 6
2 out of 2 points
Explain how to make an observation studies.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
Response
Feedback:
Define the behavior being studied in such a precise, concrete manner that
the behavior is easily recognized when it occurs.
Divide the observaion period into small segments and then record
whether the behavior does or does not occur during each segmant.
Use a rating scale to evaluate the behavior in terms of specific dimensions
Have two or three people rate the same behavior independently, without
knowledge of one another's ratings.
Train the raters to use specific criteria when counting or evaluating the
behavior, and continue trainining until consistent ratings are obtained for
any single occurrence of the behavior.
Define the behavior being studied in a precise, concrete
manner so that he behavior is easily recognized when it
occurs.
Divide the observation period into small segments and then
record whether the behavior does or does not occur during
each segment.
Use a rating scale to rate the behavior in terms of specific
dimensions
Have two or three people rate the same behavior
independently, without knowledge of one another’s ratings.
Train the rater of follow specific criteria when counting or
evaluating the behavior, and continue training until consistent
ratings are obtained for any single occurrence of the behavior.
[None Given]

Question 7
2 out of 2 points
Explain how identify a sufficient sample size.
Answer
Selected
Answer:
Correct
Answer:
For smaller populations, say, N=100 or fewer, there is little point in
sampling
If the population size around 500 (give or take 100), 50 % should be
sampled.
If the population size is around 1500, 20 % shold be sampled.
Beyond a certain (about N = 5,000), the population size is almost
irrelevant and a sample size of 400 will be adequate.
For small populations (N<100), there is little point in sampling.
Survey the entire population
If the population size is around 500. 50% of the population should
be sampled
If the population size is around 1,500, 20% should be sampled
Beyond a certain point (at approximately N=5,000), the
populationsize is almost irrelevant, and as a sample size of 400 will
be adequate
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 8
2 out of 2 points
Explain what a checklist is and what a rating scale is.
Answer
A checklist is a list of behaviors or characteristics for which a researcher is
Selected
looking.
The resercher- or in some studies , each participant simply indicates
Answer:
whether each item on the list is observed, present or true.
A rating scale is more useful when a behavior attitude, or other phenomenon
of interest needs to be evaluated on a continuum of say, "inadequate" to
"excellent", "never" to "always" or "strongly dissaprove" to "strongly
approve"
Correct
A checklist is a list of behaviors, characteristics, or other entities that a
Answer:
researcher is looking for.
A rating scale is more useful when a behavior, attitude, or other
phenomenon of interest needs to be evaluated on a continuum of, say,
“inadequate” to “excellent,” “never” to “always” or “strongly
disapprove” to “strongly approve.”
Response
Feedback:
[None Given]

Question 9
2 out of 2 points
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional study and longitudinal
study.
Answer
Cross sectional studies are easier and more expedient to conduct than
Selected
longitudinal studies because the researcher can collect all the needed data at a
Answer:
single time. In contrast. In contrast, a reseacher who conducts a longitudinal
study must collect data over a lengthly period and will almost invariably lose
some participants along the way because the move to unkown locations or
perhaps because they no longer want to participate. In adddition people
respond repeatedly to the same measure instrument, event if the characteristic
being measured hasn;t changed.
Cros sectional studie have disadvantages sucha s the different age groups
sampled may have been raised under different environmental conditions.
Secondly, is that we cannot compute correlations between characteristics of
different age levels.
Correct
Answer:
In a cross-sectional study, people from several different age groups are
sampled and compared. In a longitudinal study, a single group of
people is followed over the course of several months or years, and data
related to the characteristic under investigation are collected at various
times.
Cross-sectional studies are easier to conduct than longitudinal studies,
because the researcher can collect all the needed data at a single time
and doesn’t have to worry about tracking down people who may have
relocated to various points around the globe.
Another disadvantage of longitudinal design is that when people
respond repeatedly to the same measurement instrument, they are likely
to improve simply because of their practice with the instrument, even if
the characteristic being measured hasn’t changed at all.
But cross-sectional designs have their disadvantages as well. For one
thing, the different age groups sampled may have been raised under
different environmental conditions.
A second disadvantage of a cross-sectional design is that we cannot
computer correlations between characteristics at different age levels.
Response [None Given]
Feedback:

Question 10
2 out of 2 points
Explain how to construct a questionnaire
Answer
1. Keep it short
Selected
2. Keep the respondent's task simple and concrete
Answer:
3. Provide straightforward, specific instructions
4. Use simple, clear, unambiguous language.
5. Give a rationale for any items whose purpose may be unclear
6. Check for unwarranted assumptions implicit in your questions
7. Word your questions in ways that don't give clues abot preferred or more
desirable responses.
8. Determine in advance how yow will code the responses.
9. Check for consistency
Correct
Answer:
Keep it short
Use simple, clear, unambiguous language
Check for unwarranted assumptions implicit in your questions
Word your questions in ways that do not give clues about preferred ot
more desirable responses.
Check for consistency
Determine in advance how you will code the responses.
Keep the respondent’s task simple
Provide clear instructions
Give a rational for any items whose purpose may be unclear
Make the questionnaire attractive and professional looking
Conduct a pilot test
Scrutinize the almost-final product carefully to make sure it addresses
your needs