Science: Chapter 2, Unit C Study guide
Rocks and Minerals
ASSESSMENT DATE:_____________________
STUDENTS SHOULD USE THIS STUDY GUIDE IN ADDITION TO THEIR TEXTBOOKS, INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOKS AND
ONLINE FLASHCARDS. ONLINE FLASHCARDS ARE AVAILABLE AT HTTP://QUIZLET.COM/15420063/ROCKSAND-MINERALS-FLASH-CARDS/
KEY VOCABULARY:
Rock: Material made up of one or more minerals. Have properties that can be
observed, tested and described. Can be classified into three categories: igneous,
sedimentary and metamorphic.
Igneous rock: Rocks that have been melted by Earth’s heat and then cooled (or
hardened) over a long period of time. New rock. Examples include: basalt, obsidian
and pumice.
Metamorphic rock: A rock that has been changed by high heat and great pressure.
Changed Rock. Examples include: marble, gneiss and slate.
Sedimentary rock: Forms when rock pieces and layers are deposited over time and
pressed together. Fossils are most commonly found in this type of rock. Examples
include: sandstone, limestone and shale.
Rock Cycle: The pattern of slow changes in rocks from one kind to another. Rocks are
formed, changed and reformed over long periods of time. This process involves heat,
pressure, compaction, cementing, melting, erosion, weathering and deposition.
Students should be able to draw and label this cycle.
Mineral: A natural solid that has its particles arranged in a crystal pattern. Formed in the
mantle or deep in the crust. Made from particles that were never alive. Example uses:
graphite pencils, musical instruments, coins, jewelry, cars, appliances and salt.
Properties of Minerals: Color, Luster, Hardness, and Streak.
Luster: Describes how a mineral’s surface looks when light reflects from it.
Hardness: Describes to what extent a mineral can resist being scratched. This is shown
using a scratch test. Harder minerals scratch softer minerals. Moh’s Hardness Scale is a
scratch test where 1(talc) is the softest and 10 (diamond) is the hardest.
Streak: The color of the dust, or powder, left behind by a mineral when rubbed against
a tile.
Science: Chapter 2, Unit C Study guide
Rocks and Minerals
KEY CONCEPTS THAT STUDENTS SHOULD UNDERSTAND:
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The difference between rocks and minerals
Model and explain how igneous rocks could be changed into sedimentary rock
Model and explain how metamorphic rocks form
Explain why fossils can be present in sedimentary rocks but can never be found
in metamorphic and igneous rocks.
Students should be able to determine which minerals could scratch eachother
using Moh’s hardness scale below. For example, Quartz can scratch Apatite.
Moh’s Hardness Scale
1 is the softest. 10 is the hardest
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Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Orthoclase Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond
ROCK CYCLE
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Rocks move and change over time due to heat and pressure within Earth and due to
weathering, erosion, and deposition at the surface. These and other processes
constantly change rock from one type to another.
Science: Chapter 2, Unit C Study guide
Rocks and Minerals
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Depending on how rocks are formed, they are classified as
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sedimentary (layers of sediment cemented together)
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igneous (melted and cooled, e.g., lava and magma)
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metamorphic (changed by heat and pressure)
ROCK IDENTIFICATION
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Rocks have properties that can be observed, tested, and described.
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Composition, grain size and textural features, color, and the presence of fossils help
with identification.
Science: Chapter 2, Unit C Study guide
Rocks and Minerals
ANCIENT EARTH - FOSSILS
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Scientific evidence indicates Earth is ancient — approximately 4.6 billion years old.
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The age of many rocks can be determined very reliably.
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Fossils provide information about life and conditions of the past.
Study Tips:
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Reread the work in your notebook
Reread Chapter 2 , Unit C in your Science textbook
Quiz yourself on vocabulary
Ask a friend or family member to quiz you on key terms and key concepts
Highlight terms or concepts that you don’t understand and find the answers in
your book and notebook
Take a practice test
Use flashcards and play games on Quizlet
Remember, knowing the vocabulary will only get you a 2! You will need to study
your notes and classwork to get a 3 or a 4!
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Rocks and Minerals Study Guide