Earth Science SOL Review
Upwelling occurs when cold water sinks and forces the water on the bottom to be pushed to
the surface, resulting in cold bottom water rising to fill the gap. This nutrient-rich water
provides extreme amounts of food for fish, therefore upwelling areas are known for rich
biological activity. True(T) or False(F) _______________
Seamount: Write the correct letter ______________
a. Underwater seahorse that crabs can ride on
b. Flattest area on earth
c. A species that lives in seawater
d. Underwater volcano
Earth’s atmosphere is 78% oxygen and 21% nitrogen: True(T) or False(F) _______________
Factors affecting climate: Write a check mark next to the correct answer(s)
_______Latitude—areas around the equator receive more of the sun’s energy
_______Elevation—how high is an area?
_______Bodies of water—cold ocean currents cause colder climates
_______Position relative to mountains
_______All of the above
Match the following descriptions to the cloud types
Cirrus________
A. (fair weather clouds) puffy white clouds
Cumulus______
B. puffy white clouds low gray clouds
Stratus_______
C. light, thin, feathery (fair weather clouds)
During the day, wind blows from the sea to the land because the air above the sea is colder
(denser) and the air above the land is warm (less dense). Circle the correct answer.
a. Land breeze
b. Sea breeze
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above
Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure that form over warm ocean water of at least 80
degrees. True(T) or False(F) _______________
Match the following descriptions to correct scientific instruments:
Hygrometer or psychrometer _______
a. barometric pressure
Anemometer _______
b. wind speed
Barometer _______
c. wind direction
Wind vane _______
d. relative humidity
Fill in the correct advantages (a-f), and disadvantages (A-F)
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
Nuclear
Hydroelectric
Wind
Solar
Advantages
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
Disadvantages
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Highly efficient; does not cause air pollution; inexpensive
Efficient; can be converted into different types of fuel
No pollution; clean; renewable
Available in US; clean
No air pollution; inexpensive; renewable
No pollution; clean; inexpensive; renewable
Abundant in US; inexpensive
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Causes air pollution and acid rain; mining practices harmful to miners’ health
Winds not always constant; not practical for large-scale
Difficult to store and transport; mostly nonrenewable
Not available in all areas; effects local ecology
Causes air pollution; risk of spills while drilling/transporting; nonrenewable
Thermal pollution; radioactive waste; nuclear accidents
Expensive to convert into usable form
Density formula is: Circle the correct answer
a. Mass/Volume
b. Mass x Volume
c. Volume/Mass
d. Mass + Volume
Match the correct base unit:
Length__________
a. gram
Mass___________
b. liter
Volume_________
c. meter
What runs parallel to the equator and is measured North and South? Circle correct answer
a. Latitude
b. Longitude
c. Elevation
Match the descriptions to the correct theory
Impact theory ________
Dinosaur Extinction Theory _________
Big Bang Theory________
a. The universe originated from the instant expansion of an extremely small agglomeration
of matter of extremely high density and temperature.
b. The moon formed about 4.5 billion years ago as a result of a collision between Earth and
a planet-sized object.
c. a giant asteroid hit Earth about 65 million years ago and created atmospheric changes
that caused sunlight to be blocked out, altering ecosystems
Seasons are caused by: Circle the correct answer
a. Distance from the sun to the earth
b. Tilt of the earth
c. Earth’s Rotation
Match the description to the correct type of eclipse
Lunar eclipse_______
Solar eclipse________
a. occur when the moon is in Full moon phase the moon passes through Earth’s shadow
b. occurs during the day when a new moon is present. The moon blocks the sun
Name the 4 inner planets from closest to farthest:
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Name the 4 outer planets from closest to farthest:
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Put the correct order of the sun’s life cycle
Black Dwarf, Nebula, protostar, red giant, white dwarf, yellow main sequence star
1st _________________________________
2nd _________________________________
3rd _________________________________
4th _________________________________
5th _________________________________
6th _________________________________
The Milky Way galaxy where we live is: Circle the correct answer
a. elliptical
b. irregular
c. spiral
A light year is the: Circle the correct answer
a. distance light travels in one year
b. the distance from the sun to the earth
c. the distance from the sun to the edge of the solar system
Fill in the correct planets
Asteroids are found in the asteroid belt, located between the orbits of _________________
and _____________________, and are rocky and made of metals.
Write in either True (T) or False(F)
Inner core is solid and made of iron and nickel ___________
Outer core is liquid and made of Fe, N, and lighter elements ____________
Mantle is largest layer and is plastic-like ____________
What is the major mechanism of energy transfer in the oceans, atmosphere, and Earth’s
interior? Circle the correct answer
a. radiation
b. conduction
c. convection
Write in either True (T) or False(F)
Ocean crust is less dense than continental crust and it always goes above the continental crust
when they collide.
Circle the correct answer
Dividing plates. Mid-ocean ridges, sea floor spreading, rift valleys, and volcanoes are features
of:
a. Convergent boundaries
b. Divergent boundaries
c. Subduction zones
d. Transform boundaries
Slide past each other. Earthquakes and strike-slip faults are features of
e. Convergent boundaries
f. Divergent boundaries
g. Subduction zones
h. Transform boundaries
Match the following features to the correct convergent boundaries
a. Trenches, volcanic arcs and subduction zones. Ocean plates always go under continental
plates.
b. Folded mountains, thrust-block mountains
c. Trenches, subduction zones, volcanic island arcs
C – C ___________________
O – C ___________________
O – O ___________________
Write in either True (T) or False(F)
P-waves (compression) travel faster than S-waves _______
S-waves (side to side) will not travel through liquid _______
L-waves are surface waves and cause the most damage_______
How many seismographs are needed to locate an epicenter?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Fill in the blanks with focus and epicenter
The ____________________ is the point on the surface directly above the ______________
where energy is released.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Which one is not a property of a mineral? Circle the correct answer
Naturally occurring
Organic
Solid
Has a definite (unchanging) chemical composition
Has a definite (unchanging) structure
Fill in the blanks below: Calcite, Gems, Minerals, Ore, Quartz, Silicates
_____________________ are nonrenewable resources.
_____________________ are the most abundant mineral group.
An ___________________ is a material that is useful and profitable
_________________are rare and beautiful. All share extreme hardness as a physical property
_________ fizzes with acid and exhibits double refraction. It is the major mineral of limestone.
____________ is the major mineral of glass and sand.
Match the correct rock types to the description
A rock formed by heat and pressure_________
A rock formed from magma or lava__________
A rock formed by compaction and cementation__________
a. igneous
b. metamorphic
c. sedimentary
Fill in the 2 blanks below
a. Coarse-grained texture (large crystals) GRANITE
b. Small crystals and fine-grained texture. May look glassy or have holes present. PUMICE,
OBSIDIAN, BASALT
Which of the above is an intrusive igneous rock? ________
Which of the above is an extrusive igneous rock? ________
Fill in the letter of the correct match associated with metamorphic rocks below
Small area in contact with an igneous intrusion “bakes” the rock and changes it. ________
Large area changed due to heat and pressure. Usually with mountains._________
Bands or layers of minerals. SCHIST, SLATE, GNEISS_________
No layers. These rocks have made a complete atomic change. MARBLE, QUARTZITE_________
a. Contact metamorphism
b. Foliated texture
c. Nonfoliated texture
d. Regional metamorphism
Fill in the letter of the correct sedimentary rock type match below
Made of fragments of other rocks. Conglomerate rounded pebbles; Sandstone—sand; Shale—
made of compacted clays ____________
Made from past living sources. Limestone—microscopic sea animals; Coal; fossilized swamp
plant material _________
Formed from precipitation or evaporation of liquids. Limestone—cave structures; Halides and
Rock Salt; evaporation of water
a. Chemical
b. Clastic
c. Organic
Fill in the correct letter below
 The breakdown and transport of earth materials by wind, water, gravity, glaciers______
 The dropping of earth materials after energy of motion of agent of erosion decreases to
the point where it cannot carry materials any longer (river)______
 Broken down into pieces______
 Changed into something chemically different like rust______
a. Chemical weathering
c. Mechanical weathering
b. Deposition
d. Erosion
Fill in the correct letter below
 Amount of pore space in a material. Materials made of rounded particles have a lot of
pore space. Materials like clay that are flat and angular have less pore space. The
amount of pore space is greater if particles are the same size rather than if mixed sizes
are present.____________
 The ability of a material to transmit water. Well-sorted (same size and shape) materials
are very permeable (GRAVEL and SAND). _______________
 Water does not pass through this material—clay packs are very flat, so even though
there is pore space, the pores are not connected__________________
a. Impermeable
b. Permeability
c. Porosity
Fill in the correct letter below
__________is considered the zone of aeration
__________ is one top of the zone of saturation
__________layer of rock that stores and transports water freely
a. Aquifer
b. Soil
c. Water table
Fill in the correct letter below
Fossils can be preserved as
_________cavity
_________3D replica of organism
_________actual animal in ice, amber, or tar pit
_________Petrified—material is replaced by minerals
_________we date rock layers because these were very abundant, worldwide, and short-lived.
a. Casts
b. Index Fossils
c. Molds
d. Original
e. Petrified
Fill in the correct letter below
Carbon-14 dating is used for dating organic material up to 50,000 years old.
Uranium—dates the oldest rocks—up to 4.5 billion years
Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down
into its stable daughter product
a. Carbon-14 dating
b. Half-life
c. Uranium
Circle any incorrect statements:
We break down Geologic Time into—Eras (largest division…ends with extinction events),
Periods (based on Index Fossils), and Epochs (smallest…based on types of life and is found
only in Cenozoic Era)
a. Precambrian Era—90% of all geologic history. In the beginning, our planet had no
oxygen. Carbon dioxide was the major gas. Cyanobacteria—descendants of blue-green
algae-produced oxygen that lead to creation of ozone layer and an atmosphere that
supported life
b. Paleozoic Era—Age of Invertebrates and the creation of Pangaea
c. Mesozoic Era—Age of Reptiles—dinosaurs dominate and Pangaea breaks apart
d. Cenozoic Era—Age of Mammals—man comes into existence
e. We live in the Cenozoic Era, in the Quaternary Period, in the Recent Epoch
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SOL Review Questions Based on Earth Science Power Point