Section 1: The Study of Life
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Biologists study life in all its forms.
VOCABULARY
biosphere
biology
metabolism
biodiversity
organism
DNA
species
cell
MAIN IDEA: Earth is home to an incredible diversity of life.
forest
polar bear
snout beetle
honeypot ants
ocean
lake
human skin
nose interior
moray eel
orchid
desert
grassland
Use the phrases in the box above to fill in the chart below.
1. In the box labeled The Biosphere, list examples of environments on Earth in
which life is found.
2. In the box labeled Species, list examples of species that can be found on Earth.
Earth is home to an incredible
diversity of life.
The Biosphere
Species
Fill in the blank with the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
3. The _____________ even includes places such as your eyelashes, pools of hot,
acidic water in Yellowstone National Park, and cold, windswept rocks in the
Aleutian Islands.
4. Members of a __________ should be able to reproduce together.
5. In places where ____________ is high, there are more species.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
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Biology in the 21st Century
Section 1: The Study of Life
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: All organisms share certain characteristics.
6. In the box below, circle the four items that are characteristic of all
living organisms. Cross out the items that are not characteristics of all
living organisms.
need energy
need sunlight
can reproduce
made up of one or more cells
produce seeds
can move
ability to feel pain
need to sleep
react to environment
Circle the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
7. The most common organisms on Earth have one cell / more than one cell.
8. Animals need energy / DNA in order to build up or break down materials.
9. Cells reproduce by dividing / combining.
10. When organisms reproduce, they pass on their metabolism / genetic material.
Vocabulary Check
Choose the answer that best completes each sentence.
11. All organisms store their genetic material in
a. DNA.
b. cells.
c. species.
d. metabolism.
12. An organism is
a. a type of species.
b. an environment in the biosphere.
c. any individual living thing.
d. the basic unit of life.
13. The scientific study of all forms of life is called
a. geology.
b. chemistry.
c. physics.
d. biology.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
1
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 1: The Study of Life
Section 2: Unifying Themes of Biology
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Unifying themes connect concepts from many fields of biology.
VOCABULARY
system
homeostasis
ecosystem
evolution
adaptation
MAIN IDEA: All levels of life have systems of related parts.
Using the words in the box, fill in the outline with the basic systems of life.
more complex
1.
_____________
2.
_____________
3.
_____________
organism
biosphere
cell
ecosystem
4.
_____________
less complex
MAIN IDEA: Structure and function are related in biology.
Match each body part with its specialized function.
5. brain cells
carry an organism
6. enzymes
process information
7. feet
pumps blood throughout the body
8. heart
enable chemical processes
9. teeth
grind food
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
2
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 2: Unifying Themes of Biology
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Organisms must maintain homeostasis to survive in diverse
environments.
10. Circle the conditions that are regulated by homeostasis.
temperature
outside environment
acidity
thoughts
blood sugar
Circle the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
11. Humans shiver in response to cold because of the body’s attempts to maintain
an even temperature / acidity.
12. Homeostasis is important because behaviors / cells need certain conditions in
order to function.
13. The body usually uses positive / negative feedback to maintain homeostasis.
14. The conditions outside the body are always the same / changing, but the
conditions inside the body are generally very changeable / stable.
MAIN IDEA: Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life.
Choose whether each statement is true or false.
15. true / false All living species evolve and change over time.
16. true / false Adaptation occurs when you get cold and put on a coat.
Vocabulary Check
Match the words with their meanings.
17. organized group of related parts that
interact to form a whole
evolution
18. physical environment with different species
that interact with each other and with
nonliving things
adaptation
19. an inherited trait that gives an advantage to
individual organisms and is passed on to
future generations
homeostasis
20. the change in living things over time
ecosystem
21. the maintenance of constant internal
conditions in an organism
system
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
3
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 2: Unifying Themes of Biology
Section 3: Scientific Thinking and Processes
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Science is a way of thinking, questioning, and gathering evidence.
VOCABULARY
observation
hypothesis
independent variable
constant
data
experiment
dependent variable
theory
MAIN IDEA: Like all science, biology is a process of inquiry.
Use the following words or phrases to fill in the blanks in the flow chart.
forming hypotheses
observing
testing hypotheses
evaluating results
analyzing data
1. _______________
Scientists make
observations and
examine prior research.
5. _______________
Scientists evaluate data
and conclusions presented
by other scientists.
2. _______________
Scientists ask questions
and try to explain
observations.
4. _______________
Scientists analyze their
data to draw conclusions
about their research.
3. _______________
Scientists collect data that
they use to support or
reject a hypothesis.
Circle the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
6. A scientist begins his or her research by making observations / forming
theories.
7. Scientists make observations and do experiments as a way to gather variables /
evidence.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
4
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 3: Scientific Thinking and Processes
Study Guide A continued
Fill in the chart using the words from the box.
sights
volume
temperature
mass
sounds
smells
Qualitative data
Quantitative data
8. ___________________________
9. ___________________________
10. ___________________________
11. ____________________________
12. ____________________________
13. ____________________________
MAIN IDEA: Biologists use experiments to test hypotheses.
Circle the dependent variable in each sentence. Draw a box around the
independent variable.
14. A scientist is testing the effects of medication on the blood pressure of
patients.
15. A scientist wants to find out how cellular respiration is affected by
temperature.
16. A scientist is measuring the effect of precipitation on seed germination.
Draw lines to match each type of investigation with an example.
17. Observational study
Adding a solid to a liquid to find out if the
solid will dissolve
18. Experiment
Watching the migration patterns of white
storks
MAIN IDEA: A theory explains a wide range of observations.
Choose whether each statement is true or false.
19. true / false A theory is a scientific idea that has been proven to be true.
20. true / false Theories can change over time as new evidence is discovered.
Vocabulary Check
Draw lines to connect the phrases that mean the same thing.
21. independent variable
conclusion
22. dependent variable
condition that is changed by a scientist
23. theory
data
24. constant
condition that does not change
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
5
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 3: Scientific Thinking and Processes
Section 4: Biologists’ Tools and Technology
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Technology continually changes the way biologists work.
VOCABULARY
microscope
molecular genetics
gene
genomics
MAIN IDEA: Imaging technologies provide new views of life.
Use the correct term from the box below to fill in the description with the correct
type of technology.
light microscope (LM)
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
1. ___________________________ uses light and lenses to magnify images, can
be used with living specimens, and can clearly magnify specimens up to about
1500 times.
2. ____________________________ uses electrons and computers to magnify
specimens and produce three-dimensional images, cannot be used to observe
living specimens, creates images that are computer colorized, and can clearly
magnify specimens more than 100,000 times.
3. ____________________________ uses electrons and computers to magnify
specimens and produce two-dimensional images, cannot be used to observe
living specimens, creates images that are computer colorized, and can clearly
magnify specimens more than 100,000 times.
4. _____________________________ uses strong magnetic fields to show a
cross section of a body part and can show both soft tissues and dense tissues.
Cross sections can be combined by computer to give a complete image of the
whole area.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
6
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 4: Biologists’ Tools and Technology
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Complex systems are modeled on computers.
Choose the best answer to the question.
5. Which of the following studies do you think would be most suitable for a
computer model?
a. A study of how fast an epidemic disease could spread in a city.
b. A study of what life forms can be found in a local pond.
c. A study of how animals react to confinement in a zoo or wildlife park.
d. A study of how a new type of plastic could be used and what properties
it has.
6. What kinds of systems are scientists most likely to model using computers?
a. biological systems
b. physical systems
c. simple systems
d. complex systems
MAIN IDEA: The tools of molecular genetics give rise to new biological studies.
Choose whether the statement is true or false.
7. true / false Scientists now have the ability to manipulate DNA.
8. true / false It is not possible to map the entire human genome.
9. true / false A gene is a type of computer model used to study diseases.
Vocabulary Check
Draw lines to match each word or phrase with its correct meaning.
10. gene
the study of genomes
11. molecular genetics
a tool for enlarging images
12. genomics
the study and manipulation of DNA
13. microscope
a segment of DNA that stores
genetic information
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
7
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 4: Biologists’ Tools and Technology
Section 5: Biology and Your Future
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Understanding biology can help you make informed decisions.
VOCABULARY
biotechnology
transgenic
MAIN IDEA: Your health and the health of the environment depend on your
knowledge of biology.
Fill in the mind map with three ways that biology affects your health and the
world around you.
1.
2.
Your health
3.
Importance of biology
The world around you
4.
5.
6.
MAIN IDEA: Biotechnology offers great promise but also raises many issues.
Use the chart below to list the benefits of biotechnology, as well as the risks and
ethical concerns about biotechnology.
Benefits
Risks and Ethical Concerns
7.
8.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
8
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 5: Biology and Your Future
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Biology presents many unanswered questions.
What questions do you have about biology or scientific research? List three topics
in biology that you want to learn more about.
9. _______________________________________________________________
10. _______________________________________________________________
11. _______________________________________________________________
Vocabulary Check
Choose the answer that best completes each sentence.
12. Biotechnology is technology based on
a. geological processes.
b. astronomical events.
c. living things and biological processes.
d. computer modeling.
13. A transgenic organism is one that
a. already exists in nature.
b. has been developed through genetic manipulation.
c. developed when two species reproduced together in nature.
d. exists only as a computer model, but not in real life.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
9
Biology in the 21st Century
Section 5: Biology and Your Future
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