Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Rocks, Minerals, & Earth’s Changing Surface
Unit Study Guide and Notes
Chapter 4: Minerals
Section 4-1: Properties of Minerals (p. 118-126)
Vocabulary
• _________________________________: A naturally-occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal
structure and a definite chemical composition.
•
________________________: Not formed from living things or the remains of living things.
•
Crystal: A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a ___________________that repeats again
and again.
•
Mohs _____________________ scale: A scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used
in testing that hardness of mineral.
•
______________________: The color of a mineral’s powder.
•
______________________: The way a mineral reflects light from its surface.
•
______________________: A mineral’s ability to split easily along flat surfaces.
•
______________________: The way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
•
Fluorescence: The property of a mineral in which the mineral glows under
____________________________light.
Notes
 A mineral has all __________________ of the following properties.
 A mineral must be formed by ________________________ processes. For example, a
mineral might be formed by the ______________________ of magma.
 A mineral must be _____________________________. Something that is inorganic was
never part of a living thing.
 A mineral is always ____________________. A mineral is not a liquid or a gas.
 The particles that make up a mineral always line up in a certain
_________________________ that keeps repeating. The repeating pattern forms a solid
called a ________________________. A crystal has flat sides that meet at sharp edges.
1
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
 A mineral has a certain “________________________.” For example, the mineral quartz is
always made of oxygen and silicon, and there is always twice as much oxygen as
silicon.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
1. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about minerals.
a. Some minerals are gases.
b. Some minerals come from living things.
c. All minerals have a definite makeup.
2. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
crystal
inorganic
solid
mineral
silicon
a. Something that was never part of a living thing is _______________________________.
b. A solid made up of particles in a repeating pattern is a(n) _________________________.
c. A material that is not a liquid or a gas is a(n) ____________________________.
d. Quartz is an example of a(n) ____________________________.
3. Fill in the blanks in the concept map about minerals.
All Minerals
have these
properties
Naturally
occurring
a.
____________
Crystal
b.
____________
structure
Definite
chemical
composition
____________
2
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Notes

There are almost _______________________ known minerals. You can tell minerals apart by
their characteristics. You can observe some characteristics just by looking at minerals.
You can observe other characteristics only by ______________________ minerals.

________________________ is a property that is easy to observe. Only a few minerals can be
identified by color alone. Malachite is one of them. Malachite is always green, and no
other mineral is exactly the same color.

The streak of a mineral is the color of its ___________________________. You can see streak by
rubbing a mineral against rough tile. The streak color may not be the same as the color of
the mineral itself.

__________________________ depends on how a mineral reflects light. A mineral’s luster is
described by a word such as shiny, metallic, waxy, dull, or greasy.

A mineral’s density is always the same. Remember, the density is the amount of mass in a
given volume of a substance. Density equals mass ______________________________ volume.

Each mineral has a certain ___________________________. Hardness is measured by
____________________ a mineral. A mineral can be scratched by any mineral harder than itself.
The softest mineral is talc. The hardest mineral is diamond. The hardness of minerals can
be compared with the ten minerals on the ____________________________________ Scale.

A mineral’s crystals always have the same _______________________. For example, a mineral’s
crystals might be shaped like cubes.

Some minerals split easily into flat pieces. These minerals have a property called
___________________________. Mica is a mineral with cleavage.

Other minerals do not split easily into flat pieces. These minerals have a property called
__________________________. A mineral with fracture always breaks into pieces with a certain
shape. For example, quartz always breaks into pieces shaped like seashells.

Some minerals can be identified by special characteristics. For example, magnetite is
_________________________. It attracts iron.
3
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
4. Is the following sentence true or false? Each mineral has its own specific characteristics.
_______________________________
5. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
streak
hardness
luster
cleavage
density
fracture
a. If a mineral does not split easily into flat pieces, it has a property called
________________________.
b. The color of a mineral’s powder is its ____________________________.
c. How a mineral reflects light is its ___________________________.
d. If a mineral splits easily into flat pieces, it has a property called _______________________.
e. The amount of mass in a given volume of a substance is the substance’s
_______________________.
f. A property measured by scratching a mineral is ___________________________.
6. Fill in the blanks to label the mineral that has cleavage and the mineral that has fracture.
4
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
7. The table shows scratch-test results for five minerals. Circle the letter of the choice that
shows the minerals in the correct order, from softest to hardest.
a. feldspar, talc, quartz, calcite, diamond
b. talc, calcite, feldspar, quartz, diamond
c. talc, quartz, feldspar, diamond, calcite
d. talc, feldspar, calcite, quartz, diamond
Chapter 5: Rocks
Section 5-1: Classifying Rocks (p. 146-149)
Vocabulary
• _____________________________: The look and feel of a rocks’ surface, determined by the size,
shape, and pattern of a rock’s grains.
•
Grain: A particle of mineral or other rock that gives a rock its ________________________.
•
__________________________ Rock: A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at
or below the surface.
•
__________________________ Rock: A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or
the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
•
__________________________ Rock: A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is
changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
5
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Notes

Rocks are mixtures of ________________________ and other materials. A rock may contain one
or more minerals. Granite contains at least four minerals: feldspar, quartz, hornblende,
and mica.

About _______________ minerals make up most of the rocks in Earth’s crust. These 20
minerals are known as ____________________________________ minerals.

A rock’s ____________________ may help identify its minerals. For example, granite is usually
light-colored because it is made of minerals that contain a lot of silica.

To identify the minerals in most rocks, you also need to see the ___________________ and
____________________ of the mineral crystals.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
8. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
granite
quartz
crystal
minerals
a. A light-colored rock that contains feldspar and other minerals is _________________________.
b. All rocks are made of ___________________________.
c. An example of a rock-forming mineral is __________________________.
9. Is the following sentence true or false? The color of a rock lets you identify all the minerals
that the rock contains. ____________________________
Notes

Most rocks are made up of particles, called _______________________. Grains are the particles
of minerals and other rocks.

Grains give rocks their texture. A rock’s texture is how the rock’s surface _________________
and __________________. For example, a rock’s texture could be smooth or rough. Texture is
used to help identify rocks.

The grains in rock may be big or small. Some grains are big enough to see easily. Other
grains are too small to see, even with a microscope. Rocks with big grains have a
_______________________ texture than rocks with small grains.
6
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________

The __________________________ in rock have many different shapes. For example, some grains
are smooth and rounded. Other grains are jagged.

The grains in rock often form _________________________. Some rocks have grains in flat layers
like a stack of pancakes. Other rocks have grains in bands of different colors.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
10. Draw a line from each term to its meaning.
Term
Meaning
grains
a. how a rock’s surface looks and feels
texture
b. the particles that make up rocks
11. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
grains
bands
texture
a. Rocks are made up of particles called ____________________________.
b. If you say the surface of a rock feels smooth, you are describing the rock’s
____________________________.
12. Fill in the blanks in the concept map about grains in rock.
7
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
13. Circle the letter of each choice that describes a grain pattern in rock.
a. Grains are stacked flat layers.
b. Grains are large with jagged edges.
c. Grains are in bands of different colors.
Notes

Rocks are classified into the _____________________ major groups based on how they form.

Igneous rock forms when ___________________ or _______________ cools. Igneous rock forms
near _________________________.

_______________________________ rock forms when particles are pressed and stuck together.
Sedimentary rock slowly builds up in ____________________. Newer layers cover up older
layers.

Metamorphic rock forms when ___________________ and ___________________ change any kind of
rock. Metamorphic rock forms ____________________ Earth’s surface.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
14. List the three major groups of rock.
a. __________________________
b. __________________________
c. _________________________
15. Complete the table.
How Rocks Form
Type of Rock
How It Forms
Particles are pressed and cemented.
Molten rock cools.
Existing rock is changed.
8
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
16. Label each diagram with the kinds of rock that could form.
Earth’s Changing Surface
Chapter 2: Weathering and Soil Formation
Section 2-1: Rocks and Weathering (p. 40-48)
Vocabulary
•
_________________________- The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at
Earth’s surface.
•
Erosion- The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity _________________ weathered rock
and soil.
•
________________________ Weathering- The type of weathering in which rock is physically
broken into smaller pieces.
•
_____________________- The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice,
or wind.
•
Chemical Weathering-The process that breaks down rock through ___________________
____________________.
9
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Notes

_________________________ is the breaking down of rocks and other materials at Earth’s
surface. There are _____________ kinds of weathering: __________________ weathering and
__________________ weathering.

Weathering is caused by _______________, cold, water, ____________, and gases in the air. For
example, heat and cold crack rocks into smaller pieces.

Erosion is the ______________________ of rock pieces and other materials on Earth’s surface.
Erosion is caused by wind, ________________, ice, and ______________. Erosion carries away rock
pieces made by weathering.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
17. Match the process with its description.
Process
_____ weathering
_____ erosion
Description
a. Movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or
gravity.
b. Breaking down of rock and other substances at
Earth’s surface.
18. Complete the concept map.
10
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Notes

In mechanical weathering, rock is broken into smaller pieces. But the makeup of rock
_______________ ___________ change.

There are _____________ major forces of mechanical weathering:
o _____________________ and ___________________ cause ice wedging. In ice wedging, water
seeps into a crack in a rock. The water freezes. Ice needs ______________ ______________
than water, so the ice pushes the crack apart. The ice melts. Water seeps into the
deeper crack. This process keeps repeating until the rock ________________ apart.
o As erosion removes material from the surface of a mass of rock, pressure on the
rock is ______________________. This release of pressure causes the outside of the rock
to _________________ and flake off like the layers of an onion.
o ________________ growth is also a cause of mechanical weathering. Plant roots can
grow into cracks and break apart rocks.
o Animals that ___________________ in the ground—including moles, gophers, prairie
dogs, and some insects—loosen and break apart rocks in the soil. The actions of
these animals cause _____________________________ _________________________.
o Rock particles can be _________________ by water, ice, wind, or gravity. The particles
scrape rock like ______________________ scrapes wood. This scraping is called
_____________________.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
19. The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces is called
________________________ weathering.
20. List the forces of mechanical weathering.
a. _____________________________________
b. _____________________________________
c. _____________________________________
d. _____________________________________
e. _____________________________________
11
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
21. Fill in the blanks in the cycle diagram about ice wedging.
22. Circle the letter of each example of mechanical weathering.
a. Moles dig tunnels in the ground.
b. Wind blows sand against a rock.
c. Plant roots grown into a crack in a rock.
Notes

In chemical weathering, the makeup of rock ____________________. Chemical weathering
makes holes or soft spots in rock. This makes it _________________for mechanical weathering
to break rocks into smaller pieces.

__________________ slowly dissolves rock.

Some rocks contain iron. Oxygen turns iron to _________________. When iron in rocks turns
to rust, the rocks get ________________.

Carbon dioxide in air mixes with rainwater to make a weak _______________. The acid easily
_____________________ some rocks.

Plant _______________ also make weak acids. The acids slowly dissolve rocks around the
roots.

Acid rain is rain that contains acids because of air ______________________. Acid rain quickly
dissolves rocks.
12
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
23. The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes is _____________________
weathering.
24. How does chemical weathering help mechanical weathering? Circle the letter of each
correct answer.
a. by breaking rocks into smaller pieces
b. by making holes in rocks
c. by making rocks softer
Chapter 3: Erosion and Deposition
Section 3-1: Changing Earth’s Surface (p. 66-71)
Vocabulary

________________________- The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered
rock and soil.

Sediment- Earth materials deposited by _____________________.

_____________________________- Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
Notes

___________________ is the movement of pieces of rock and other materials on Earth’s surface.
Erosion can be caused by __________________, running water, glaciers, ________________, or wind.

_______________________ is the material moved by erosion. Sediment is made up of pieces of
rock or soil or remains of living things.

Most sediment comes from __________________________. Remember, weathering is the
breaking down of ___________________ and other materials at Earth’s surface.

Deposition happens when sediment is _________________. Dropped sediment can build up
over time and make new _________________________.
13
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
25. Draw a line from each term to its meaning.
Term
Meaning
Weathering
a. the material moved by erosion
Erosion
b. the movement of pieces of rock and other materials
Sediment
on Earth’s surface.
Deposition
c. the dropping of sediment
d. the breaking down of rock and other materials at
Earth’s surface.
26. Circle the letter of each choice that is a cause of erosion.
a. gravity
b. running water
c. weathering
Notes

Mass movement is any process that moves sediment ________________________. Mass
movement is caused by ____________________. Gravity is the force that _________________
everything toward Earth’s center.

Landslides happen when rocks and _________________ quickly slide down a steep slope.

Mudflows happen when rocks and ________________ quickly slide down a steep slope.

_________________ happens when a mass of rocks and soil _______________________ slides down a
steep slope. Slump is different than a landslide. The material in a slump moves down the
slope in _____________ ________________ _________________.

Creep happens when rocks and soil _____________ _____________ ________________ down a hill.
Creep can happen even on gentle slopes.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
27. Any process that moves sediment downhill is called _________________________________________.
14
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
28. Circle the letter of the cause of mass movement.
a. rain.
b. wind
c. gravity
29. Fill in the blanks in the concept map about kinds of mass movement.
Section 3-2 & 3-3: Water Erosion (p. 72-83) & The Force of Moving Water (p.
85-88)
Notes

In abrasion, sediment in the water _____________________ against the bottom and sides of the
river. Bits of rock are chipped away to form new ________________________.

Sediment moves downstream with the water. Bigger pieces of sediment ________________ or
bounce along the bottom. Smaller pieces are lifted and ________________ by the water. As
rocks move downstream, they are worn down and ______________________ by the water and
river bed. This causes the rocks to become _____________________ ___________ ____________________.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
30. The scraping of the bottom and sides of a river by sediment is called _____________________.
15
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
31. The drawing below shows the original size and shape of a rock sample before it is thrown
into a rapidly moving stream. Circle the drawing best shows the actual size and shape the
rock will have after being carried several hundred miles downstream and deposited.
Original rock
Section 3-5: Waves (p. 94-97)
Notes

Waves are the major cause of erosion along __________________. When waves hit the shore,
the force of the water can ________________ ______________. Over time, the rocks break into
___________________ pieces and wash away.

Close to shore, waves pick up sediment from the bottom. When the waves hit rocks on
shore, the sediment ______________ ______________ the rocks by _______________________.

Waves can wear away the bottoms of ___________________ along the shore. Waves can also
wear away holes in cliffs and ________________ ___________________.
16
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
32. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
cliff
abrasion
headland
waves
a. The major cause of erosion along coasts is _________________________.
b. Waves that carry sediment cause _______________________.
Section 3-6: Wind (p. 98-100)
Notes

__________________________ is the main way that wind causes erosion. Deflation is the process
by which wind picks up sediment from the surface. The stronger the wind, the
___________________ the pieces of sediment the wind can pick up.

Wind may carry away all the sediment in a _____________________ and leave behind only
rocks. The rocky surface that is left behind is called desert pavement.

Sediment carried by wind causes ______________________. The blowing sediment _______________
________ __________________ rock.

The rate of erosion by wind can be slowed by features that _________________ the wind. The
_______________ _______ ____________ can also affect the rate of erosion. Fast-moving wind will
cause rock to erode ____________________ than slow-moving wind.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
33. Fill in the blanks in the concept map about how wind causes erosion.
17
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Section 5-3: Sedimentary Rocks (p. 154-158)
Vocabulary
 ____________________________: Small, solid pieces of material that comes from rocks or
organisms.

Deposition: The process by which _________________________ settles out of the water or wind
that is carrying it.

____________________________: The process by which sediments are pressed together under
their own weight.

Cementation: The process by which dissolved ______________________ crystallize and glue
pieces of sediment together as one mass.
Notes

_________________________________ is the particles that make up sedimentary rock. Sediment
may include pieces of rock, shell, or bone.

Most sediment comes from _______________________. In erosion, moving water, wind, or ice
loosens and carries away pieces of rock.

When the moving water, wind, or ice slows down, it __________________ sediment. This is
called deposition.

______________________ of sediment build up over millions of years. Newer layers press down
on older layers. This _______________________ the sediment together. The squeezing is called
compaction.

Water seeps between sediment particles. Dissolved minerals in the water form
____________________. The crystals “glue” the sediment particles together. This is called
________________________________.

When dead or decaying plants and animals are caught between the layers of sediment,
____________________ can form. The age of the plants or animals that leave the fossils can help
scientists determine the age of the rock. Because the sediment is compacted in layers, the
fossils found in the upper layers of rock are __________________ or __________________ than the
rocks in lower layers.
18
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
34. Circle the letter of the process that loosens and carries away pieces of rock.
a. compaction
b. erosion
c. deposition
35. Is the following sentence true or false? It takes only a few years for sedimentary rocks to
form. _________________________
36. Fill in the blanks in the flowchart showing the series of processes that forms sedimentary
rocks.
Process That Forms Sedimentary Rocks
a. ______________________
Moves sediment
b. ______________________
Drops sediment
c. ______________________
Squeezes the sediment together
d. ______________________
Mineral crystals “glue” the sediment together.
Sedimentary Rock is formed.
19
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
37. The rock layers below have NOT been displaced by crustal plate movement. Use the
fossils in the rock to identify the oldest layer of rock and the youngest layer of rock.
Oldest Layer ____________________________
Youngest layer _________________________
Section 5-2: Igneous Rocks (p. 150-153)
Vocabulary
 _____________________________ Rock: Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth’s surface.

Intrusive Rock: Igneous rock that forms when ___________________ hardens beneath Earth’s
surface.
Notes

Igneous rock is rock that forms from _______________________ or __________________. Igneous
rock may form _____________ or ________________ Earth’s surface. Where igneous rock forms is
its origin.

Extrusive rock is igneous rock that forms _________________ Earth’s surface, when lava cools.
Lava cools _____________________, forming small crystals. As a result, extrusive rock has a
__________________ texture. The most common extrusive rock is basalt.

Intrusive rock is igneous rock that forms ____________________ Earth’s surface, when magma
cools. Magma cools ____________________, forming big crystals. As a result, intrusive rock has
a ____________________ texture. The most common intrusive rock is granite.

Igneous rocks differ in how much _______________________ they contain. Low-silica rocks,
such as basalt, are dark-colored rocks. High-silica rocks, such as granite, are light-colored
rocks.

Igneous rocks have several uses. Examples of useful igneous rocks are granite, pumice,
and obsidian.

Granite is very _________________ and _________________. Granite has long been used for
buildings and bridges. Today, granite is also used for curbstones and kitchen counters.
20
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________

Pumice is very __________________. Pumice is used for cleaning and polishing.

Obsidian is ___________________ and __________________ like glass. Obsidian was used by ancient
Native Americans to make knives and other sharp tools.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
38. Circle the letter of the definition of igneous rock.
a. Rock that forms from minerals.
b. Rock that contains iron.
c. Rock that forms from lava or magma.
d. Rock that contains crystals.
39. Why do intrusive rocks have a rough texture?
a. Intrusive rocks have big crystals.
b. Intrusive rocks form quickly.
c. Intrusive rocks form from lava.
40. Label each circle in the Venn diagram with the kind of igneous rock it describes.
41. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
obsidian
granite
igneous
pumice
a. A rock used for curbstones and kitchen counters is __________________________.
b. A rock used for cleaning and polishing is __________________________.
c. A rock used for making knives and other sharp tools is ____________________________.
21
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Section 5-5: Metamorphic Rocks (p. 162-164)
Vocabulary
 Foliated: Term used to describe __________________________ rocks whose grains are arranged
in parallel layers or bands.
Notes

When a rock becomes a metamorphic rock, the pattern of its grains can change.
Metamorphic rocks are classified by their _________________ ______________________.

Foliated rocks are metamorphic rocks with their grains lined up in ___________________.
Foliated rocks split into flat pieces. Slate is a foliated rock.

Nonfoliated rocks are metamorphic rocks with their grains ______________________ at random.
Nonfoliated rocks do not split into flat pieces. Marble is a nonfoliated rock.

Marble and slate are two of the most useful metamorphic rocks. Marble can be cut,
carved, and polished. Marble is used for ______________________ and ___________________. Slate
splits easily into flat pieces. Slate is used for floors, roofs, and _____________________________.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
42. Label each circle in the Venn diagram with the type of metamorphic rock it describes.
43. Metamorphic rocks are classified by their _________________________ patterns.
22
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
44. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about marble.
a. Marble is a kind of sedimentary rock.
b. Marble is used for buildings.
c. Marble can be carved.
45. Is the following sentence true or false? Slate is good for chalkboards because it splits
easily into flat pieces. ____________________________
Section 5-6: The Rock Cycle (p. 166-169)
Notes

The rock cycle is a series of processes that change rocks from one kind to another. There
are many ways rocks go through the rock cycle. Here is one way rocks go through the
rock cycle:

Igneous rock on the surface is turned into sediment by _______________________. The
sediment is deposited and slowly becomes sedimentary rock.

The sedimentary rock is buried by more sediment. ________________ and
____________________ slowly change the sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock.

The metamorphic rock is forced into the mantle. The metamorphic rock melts to
form ____________________. The magma erupts and cools to form ______________________
rock again.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
46. Read the words in the box. In each sentence below, fill in one of the words.
sedimentary
igneous
metamorphic
a. A rock that melts to form magma will next become a(n) __________________________
rock.
b. A rock that is being heated and pressed is on its way to becoming a(n)
____________________________ rock.
23
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
47. The diagram shows the rock cycle. Fill in each blank in the diagram with the kind of rock
that forms.
Notes

Two plates move apart or move together. When two plates move apart, magma may
erupt between the two plates and form _________________________ rock.

Sometimes when two plates move together, one plate sinks into the mantle. This is called
_______________________. Heat and pressure may melt the rock to form _______________________,
which later hardens as igneous rock. Or heat and pressure may turn the rock into
______________________________ rock.

At other times when two plates move together, the edges of the plates crumple. When
this happens, rocks are pushed up to form __________________________. Mountains slowly wear
away to form sediment, which turns into _____________________________ rock.
24
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
48. Fill in the blanks in the flowchart with the kind of rock that forms.
49. Label the arrows in the cycle diagram, using the following terms: erosion, melting,
heat/pressure, volcanic activity. Some of the terms may be used more than once.
25
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Chapter 1: Mapping Earth’s Surface
Section 1-4: Topographic Maps (p. 29-34)
Vocabulary

Topography- The shape of the land determined by _____________________, relief, and
landforms.

_____________________________ map- A map that shows the surface features of an area.

_________________________- Height above sea level.

Relief- The _______________________ in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an
area.

___________________- How steep or flat the ground is.

Contour line- A line on a topographic map that connects points of _________________
elevation.

Contour ______________________- The difference in elevation from one contour line to the
next.
Notes

A ________________________ map is a map that shows elevation, relief, and slope. Elevation is a
place’s height above _____________ level. Relief is the difference in elevation between the
____________________ points and the _________________ points of an area. __________________ is how
steep or flat the ground is.

A topographic map shows elevation, relief, and slope with ____________________ lines. A
contour line connects points that have the _________________ elevation.

Every _________________ contour line is called an index contour. Index contours are
____________________ than other contour lines. Index contours also are __________________ with
elevation.

The contour interval is the _____________________ ________ ________________________ from one
contour line to the next.
26
Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
50. A map that shows elevation and relief is a(n) _____________________________ map.
51. Draw a line from each term to its meaning.
Term
Meaning
Contour interval
a. line connecting points that have the same elevation
Contour line
b. darker line that is labeled with the elevation
Index contour
c. change in elevation between contour lines
Notes

Topographic maps are usually large-scale maps. Large-scale maps show a
__________________________ view of a small area.

Like other maps, topographic maps use _____________________ to show features such as rivers,
swamps, highways, and airports.

A topographic map also has _________________ ___________. You can tell the ________________ of an
area from the contour lines. When contour lines are close together, the ground has a
______________ slope. Where contour lines are far apart, the ground has a ______________ slope.

If a contour line is a closed loop without any other contour lines inside the loop, it shows a
________________________. If the closed loop has _____________________ inside, it shows a hollow.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
52. Is the following sentence true or false? Topographic maps show only elevation and relief.
__________________
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Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
53. Label each set of contour lines to show whether it stands for a steep slope, gentle slope,
hilltop, or hollow.
a. __________________
b. ___________________
c. ___________________
d. __________________
Notes

Remember, topographic maps show how ______________________ ______ ___________________ the
land slopes. Topographic maps also show where there are rivers, swamps, and other
features.

Topographic maps can be used to plan _______________________. The maps also can be used to
decide where to build new houses, factories, and other buildings.

A topographic map can even be used to plan a _____________________ trip. The map shows
where the trip would be ___________ _____ _______________.
Review Questions (Answer the following questions. Use your textbook and the ideas in your
notes to help you.)
54. Circle the letter of each use for a topographic map.
a. planning a bike path that is not too hilly
b. finding out where the ground is steep enough to build a ski slope
c. learning how much rain a city gets each year
55. Is the following sentence true or false? Topographic maps would be useful for planning a
new highway. __________________
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Name ________________________________________________ Mod ____________ Date ________________________
Reading a Contour Map Practice
1. _______________________________
2. _______________________________
3. _______________________________
4. _______________________________
5. _______________________________
6. _______________________________
7. _______________________________
8. _______________________________
9. _______________________________
10. _______________________________
11. _______________________________
12. _______________________________
13. _______________________________
14. _______________________________
15. _______________________________
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Rocks, Minerals, Earth`s Changing Surface Notes Packet and Study