DISEÑO DE UNA LECCIÓN DE COMPRENSIÓN DE LECTURA
Juan Raúl Acevedo Juárez
Texto: VOLCANOES
Al finalizar la lectura, los alumnos conocerán información acerca de volcanes, practicarán algunas
estrategias de lectura como la inferencia, la reafirmación de su experiencia lectora con nueva
información y la potencialización de sus conocimientos previos.
Texto y tema que se prestan para trabajar la lectura en una segunda lengua , y de paso recordar y
realizar un experimento simple pero que deja una gran impresión además de enfocarse a una
metodología kinestésica.
Población: El ejercicio va dirigido a alumnos de preparatoria con un nivel intermedio de la lengua
meta. La actividad está diseñada para una clase de 90 minutos. Es un texto tomado de la red.
MATERIAL: (previamente se pide a los alumnos el material que será utilizado en clase, o
lo puede llevar el profesor ya que son cosas que se pueden conseguir en casa)
Texto de lectura (volcanoes) *plastilina, *Botellas de plástico (reutilizada, pequeña).
•
•
•
•
Vinagre.
Bicarbonato sódico.
Jabón líquido.
Agua.
ACTIVIDADES DE
PRE-LECTURA
*Se forman equipos de 3 o
4 alumnos y se les entrega
una botella que deberán
cubrir con plastilina y
formar un volcán. La
botella queda en medio y
su orificio será el cráter.
(8 mins.)
*Lluvia de ideas acerca del
tema del texto que se
leerá y los posibles
subtemas que surgirán.
(2 mins.)
*Se comentan algunas
palabras que están
incluídas en el texto tales
como :
Vulcan -- the blacksmith,
the lithosphere, tectonic
plates, magma,
eruptions, earthquakes,
temperature, fumarolic
activity
ACTIVIDADES DE
LECTURA
ACTIVIDADES POSLECTURA
*Se lee el texto y se pide
a los alumnos que
anoten cinco puntos en
dónde hubieran
encontrado coincidencias
con la información que
pronosticaron antes de
leer el texto completo.
Algunos alumnos leen sus
anotaciones y comparan
con las de otros lectores
en el salón.
(20 mins.)
Junto con el equipo original
que moldeó cada volcán con
plastilina y retomando
información acerca de las
erupciones en el texto, cada
equipo explica alguna
característica que retomará
para realizar el experimento
de la erupción del volcán.
Se provee del procedimiento
que debe hacerse para l
experimento y se atiende a las
presentaciones.
(20 mins.)
Se forman equipos y cada
uno identifica un
subtema del cual se
podría sacar mayor
información específica
que después se
presentará en una mesa
redonda. Cada equipo
presenta cierta
información del texto a
Para el experimento se
mezclan dos cucharadas de
bicarbonato sódico en la
botella, una cucharada de
jabón liquido y agua
dependiendo de la viscosidad
deseada.
y se interpretan y pid
información acerca de lo
que saben los alumnos, de
esta manera acercándose a
la información del texto y
adelantándose a lo que
probablemente incluya el
texto.
(5 mins.)
partir de una sola palabra
o concepto que tiene que
ver con el volcán que
formaron. Ejemplos de
ello pueden ser que se les
pida que le hagan una
grieta, o que expliquen
las partes de un volcán, o
daños que puede causar.
Las conclusiones se
explican a todos al frente
del salón.
(30 mins.)
El toque final es añadir un
chorro de vinagre el cuál
provocará la reacción.
Se pide a cada alumno
que escoja una oración
en particular en la cual
señale elementos de
cohesión que hayan
encontrado y que
parezcan ejemplificativas.
Se escriben algunas en el
pizarrón.
(5 mins.)
Volcanoes
The word "volcano" comes from the little island of Vulcano in the Mediterranean Sea off
Sicily. Centuries ago, the people living in this area believed that Vulcano was the chimney
of the forge of Vulcan -- the blacksmith of the Roman gods. They thought that the hot lava
fragments and clouds of dust erupting form Vulcano came from Vulcan's forge as he beat
out thunderbolts for Jupiter, king of the gods, and weapons for Mars, the god of war. In
Polynesia the people attributed eruptive activity to the beautiful but wrathful Pele, Goddess
of Volcanoes, whenever she was angry or spiteful. Today we know that volcanic eruptions
are not super-natural but can be studied and interpreted by scientists.
Where do volcanoes occur?
Volcanic eruptions occur only in certain places and do not occur randomly. That's
because the Earth's outermost shell -- the lithosphere -- is broken into a series of slabs
known as lithospheric or tectonic plates. These plates are rigid, but they float on the
hotter, softer layer in the Earth's mantle. There are 16 major plates. As the plates move
about, they spread apart, collide, or slide past each other. Volcanoes occur most
frequently at plate boundaries.
Deep within the Earth it is so hot that some rocks slowly melt and become a thick
flowing substance called magma. Because it is lighter than the solid rock around it,
magma rises and collects in magma chambers. Eventually some of the magma pushes
through vents and fissures in the Earth's surface. A volcanic eruption occurs! Magma that
has erupted is called lava.
Some volcanic eruptions are explosive and other are not. How explosive an eruption is
depends on how runny or sticky the magma is. If magma is thin and runny, gases can
escape easily from it. When this type of magma erupts, it flows out of the volcano. Lava
flows rarely kill people because they move slowly enough for people to get out of their
way. Lava flows, however, can cause considerable destruction to buildings in their path. If
magma is thick and sticky, gases cannot escape easily. Pressure builds up until the gases
escape violently and explode. In this type of eruption, the magma blasts into the air and
breaks apart into pieces called tephra. Tephra can range in size from tiny particles of ash to
house-size boulders.
Explosive volcanic eruptions can be dangerous and deadly. They can blast out clouds of
hot tephra from the side or top of a volcano. These fiery clouds race down mountainsides
destroying almost everything in their path. Ash erupted into the sky falls back to Earth like
powdery snow, but snow that won't melt. If thick enough, blankets of ash can suffocate
plants, animals, and humans. When hot volcanic materials mix with water from streams or
melted snow and ice, mudflows form. Mudflows have buried entire communities located
near erupting volcanoes. Because there may be hundreds or thousands of years between
volcanic eruptions, people may not be aware of a volcano's dangers. When Mount St.
Helens in the State of Washington erupted in 1980, it had not erupted for 123 years. Most
people thought Mount St. Helens was a beautiful, peaceful mountain and not a dangerous
volcano.
Most volcanoes provide various types of warnings before eruptions begin. Although an
explosive eruption could occur without warning, some premonitory events more likely will
precede the next eruption. Steam-blast eruptions could occur with little or no warning as
superheated water flashes to steam; magmatic eruptions, however, involve rise of magma
toward the surface. Such an upward movement of magma normally will generate detectable
earthquakes, may deform the ground surface, and may cause anomalous heat flow or
changes in the temperature and chemistry of the ground and spring waters.
People living near volcanoes may detect premonitory events before an eruption. Both
the frequency of occurrence and intensity of felt earthquakes commonly increase before
eruptions begin. Eruptions may also be preceded by noticeable steaming or fumarolic
activity and perhaps by new or enlarged areas of hot ground. However, most precursory
changes are subtle and the most effective means of monitoring are instrumental and include
a variety of geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical techniques. Seismometers are used to
detect and locate earthquakes associated with the rise of magma. Swelling of the ground
surface can be detected by using precision instruments and techniques that measure minute
changes in slope, distance, or elevation at the ground surface. Other techniques involve
measurement of changes in heat flow at a volcano by repeated infrared surveys or by direct
measurements of hot spring or fumarole temperatures. Changes in the composition or
relative abundances of fumarolic gases may also precede eruptions and can be detected by
frequent or continuous analysis of gases.
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