PubMed Search Terms
#1 Medicines
(("drugs, generic" or "prescriptions, drug" or (pharmaceutical preparations) or drug utilization or
pharmacoepidemiology or pharmacoeconomic* or prescribing[ti] or medicines[ti] or selfmedication[ti] or self medication[ti] or "drug safety"[ti] or prescription fees or drugs, nonprescription or drug costs or drug information service[ti] or antibiotic or antiretroviral or ARV or
antimicrobial or antimalarial or anti-malarial or "rational drug use" or (rational use[tw] and
(medicine[tw] or medicines[tw] or drug[tw] or pharmaceutical[tw] or medication[tw]))) NOT
(ah[sh] or ai[sh] or bi[sh] or bl[sh] or bs[sh] or cf[sh] or cs[sh] or ch[sh] or ci[sh] or cy[sh] or
em[sh] or en[sh] or im[sh] or ir[sh] or ip[sh] or me[sh] or re[sh] or se[sh] or ul[sh] or ur[sh] or
us[sh] or ve[sh]))
#2 Medicines Policies and Systems
(((Drug utilization and guideline adherence) or (pharmaceutical*[ti] and (advertising[ti] or
promotion[ti] or marketing[ti])) or pharmaceutical care[ti] or dispensing[ti] or prescri*[ti] or
formulary[ti] or formularies or "medication use"[ti] or ("drug use"[ti] not (narcotic or alcohol or
illicit or drug abuse or substance-related disorders[mh]))) and (((policy[ti] or policies[ti]) not
narcotic) or implement*[ti] or dissem*[ti] or improv*[ti] or chang*[ti] or interven*[ti] or
optim*[ti] or influenc*[ti] or impact*[ti] or effect*[ti] or reduc*[ti] or increas*[ti] or modify*[ti]
or adherence[ti] or nonadherence[ti] or "before and after"[ti])) or (attitude of health personnel
and prescriptions, drug) or (("persuasive communication" or "educational outreach") and
("prescribing" or prescriber* or prescription* or pharmaci* or pharmac* or pharmaceutic*)) or
("academic detailing" or "drug detailing" or "counterdetailing" or "counter-detailing" or
"detailers") or ("educational outreach" and (prescribing or prescription*)) or ("drug donation" or
"drug donations" or "pharmaceutical management"[tw] or "drug procurement" or
"pharmaceutical procurement") or (drug fund[tw] or ((drug[tw] or medicine[tw]) and revolving
fund*) or ("bamako initiative")) or (("medicines policy"[ti] or "pharmaceutical policy"[ti] or
"drug policy"[ti]) not (addict* or narcotic)) or (essential medicines[ti] or essential drugs[ti] or
preferred drug[ti] or pharmaceutical benefits[ti] or pharmaceutical policy[ti]) or ("prescribing
indicators"[ti]) or (rational drug use[ti] or "rational pharmacotherapy"[ti] or "medicine taking"[ti]
or "dispensing errors"[ti] or "prescribing errors"[ti] or "generic substitution"[ti] or "pharmacy
intervention"[ti] or "injection safety" or "injection use" or ((rational use[ti] or irrational use[ti] or
appropriate use[ti] or inappropriate use[ti]) and (drugs [ti] or medicines[ti]))) or ((antibiotic
use[ti] or antimicrobial use[ti] or antibiotic utilization[ti] or antimicrobial utilization[ti] or
antibiotic utilisation[ti] or (malaria*[ti] and drug*[ti] and (use[ti] or utilization[ti] or
utilization[ti]))) and ((reduc*[ti] or improv*[ti] or interven*[ti] or optimiz*[ti] or changing[ti] or
changes[ti]) or intervention)) or ((antibiotic or antimicrobial or malaria or tuberculosis) and
(intervention or controlled trial) and ((prescribing[ti] or reduc*[ti] or improv*[ti] or interven*[ti]
or optimi*[ti] or chang*[ti] or guideline*[ti] or effectiveness[ti]) and (clinical guideline or
prescribing or quality of care or drug utilization or compliance or adherence or professional
competence) or education))
#1 OR #2 to create subset #3, i.e. all research related to medicines with an explicit inclusion of
“antibiotic or antiretroviral or ARV or antimicrobial or antimalarial or anti-malarial” as a way
to include medicines related to HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria.
#4 Action Titles
((disseminat*[ti] or implement*[ti] or evaluat*[ti] or influenc*[ti] or adherence[ti] or
nonadherence[ti] or compliance[ti]) and (guideline[ti] or guidelines[ti] or innova* [ti] or
improv*[ti])) or ((efficac*[ti] or assess*[ti] or result[ti] or results[ti] or impact[ti] or impacts[ti]
or impacting[ti] or effect*[ti] or evaluat*[ti] or measur*[ti] or fail*[ti]) and (intervention[ti] or
interventions[ti] or policy[ti] or policies[ti] or program*[ti] or guideline[ti] or guidelines[ti] or
experiment[ti] or experiments[ti] or experimental[ti] or practice*[ti])) or ((decrease[ti] or
decreases[ti] or decreasing[ti] or reduce[ti] or reduc*[ti] or increase[ti] or increasing[ti] or
controlling[ti] or facilitat*[ti] or shift[ti] or collaborat*[ti]) and (error[ti] or errors[ti] or
irrational[ti] or inappropriate[ti])) or ((monitoring[ti] or auditing[ti] or "audit and feedback"[ti] or
changing[ti] or chang*[ti] or improv*[ti] or increas*[ti] or optimi*[ti]) and (use[ti] or
knowledge[ti] or practice[ti] or practices[ti] or behavior[ti] or behav*[ti] or compliance[ti] or
comply[ti] or non compliance[ti] or adherence[ti] or nonadherence[ti] or management[ti] or
treatment[ti] or safety[ti] or quality[ti] or implement*[ti])) or self-medication[ti] or health
#3 AND #4 to create subset #5, i.e. all medicines research that point to interventions and thus
empirical research (experimental and quasi-experimental (cohort studies, case-control studies,
#6 Specific Disease Areas - HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria
(*malaria*[ti] or tuberculosis[ti] or TB[ti] or HIV[ti] or human immunodeficiency virus[ti] or
*malaria* or tuberculosis or TB or HIV or human immunodeficiency virus)
#5 AND #6 to create subset #7, i.e. all medicines research that point to intervention research
about HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria studies. This subset contains abstracts with and without
gender explicitly mentioned in the abstract.
#8 Gender
(men[MeSH Terms] OR women[MeSH Terms]) OR gender OR sex[MeSH Terms] OR sex
factors[MeSH Terms] OR sex characteristics[MeSH Terms] OR sex differences OR men OR
man OR male OR women OR woman OR female OR sex OR sex factors OR sex characteristics
#5 AND #6 AND #7 to create subset #9, i.e. all medicines research that point to intervention
research constrained to HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria studies that include a gender dimension.
#10 Exclusions
historical article[pt] or editorial[pt] or news[pt] or letter[pt] or comment[pt] or biography[pt] or
festschrift[pt] or interview[pt] or letter[pt] or news[ti] or biography[ti] or newspaper article[pt] or
opinion[ti] or in vitro or tolerability or outbreak or pathogenesis or etiology or aetiology or
neutropenia or antineoplastic or single-blind or double-blind or drug evaluation or therapeutic
equivalency or bioequivalence or synthesis or cell or plant or transplant or clone or immunology
or microbiology or metabolism or pharmacokinetics or toxicity or biosynthesis or chemistry or
pharmacognosy or biotechnology or cytology or embryology or genetics or bacteremia or
neutropenia or vaccination or congenital or genetic or neutrophils or phagocytosis or
susceptibility or drugs, Chinese or illicit or methadone or heroin or narcotic or "anatomy and
histology"[sh] or "animals"[mh] or radio*[mh]
#9 NOT #10 to create subset #11, i.e. excluding material that relates to interventions not of
interest such as clinical trials, animal and plant studies, and excluding material not considered
empirical research such as newspapers, letter to the editor, editorial, etc. This is performed on
search #7 that contains articles with and without gender explicitly mentioned in the abstract.
#12 Developing Countries
Afghanistan OR Albania OR Algeria OR Andorra OR Angola OR Antigua and Barbuda OR
Argentina OR Armenia OR Aruba OR Azerbaijan OR Bahrain OR Bangladesh OR Barbados OR
Belarus OR Belize OR Benin OR Bhutan OR Bolivia OR Bosnia and Herzegovina OR Botswana
OR Brazil OR Bulgaria OR Burkina Faso OR Burundi OR Cambodia OR Cameroon OR Cape
Verde OR Cayman Islands OR Central African Republic OR Chad OR Chile OR China OR
Colombia OR Comoros OR Congo, Dem. Rep. OR Congo, Rep. OR Costa Rica OR Côte
d'Ivoire OR Croatia OR Cuba OR Czech Republic OR Djibouti OR Dominica OR Dominican
Republic OR Ecuador OR Egypt OR El Salvador OR Equatorial Guinea OR Eritrea OR Estonia
OR Ethiopia OR Fiji OR Gabon OR Gambia OR Georgia OR Ghana OR Gibraltar OR Greece
OR Grenada OR Guatemala OR Guinea OR Guinea-Bissau OR Guyana OR Haiti OR Honduras
OR Hungary OR India OR Indonesia OR Iran OR Iraq OR Jamaica OR Jordan OR Kazakhstan
OR Kenya OR Kiribati OR Korea OR Kosovo OR Kyrgyz Republic OR Lao PDR OR Latvia
OR Lebanon OR Lesotho OR Liberia OR Libya OR Lithuania OR Macao OR Macedonia OR
Madagascar OR Malawi OR Malaysia OR Maldives OR Mali OR Malta OR Marshall Islands
OR Mauritania OR Mauritius OR Mayotte OR Mexico OR Micronesia OR Moldova OR
Mongolia OR Montenegro OR Morocco OR Mozambique OR Myanmar OR Namibia OR Nepal
OR Netherlands Antilles OR New Caledonia OR Nicaragua OR Niger OR Nigeria OR Northern
Mariana Islands OR Oman OR Pakistan OR Palau OR Panama OR Papua New Guinea OR
Paraguay OR Peru OR Philippines OR Poland OR Puerto Rico OR Romania OR Russia OR
Rwanda OR Samoa OR San Marino OR São Tomé and Principe OR Saudi Arabia OR Senegal
OR Serbia OR Seychelles OR Sierra Leone OR Slovak Republic OR Slovenia OR Solomon
Islands OR Somalia OR South Africa OR Sri Lanka OR St. Kitts and Nevis OR St. Lucia OR St.
Vincent and the Grenadines OR Sudan OR Suriname OR Swaziland OR Syrian Arab Republic
OR Tajikistan OR Tanzania OR Thailand OR Timor-Leste OR Togo OR Tonga OR Trinidad and
Tobago OR Tunisia OR Turkey OR Turkmenistan OR Tuvalu OR Uganda OR Ukraine OR
Uruguay OR Uzbekistan OR Vanuatu OR Venezuela OR Vietnam OR West Bank and Gaza OR
Yemen OR Zambia OR Zimbabwe
#11 AND #12 to create subset #13, i.e. all medicines research in low and middle-income
countries that point to intervention research constrained to HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria studies
including all gender specific articles.