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1. TRAVELLING
Almost all people are fond of travelling. It is very interesting to see new places,
another towns and countries. People may travel either for pleasure or on business.
There are various means of travelling. As for me there is nothing like travelling by
air; it is more comfortable, more convenient and, of course, far quicker than any
other means of travelling. There is no dust and dirt of a railway or car journey or
troubles with changing from one train to another train.
With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. From the
comfortable seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole
country-side. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car; and if a
journey is a long one you can have a comfortable bed in a sleeper.
Travelling by ship is not very popular now. That is because it has become very
expensive and not many people can afford it. Bu it is very pleasant to feel the deck
of the ship under your feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea
wind blowing in the face.
Many people like to travel by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many
places in a short time, you can stop when and where you like, you do not have to
buy tickets or carry your heavy suitcases.
Words
to be fond of — любить что-либо
means of travelling — способы путешествия
far quicker — гораздо быстрее
dust — пыль dirt — грязь
trouble — беда, неприятность
combined — соединенный с чем-либо
splendid — великолепный
country-side — сельская местность
sleeper — спальный вагон
to afford — позволять себе
deck of the ship — палуба корабля
fresh sea wind — свежий морской ветер
Questions
1)
Why do you think almost all people are fond of travelling?
2) What are the methods of travelling?
3) What is your favourite method of travelling?
4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by air?
5) What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by car, train and ship
journey?
6)
Why do many people prefer to travel by car?
2.RUSSIA
I live in Russia. Russia is my native country. The Russian Federation is the
largest country in the world. It occupies one seventh of the Earth's surface. It is
situated both in Europe and Asia. The total area is about 17 million square
kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic
and the Atlantic oceans. Our neighbours in the south are China, Mongolia, Korea,
Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west we have borders with Norway,
Finland, Belarus and the Ukraine. There is no country in the world like Russia,
with the steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in
the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There is a great number of rivers in
Russia. The Volga, the longest in Europe river, flows into the Caspian Sea. The
main Siberian rivers — the Ob', the Yenisey and the Lena flow from the south to
the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific ocean. The deepest lake
in the world is Baikal. The water in the lake is so clear, that you can see the stones
on the bottom.
Because of the vast territory there are various types of climate in the country.
The climate varies greatly in different regions. Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron
ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic with the strong power of the President
who is the head of the state. The State Duma and the Council of Federation are the
legislative branch of the government. The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the
largest political, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.
The national banner of Russia is a tricolour with white, blue and red stripes.
Words
native country — страна рождения, Родина
to occupy — занимать
surface — поверхность
highlands — возвышенности
to flow — течь
vast — обширный
copper — медь
legislative branch — законодательная ветвь (власти)
national banner — государственный флаг stripes — полосы
Questions
1) What is the size of Russia?
2) What oceans is Russia washed by?
3) What are the neighbouring countries of Russia?
4) What are the main rivers of Russia?
5) What are the natural resources of Russia?
6) What does the national banner of Russia look like?
3. MOSCOW
Moscow, the capital of Prussia, is one of the largest cities in the world. It was
founded in 1147 by the prince Yuri Dolgoruky. It stands on the banks of the
Moskva river. About eight million people live in the city.
Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments that were built
by outstanding architects. The Red Square is the central and the most beautiful
square in Moscow. It is the place of parades, meetings and demonstrations. There
is a Cathedral of St. Basil built in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture.
The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin. There is a wonderful architectural
ensemble with 3 cathedrals, the Bell tower of Ivan the Great, palaces, fortress walls
and 20 towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big
clock. The Kremlin with golden domes and towers makes a strong impression on
tourists.
Several skyscrapers decorate Moscow, including Moscow University and the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre with a lot of institutes, universities,
libraries, museums. The city leads a vast cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs,
concert halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi
Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov Theatre.
Moscovites are proud of their museums: the Tretyak-ov Gallery, Pushkin
Museum of Fine Arts and many literary museums. Crowds of people visit
Tretyakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of Russian painters. There are a lot
of stadiums, swimming pools, courts and sport grounds in Moscow.
There are a lot of big plants and factories in Moscow that produce cars, lorries,
home electrical appliances and so on.
Words
capital — столица
prince — князь
bank — берег
monument — памятник
outstanding — выдающийся
architect — архитектор
cathedral — собор
masterpiece — шедевр
ensemble— ансамбль
palace — дворец
fortress — крепость
Bell tower — колокольня
dome — купол
skyscraper — небоскреб
Ministry of Foreign Affairs — министерство иностранных дел
scientific — научный
vast — обширный
Questions
1. When was Moscow founded?
2. Who founded Moscow?
3. What is Moscow famous for besides that it is the
capital of Russian Federation?
4. What are the places of interest in Moscow?
5. What are the world-famous theatres of Moscow?
6. What are the most famous museums of Moscow?
4. Socialising in Britain
British people don't like to be embarrassed. They worry that they
may not be able to make conversation with you, or understand what
you say to them. They probably don't know much a bout your country
(if they can guess where you are from) or your culture, and fear they
might say something that offends you. They think you won’t
understand their jokes (and you won't!). It’s actually easy to avoid this
awkward encounter since they probab ly won’t come up and start
speaking to you anyway.
British people like to have a lot of their own personal space.
They want their own privacy. Some British people may worry that if
they make friends with you, you may not understand their social
customs. They may also worry about interfering with your own
personal space. If you are a woman, a British man may be concerned
that you will feel threatened if he starts speaking to you.
If there are several spare seats in a public place, most British
people will sit away from other people. They also don’t touch each
other very much, and will usually apologise if they touch someone
accidentally. It is rare for people to go to someone's house without
having arranged it beforehand.
5. General tips for travelling
Here are some general tips for travelling and interacting with foreign cultures,
which, if kept in mind, may help ease cultural adjustment:
• Do not expect to find things as you have them at home for you have left your
home to find different things.
• Do not take anything too seriously for an open mind is the beginning of a fine
international experience.
• Do not let others get on your nerves for you have come a long way to learn as
much as you can, to enjoy the experience, and to be a good ambassador for your
country.
• Do not worry, for one who worries has no pleasure.
• Remember where your passport is at all times, for a person without a passport
is a person without a country.
• Do not judge the people of a country by the one person with whom you have
had trouble, for this is unfair to the people as a whole.
• Always remember that you are a guest in every land and that one who treats a
host with respect will be treated as an honoured guest.
• Cultivate the habit of listening and observing, rather than merely seeing or
hearing.
• Be aware of the feelings of the local people to prevent what might be offensive
behaviour. For example, photography must be particularly respectful.
• Spend time reflecting on your daily interactions in order to deepen your
understanding of your experience abroad.
• Learn the language of the host country. People appreciate those who speak
their mother tongue.
6. Greeting
Our planet is great. Billions of people inhabit it. All of them are
different and so are their habits. Travelling all over the world gets easier
and easier. Though we don't understand each other we sometimes, when we
meet a foreigner at the airport or railway station, in a hotel or restaurant, if
we see a close friend, the first thing we do is greeting. In different countries
the rules of greeting are different, sometimes very unusual. Most of the
nationalities just shake hands and say "Hello". In Afganista n people say
"Hello" for at least five minutes. In Thailand they clasp hands together and
bow, when greeting someone. At a formal meeting people immediately
exchange their business cards. If you work in the field of any service, a
restaurant or a hotel, the way you meet people is very important. You should
remember that if you give people a pleasant impression when you first meet
them it is easier to deal with them further. So always try to smite to people,
call them by name, be friendly and helpful. Never forget that we don't have
a second chance for the first impression.
Answer the questions on the text
Do you
shake hands?
Do you smile and say hello?
Do you kiss on the cheek?
Do you say "Good evening" and bow?
Find the equivalents in the text:
Путешествовать становится легче; понимать друг друга; иностранец;
близкий друг; люди и их обычаи различны; необычные правила; по
крайней мере; кивать; официальная встреча; обмениваться карточками;
приятное впечатление; сфера обслуживания; общаться (иметь дело) с
людьми; называть человека по имени; быть готовым прийти на помощь.