Nanoparticles in facade coatings – a survey of industrial experts on
functional and environmental benefits and challenges
Authors
Ingrid Hincapié1, Tina Künniger2, Roland Hischier1, Dario Cervellati3, Bernd Nowack1, Claudia Som1*
1
EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Technology and Society
Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland.
2
EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Applied Wood Materials
Laboratory, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
3
GFC Chimica S.r.l, Via Guglielmo Marconi 73, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy
*Corresponding author:
Contact e-mail: [email protected]
Tel: +41 58 765 78 43
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
Section 1: Survey questionnaire
Section 2: Answers from paint and ENP producers to the survey questionnaire
17 Figures
1
Section 1. Survey questionnaire and answers
The specific questions of the survey were:
1.
Do you produce nanomaterials?
2.
Do you integrate nanomaterials in facade coatings?
3.
Would you be willing to provide us information on the energy consumption for the production of
nanomaterials or your integration process?
4.
Which of the following properties would you like to improve or bring in new façade coatings? (several
answers possible)

UV protection, protection from mechanical wear, photocatalytic activity (dirt degradation),
water and dirt repellent („easy to clean“), antimicrobial, dripping behavior, drying behavior,
thermal insulation, extension of product life, substitution of hazardous substances (e.g.
biocides), material and energy savings, flame retardant
5.
Which facade coatings functions can be improved with the following nanomaterials?

Silver (Ag), Ag ions, silicium dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), iron
oxid (FeO), aluminium(hydr)oxide (z.B. Al2O3), nano clays (e.g. Montmorillonite)
6.
What ecological performance potential may be achieved by integrating nanomaterials in facade
coatings:

Extended life span of the coating, substitution of hazardous substances, saving energy by
shorter drying cycles after the application of the facade coatings on the walls, saving materials
7.
What nanomaterials are currently used in use in Europe for facade coatings?
8.
What is your estimate of the total amounts of nanomaterials used in Europe for facade coatings
(tons/year)?
9.
What tests have you carried out to analyze the improvement of facade coatings enhanced with the
mentioned nanomaterials?

Adhesion, air permeability, alkali resistance and resistance to water, durability and color
brilliance, fungal resistance, liquid water permeability and crack bridging, release of
substances, resistance to impact, resistance to wind load, spreading rate, thermal insulation
proof, water vapour permeability, water tightness, weathering.
10. According to the above mentioned tests: Do nanomaterials enhanced facade coatings compared to
conventional facade coatings?
2
11. What amount of nanoparticles would you recommend to ensure the facade coating functionality?
12. How long will be the effectiveness of nano facade coatings properties guaranteed after the first use?
13. In what areas of the company you have made experience with the following certifications?

ISO 9000, ISO 14000, OHSAS 18000, Ecolabel, TÜV
14. How do you treat nanomaterials leftovers and how do you recommend to treat the leftovers (paint
residues) from facade coatings which contain nanomaterials?
15. In which topics would you most likely need more information?
16. What does your company to evaluate and minimize health and environmental risks? (more than one
answer possible)
17. Are you constantly following the current developments in the field of nanomaterials?
3
Section 2. Answers from paint and ENP producers to the survey questionnaire
The following figures show how every type of industry answered the survey questionnaire
Q1. Do you produce nanomaterials? Yes
17%
Q2. Do you integrate nanomaterials in facade
coatings? Yes
14%
Large Paint
33%
SME Paint
Large Paint
SME Paint
14%
SME ENP
SME ENP
72%
Large ENP
50%
Q3. Would you be willing to provide us
information on the energy consumption for the
production of nanomaterials or your integration
process? Yes
20%
Large Paint
40%
20%
20%
Q4. Which of the following properties would
you like to improve or bring in new facade
coatings?
1%
Large Paint
18%
46%
SME Paint
SME ENP
SME Paint
SME ENP
35%
Large ENP
Large ENP
Q5. Which facade coatings functions can be
improved with the following nanomaterials?
Large ENP
Q6. What ecological performance potential
may be achieved by integratding nanomatials
in facade coatings?
8%
Large Paint
13%
SME Paint
51%
28%
15%
12%
SME ENP
Large ENP
Q7. What nanomaterials are currently
used in use in Europe for facade coatings?
Large Paint
42%
SME Paint
SME ENP
31%
Large ENP
Q8. What is your estimate of the total
amounts of nanomaterials used in Europe
for facade coatings
7%
14%
52%
27%
Large Paint
Large Paint
SME Paint
SME Paint
SME ENP
Large ENP
SME ENP
100%
Large ENP
4
Q9. What tests have you carried out to analyze
the improvement of facade coatings enhanced
with the mentioned nanomaterials?
8% 6%
Q10. According to the above-mentioned tests:
Do nanomaterials enhanced facade coatings
comparedto conventional facade coatings?
17%
Large Paint
Large Paint
SME Paint
24%
62%
SME ENP
SME Paint
Large ENP
Q11. What amount of nanoparticles would you
recommend to ensure the facade coatings
functionality?
50%
17%
SME ENP
Large ENP
16%
Q12. How long will the effectiveness of nanoFacade coatings properties be guaranteed
after the first use?
8%
9%
Large Paint
18%
Large Paint
17%
49%
SME Paint
52%
21%
SME ENP
SME ENP
26%
Large ENP
Large ENP
Q13. In what areas of the company you
have made experience with the following
certifications?
Q14. How do you treat nanomaterials leftovers
and how do you recommend to treat the
leftovers from facade coatings which contain
nanomaterials?
7%
8%
14%
Large Paint
Large Paint
19%
46%
SME Paint
58%
21%
SME Paint
SME ENP
Large ENP
Q15. In which topics would you most
likely need more information?
SME Paint
SME ENP
27%
Large ENP
Q16. What does your company to evaluate and
minimize health and environmental risks?
4%
4%
Large Paint
20%
44%
SME Paint
SME Paint
SME ENP
Large ENP
32%
Large Paint
18%
52%
26%
SME ENP
Large ENP
Q17. Are you constantly following the current
developments in the field of nanomaterials?
25%
Large Paint
50%
10%
SME Paint
SME ENP
15%
Large ENP
5
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Nanoparticles in facade coatings