College of Health Sciences and Professions
Student Research and Creative Activity Showcase
May 2012
Undergraduate Abstracts (pages 3-9)
Graduate Abstracts (pages 9-22)
Participation in research and creative activities outside of the classroom are enriching and
rewarding experiences for both undergraduate and graduate students alike. The lessons
learned are invaluable and often immeasurable. What’s more, these experiences would not be
afforded to students without significant investment of time, mentorship and teamwork between
the student and faculty who thrive on the experiences and outcomes.
Michael Kushnick
Michael Kushnick, Ph.D.
College of Health Sciences and Professions Leadership Fellow
2012 Student Research and Creative Activity Showcase Facilitator
This document can be located at: http://www.ohio.edu/chsp/research/index.cfm
Advisor: Dr. David Holben
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Glycemic Control, Food Access, and Produce
Intake/Behaviors of Individuals with Diabetes in
Rural Appalachian Ohio
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with poor
diabetes (DM) management and poor produce intake.
RESEARCH OUTCOME: This study examined differences in
glycemic control (GC) (poor control = HgbA1c ≥ 8.5%) and
produce intake/behaviors among adults with DM between: 1)
those receiving care from free or fee-for-service (fee) clinics
in rural Appalachian Ohio; and, 2) those classified as food
secure (FS) or food insecure (FI). Produce intake/behaviors
were also compared between those with poor versus good
GC. METHODS: Validated USDA measures of food security
and produce intake/behaviors and medical record data were
used. Differences were determined between groups for GC
(Mann-Whitney U) and produce intake/behaviors (t-test).
RESULTS: Participants (n = 166) (free, n = 41; fee, n = 125)
were 53 ± 16 years and primarily Caucasian (n = 150/163,
92.0%). Most had type II DM (n = 102/155, 65.8%). GC was
better for those attending fee clinics (p = 0.042), compared
to free clinics, as well as for FS participants (p = 0.027),
compared to FI participants. Produce intake/behaviors did
not differ between free and fee groups (p > 0.05); however,
produce (p = 0.003) and vegetable (p = 0.002) intakes, selfefficacy (p = 0.005), perceived diet quality (p < 0.001), and
change in intention (p = 0.015) were greater in FS
participants, compared to FI participants. No other
differences by food security were noted (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: FS appears to be associated with better
dietary quality and better DM management. Receiving free
DM care, which may be due to having a low income and/or
no health insurance, does not appear adequate to ensure
good GC among participants. Further exploration of this is
warranted in other regions and patient groups.
Advisors: Ms. Deborah Murray, Dr. Darlene Berryman
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Sports Nutrition Survey to Assess the Need and
Interest on an Educational Program
BACKGROUND: There is a need for sports nutrition
education programs in order to provide athletes with
educators who can relay accurate and current information
regarding nutrition. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study
was to determine preference and interest in sports nutrition
educational programming among Ohio University alumni with
majors of Nutrition, Athletic Training, Coaching and Exercise
Physiology. METHODS: A quantitative approach was used
to assess interest in the sports nutrition educational
programming. Survey monkey was used to gather
information from the target alumni of coaches, athletic
trainers, exercise physiologists, and dietitians. 1500 emails
were gathered by the Director of Development at Ohio
University. RESULTS: Participants (n = 87). Sixty eight
percent majored in exercise physiology, 56% had a master's
degree and 32% had a bachelor’s degree. Fifty percent were
athletic trainers, and the rest ranged from stay at home
moms, scientists, to teachers. Ninety two percent of our
audience stated that sports nutrition was either important or
very important. Seventy four percent of our population stated
they were moderately knowledgeable or knowledgeable in
the area of sports nutrition. Twenty five percent preferred a
one day program followed by a quarter/semester program
(23%). Twenty five percent stated preferring a series of
courses followed by 24% of those who wanted a day
workshop. Forty seven percent of respondents preferred a
traditional course/lecture. The top six ranked topics
requested by respondents were: pre and post competition
nutrition, fluid and electrolyte balance, nutrition in sport injury
and recovery, eating on the road, weight management for
athletes (gaining and losing), and energy metabolism and
requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents with a
bachelor’s degree or higher in many different fields indicated
that sports nutrition is important and may benefit from a
sports nutrition certificate. Course delivery preference was a
traditional course or lecture that could be comprised of a
series of courses over a given semester or a day workshop.
Topics of greatest interest to be included in the sport
nutrition program were reported to be best known and
understood by respondent. Respondents indicated a
preferred cost for the certificate to be $50-$100.
Advisor: Dr. David Holben
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Impact of a Pilot Winter Season CSA Fresh
Produce Delivery Intervention Program on the
Food Security and Produce Intake/Behaviors of
Mothers Living in Rural Appalachian Ohio
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with poor
produce intake. Seasonal availability may also be a barrier to
intake. RESEARCH OUTCOME: This study examined
differences in food security (FS) and produce
intake/behaviors (perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and
perceived control) of low income women with at least one
child < 18 years living in rural Appalachian Ohio before and
after the implementation of a Pilot Community Supported
Agriculture (CSA) Fresh Produce Delivery Program (4-month
program during winter season). METHODS: Validated
measures of FS (USDA) and produce intake/behaviors were
used during pre- and post-interviews. Differences were
determined between groups for FS and produce
intake/behaviors (t-tests). RESULTS: Participants (n = 15)
were 38 ± 11 years and primarily Caucasian (n = 11/15,
93.3%). Six (40%), 6 (40%), and 3 (20%) were single/never
married, married, or divorced, respectively, and lived in
households with 4.6 ± 2.1 members. Participants were high
school/GED graduates (n = 7, 46.7%) or had some college
or higher education (n = 8, 53.3%). FS (p = 0.336) and
produce behaviors (p > 0.05) did not change from pre- to
post-intervention; however, total produce intake improved (p
= 0.040) from pre- (1.5 ± 0.4) to post-intervention (1.7 ± 0.5).
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that a winter season
CSA produce delivery program can be successfully
implemented for rural, low-income women. The pilot
intervention did not improve FS status; however, it did
improve produce consumption, albeit small. Further
exploration is warranted in a larger sample with a control
group to further examine the efficacy of such an intervention.
Advisors: Dr. Darlene Berryman, Ms. Deborah Murray
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Athletic
Training Undergraduate and Graduate Students
BACKGROUND: Ohio University offers limited nutrition
education in the curriculum for Athletic Training (AT) majors.
PURPOSE: This study examined the nutrition knowledge of
Athletic Training undergraduate and graduate students at
Ohio University. The information will determine the nutrition
knowledge deficits and nutrition practices of AT students.
This research will assist in creating a nutrition education
program for AT majors. METHODS: A validated nutrition
knowledge questionnaire was administered to sophomore,
junior, and senior undergraduate AT majors, and to first and
second year AT graduate majors. All participants were 18
years or older. The data was analyzed with PASW Statistical
Software (Version 18, 2009) using descriptive statistics,
frequency testing, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation with a
p= < 0.05. RESULTS: Participants (n = 66) (Sophomore =
17; Junior = 18; Senior = 14; 1st year Grad = 7; 2nd year
Grad = 10). ANOVA between each academic group and total
nutrition knowledge score concluded (p = 0.179); ANOVA
between undergrad and graduate students concluded (p =
0.033). Correlation between academic standing and total
nutrition knowledge score concluded (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between
nutrition knowledge and each academic year, but there was
a significant difference in nutrition knowledge between
undergraduate and graduate AT students. There was a
positive relationship between academic standing and total
nutrition knowledge score. More research is needed to test
the specific nutrition knowledge deficits among AT students.
Advisor: Dr. David Holben
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Food Insecurity is Associated With Poor Social
Capital, Perceived Health, and Perceived Diet
Among Food Bank Users In and Around Lower
Mainland of British Columbia
METHODS: Adult clients from 4 food banks in British
Columbia (Surrey, Richmond, TriCities, Nanaimo) were
surveyed for differences between food security situation
among adults (FSSAA), social capital (SC), perceived health
(HLTH), and perceived diet (DIET). Of 1,064 invited, 528
(49.6% response rate) completed the study. RESULTS: For
FSSAA, only 5.5% were food secure; 26.3% and 68.2%
were food insecure (moderate) and food insecure (severe),
respectively; 42.2% had high SC, while 57.8% had low;
34.9% considered their HLTH to be poor/fair, while 65.1%
considered it to be good/very good/excellent; 50.3%
considered their DIET to be poor/fair, while 49.7%
considered it to be good/very good/excellent. FSSAA
[Kruskal-Wallis (K-W), p = 0.046], SC (K-W, p = .003), and
DIET (K-W p = 0.030) significantly differed by food bank,
while HLTH did not (K-W, p = 0.341). Considering all
participants, FSSAA was significantly related to SC
(Kendall’s tau-b = -0.141, p < .001), HLTH (tau-b = -0.0196,
p <. 001), and DIET (tau-b = -0.290, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study confirms that food bank users are
food insecure and have poor SC, HLTH, and DIET. It also
underscores the negative relationship of food insecurity to
those constructs.
Advisor: Dr. Michael Kushnick Applied Health
Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
Acute Hyperglycemia, the Second Meal Effect,
and Oxidative Stress
BACKGROUND: Simple sugars are rapidly digesting and
contribute to exaggerated postprandial glycemic and
insulinemic responses concomitant with an increase in
oxidative stress–cellular damage induced by free radicals.
Limited research suggests slowly digestible starches (SDS)
can diminish glycemic and insulinemic responses and
influence the metabolic response in subsequent meals
(“Second Meal Effect”). However, it is unclear whether the
oxidative stress response to subsequent meals is affected.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the oxidative stress response to a
second meal after consumption of SDS compared to a
rapidly digesting carbohydrate–dextrose monohydrate
(CON). METHODS: Eight normoglycemic men of similar
age (22 ± 1 year), weight (77.78 ± 6.45 kg), body
composition (15.38 ± 3.00 % body fat), and aerobic fitness
(53.32 ± 1.65 mL/kg/min) were recruited. Participants
reported to the lab after a 12-hour fast, having refrained from
exercise, physical activity, and alcohol for 60 hours prior to
blood sampling. Blood samples were obtained at baseline
and every 30 minutes for 4 hours following the ingestion of a
first meal of (CON) or a novel, extended release SDS. After
4 hours participants were administered a second
standardized meal and blood samples were obtained every
30 minutes for 2 hours following consumption. Plasma
glucose concentration was determined immediately. Blood
samples were stored at -80o C until batch analysis of plasma
insulin, plasma 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine, hydrogen
peroxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were
performed. Concentrations were analyzed using repeated
measures ANOVA and t-tests of area under the curve
(AUC). RESULTS: In response to the first meal, the 4-hour
AUC for plasma glucose, plasma insulin, hydrogen peroxide,
and nitrotyrosine were significantly greater in the control
(CON) compared to the slowly digestible starch (SDS) trial,
while between-trial AUC for 8-isprostanes and TAC were not
statistically different. The 2-hour AUC for the second meal
for plasma glucose and plasma insulin were significantly
greater in the CON trial compared to the SDS trial. There
were no significant between-trial differences in the 2-hour
AUC of the second meal for 8-isoprostanes, hydrogen
peroxide, nitrotyrosine, and TAC. CONCLUSION: In this
group of men, consumption of simple sugars may induce a
greater metabolic and oxidative stress response than SDS.
Moreover, glycemic and insulinemic responses to a
standardized second meal are attenuated by the ingestion of
a first meal consisting of SDS as compared to CON but the
oxidative stress response appears unaffected by first meal
Advisor: Dr. Michael Kushnick
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
Consumption of a Novel Slowly Digesting Starch
BACKGROUND: A bout of exercise can increase lipolysis
and fat oxidation. Conversely, ingesting carbohydrate (CHO)
increases insulin concentration and blunts lipolysis. As
compared to food with higher glycemic indices (GI), low GI
food may be valuable in reducing glycemic and insulinemic
responses and, therefore, may be valuable as a
postexercise meal in order to maintain elevated fat oxidation
during recovery. PURPOSE: To evaluate metabolic cost
(VO2) and substrate utilization (RER) after consumption of a
low GI CHO, high GI CHO, and control (500mL H2O) during
the recovery from a previous bout of exercise. METHODS: A
repeated-measures ANOVA model was used with LSD post
hoc analyses where applicable. Means ± standard deviations
are presented. Ten healthy, nonsmoking, college-aged men
(21 ± 2yrs) with average body composition (14.00 ± 1.82 %
fat) and above average aerobic fitness (53.20 ± 2.87
mL/kg/min) were recruited. Participants completed three
trials each in random order. Each trial began with a treadmill
walk at 60% of their predetermined VO2max until 300kcal
were expended, followed by consumption of 300kcal of a low
GI CHO, high GI CHO, or a control. Then measurements of
ventilatory gases were made during a two hour recovery
period. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in
VO2 among trials. However, RER was significantly different
among trials and across time–presented in the table below.
CONCLUSION: In this sample of men, consuming a low GI
CHO after a bout of exercise helped to maintain fat oxidation
during the first hour of a 2-hour recovery.
Advisor: Dr. Jason White
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
Comparison of a Full Field Skills Assessment
Versus a Player's Physiological Profile for
Predictability of On-Field Performance of Division
1 Field Hockey Players
BACKGROUND: Field hockey is a sport that has limited
research in ways to predict season performance of athletes.
A full field skills assessment has been created for many
sports that showcase sport specific skills to simulate game
performance. There has never been a full field skills test
created as a predictor of performance for field hockey. Many
sports programs, field hockey included, also use various
sport related physiological and anthropological assessments
to create a “physiological profile” of an athlete, to try to
predict performance. Various physiological profile markers
include body composition, muscular strength tests, speed
tests, maximal oxygen consumption, and various aerobic
tests such as a timed mile. PURPOSE: The primary purpose
of this study is to investigate if a full field skills assessment
or the physiological profile of an athlete is a better predictor
of season performance of collegiate field hockey players. A
secondary purpose of this study is to determine if various
aspects of the physiological profile or the results of the full
field skills assessment are better predictors of certain
indicators of performance. METHODS: Twelve division I
female field hockey players (18-21 yr) were included in an
investigation of prediction of season performance. The
subjects completed a full field skills assessment that tested
their ability to perform basic skills of field hockey at a
maximal effort as part of preparation for the 2011 field
hockey season. Data from various physiological profile
assessments of each field hockey athlete were collected as
well. The physiological profile tests included maximal lifts,
aerobic fitness tests, as well as tests to find body fat
percentage. All tests were performed prior to the 2011
season. Performance factors for each athlete were collected
proceeding the 2011 season. Performance indicators
included games started, minutes played, goals, assists, and
total points over 18 season games. Comparisons of
performance indicators with various preseason testing
results were performed using bivariate correlation, partial
correlation, and regression using SPSS 18.0. RESULTS:
Bivariate correlations comparing field test results to various
performance indicators show that the field test had a -.585
correlation with games started meaning that performance on
the field test had a 34% association with games started.
Negative correlations show in this case that as field test
times got faster, players started more games. A -.425
correlation with goals was reported, meaning that results
from the field test had an 18% association with goals scored.
A -.457 correlation was reported as the correlation of field
test results to total season points, showing a 21%
association between the two variables. Partial correlations
were performed to investigate the amount of variation field
test results explain in various performance indicators after
controlling for various physiological profile results. The most
significant performance indicator the field test results
explained was games started, with the highest correlation
being -.606 (partial correlation of field test results and games
started after controlling for VO2 results). There were some
notable correlations among various physiological profile
results and certain performance indicators. Back squat
results had high correlation with goals scored. Bivariate
correlations between goals scored and back squat results
reported a .672 correlation. Partial correlations for goals
scored and back squat while controlling for each
physiological profile individually all had relatively high
correlations with the lowest reported as .509 (controlling for
vertical jump) and the highest reported as .669 (controlling
for body fat %). Goals scored and vertical jump height had a
.517 correlation as well. Partial correlation of back squat and
vertical jump as predictors of goals scored while controlling
for body fat % showed back squat having a .669 correlation
and vertical jump having a .615 correlation with goals
scored. Both of these predictors had high correlations even
after adding in a third predictor. Regression comparing
muscular strength and aerobic fitness results to goals scored
and games started show that goals scored was best
predicted by muscular strength tests. A model combining all
muscular strength and power tests had a .724 correlation
with goals scored and aerobic fitness tests showed a .636
correlation with goals scored. Aerobic fitness factors
explained the most amount of variation in games started
(.812 correlation), while muscular strength predictors had a
.435 correlation with games started. CONCLUSION: Field
test times had the highest amount of association with games
started. Back squat results as well as vertical jump had the
highest amount of association with goals scored. Muscular
strength and explosiveness appears to be the best predictor
of goals scored, while aerobic fitness seems to be the best
predictor of games started in this sample.
Advisor: Dr. Cheryl Howe
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
Step Rate of Children's Free-Play Physical Activity
BACKGROUND: Measuring children’s physical activity (PA)
intensity with pedometry has not been possible until recently,
due to its limited time-sampling capacity (steps/day). To
date, no data exist on the step rate (steps/min) necessary to
classify children’s free-play as MVPA; activity that can count
toward the 60-min recommendation using pedometry.
PURPOSE: This study measured the children’s step rate
while playing typical children’s games in order to determine
the steps/min MVPA cut-point of children’s free-play PA.
METHODS: Children (N = 24; 8-12 yr) were recruited from
local elementary schools to participate in this study. The
participants were asked to play a random selection of 10 of
30 possible games in random order while wearing a portable
metabolic analyzer and the ActiGraph GT3X+ with
pedometry. The relationship between mean pedometry and
metabolic value for each game was analyzed using a
Pearson regression analysis. A repeated measures ANOVA
was used to compare the step rate across gender and
weight status (p < 0.05). RESULTS: All of the games were
classified as MVPA (range = 4.06 to 7.1 METs) and
averaged 4.6 ± 1.46 kcal/min. The step rate of all the games
was 68.5 ± 1.6 step/min, although this ranged from 31.0 ±
4.8 steps/min for Hoop Stations to 103.2 ± 5.7 steps/min for
Joker’s Wild, with healthy weight > overweight children by
16.6% and boys > girls by 15%. CONCLUSION: Pedometers
may provide an accurate and inexpensive method of
measuring children’s free-play physical activity and
quantifying activity as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
Advisor: Dr. Darlene Berryman
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Quantification of Collagen
Adipoctye Size in bGH Mice
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis refers to the formation of excess
connective or scar tissue in an organ and is usually
attributed to changes in the amount and composition of
extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Growth hormone (GH), a
protein secreted from the anterior pituitary, has repeatedly
been shown to be positively correlated to ECM deposition in
many tissues. The primary ECM protein in adipose tissue is
collagen. Increases in collagen have been shown to be
directly correlated with a decrease in adipocyte size.
Generally, a reduction in adipocyte size would be considered
a positive change. However, it has been suggested that it
may have negative implications in carbohydrate and lipid
metabolism as well as inflammation.
Bovine growth
hormone transgenic mice (bGH) are giant and lean, yet have
shortened life spans. They are also insulin resistant and
resistant to diet-induced obesity. PURPOSE: The purpose
of this study was to observe and compare the impact of GH
on the ECM of adipose tissue in white adipose tissue from
mice with an excess of growth hormone action. METHODS:
Sample Collection: Tissue samples from 26-, 42-, and 64week-old bGH (bovine growth hormone transgenic mice) and
littermate control mice were collected from four different
depots (subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perigonadal, and
mesenteric). Samples were fixed in 10% phosphate buffered
formalin and sent to AML Laboratories for staining. Collagen
Content: Five-micrometer sections of paraffin-embedded
WAT samples were stained with pico sirius red. Slides were
examined using a Nikon Eclipse E600 microscope under
200X magnification, and images were obtained with a SPOT
RT digital camera. Cells were sized using NIS-Elements
computer software. RESULTS: Figures on request.
CONCLUSION: Collagen staining appeared higher in bGH
mice when compared to their WT littermates. Thus, excess
GH appears to increase adipose tissue fibrosis. Fibrosis
appeared depot specific with higher collagen staining in the
subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric depots when
compared to the perigonadal depot. Other studies have
suggested that the subcutaneous depot is the most
susceptible to fibrosis . Fibrosis also appeared to increase
with age in bGH mice. The same trend did not appear in WT
mice. No previous reports have looked at the impact of age
on fibrosis. No sex specific differences were seen when
comparing levels of apparent fibrosis in either WT or BGH
mice. Adipoctye size was lower in bGH mice when
compared to their WT littermates. Fibrosis seemed to be
correlated with a decrease in cell size. Other studies have
suggested this relationship.
Advisor: Dr. Tim Ryan
Social and Public Health
Environmental Health Science
Characterization of Particulate Matter in Hookah
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
BACKGROUND: Smoking of tobacco-based products
through waterpipes commonly known as hookahs is found
throughout the world, but is becoming more prevalent in the
United States. Unlike cigarette smoking, hookah smoking is
allowed indoors in establishments that have been exempted
from legislation banning the use of tobacco products from
bars, restaurants, and other public places. Most tobacco
research to date has focused on both first and secondhand
cigarette smoke, while few efforts have been directed to
assessing exposures of hookah smoke. PURPOSE: This
study looked at ambient exposures in hookah bars to
particulate matter (PM) in hookah environmental tobacco
smoke. METHODS: Samples of PM were collected using a
TSI 8530 DustTrak II Desktop Aerosol Monitor, TSI 8533
DustTrak DRX Desktop Aerosol Monitor and ARTI HHPC-6
Six-Channel Handheld Airborne Particle Counter. For data
collection the equipment were set up adjacent to the hookah
from which human subjects smoked the tobacco. Data were
collected continuously throughout the smoking session while
the data collector noted changes in the environment (i.e.,
door opened, additional hookah added, charcoal lit, etc).
These data were collected in the evenings and during cold
weather months when all doors and window remained
closed in the hookah bars. RESULTS: Preliminary findings
show that the ambient environment in hookah bars has
significantly higher levels of PM when compared to the
control. Levels of PM in the hookah bar were on average
over 50 times that of the control, with a minimum of over 17
times higher and maximum of over 170 times higher.
Advisor: Dr. Darlene E. Berryman
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
which dissipates the proton gradient of the inner
mitochondrial membrane, thereby releasing heat instead of
generating ATP. UCP1 is unique to brown adipocytes and
thus, when quantified, is indicative of the relative abundance
of brown adipocytes in a tissue. The abundance of brown
adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) has been
suggested to be important for weight loss and the prevention
of high fat diet-induced obesity. BACKGROUND: Growth
hormone (GH) has been shown to be negatively correlated
with the amount of interscapular BAT and to influence WAT
in a depot-specific manner. While studies conducted with
C57B1/6J mice have shown that UCP1 is differentially
expressed in subcutaneous and epididymal WAT, no
publication to date has addressed the correlation between
GH and the brown adipocyte content of WAT. PURPOSE:
This study examined the abundance of brown adipocytes in
subcutaneous and epididymal adipose tissues from three
well-known mouse lines with modified GH signaling.
METHODS: Subcutaneous and epididymal fat depots were
collected from six mice from each of three mouse lines with
altered GH signaling and their corresponding wild type (WT)
control littermates; the bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mouse
overexpresses the hormone; the GH antagonist (GHA)
transgenic mouse expresses a competitive inhibitor,
reducing signaling; and the GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-)
mouse lacks the cell surface receptor for the hormone and
consequently lacks GH signal transduction. qPCR was
performed, followed by quantitative analysis between
groups. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in
relative UCP1 expression between the subcutaneous and
epididymal (high to low) depots in all three genotypes when
compared to their respective controls. In the subcutaneous
depots compared between groups, significant differences
were observed between WT GHR-/- and WT bGH (high to
low), between WT GHR-/- and WT GHA (high to low),
between GHR-/- and bGH (high to low), and between bGH
and GHA (low to high). There were no significant differences
observed in the epididymal depot between groups.
CONCLUSIONS: UCP1 expression and therefore brown
adipocyte content is higher in the subcutaneous depot than
in the epididymal depot. Mice with elevated levels of GH
signaling have reduced UCP1 expression levels and mice
with no GH signaling have elevated UCP1 expression levels
in the subcutaneous depot when compared to mice with
normal GH signaling. In accordance, mice with elevated GH
signaling have reduced UCP1 expression levels in the
subcutaneous depot when compared to mice with reduced
or absent GH signaling. We conclude that growth hormone
negatively influences UCP1 expression and consequently
brown adipocyte content in the subcutaneous white adipose
Quantification of Brown Adipocyte Marker UCP1
in White Adipose Tissues of Mice with Altered
Growth Hormone Action
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
INTRODUCTION: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits
have recently been established in adult humans. Brown
adipocytes are cells characterized by a dense population of
mitochondria that express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1),
The Examination of Inter-rater Reliability of
Geospatial Functional Outcome Measure Using
the Movement and Activity in Physical Space
(MAPS) Scores
BACKGROUND: Function is a health outcome that is highly
valued by patients. Functional outcome measures are
critically important for evaluating the effectiveness of clinical
treatments and tracking disease progression. Functional
outcomes can be assessed using both objective and
subjective methods, however both methods have significant
limitations. Objective measurements include a variety of
tests (e.g., timed walk tests) to evaluate specific skills in a
clinical setting at one point in time providing a limited picture
of a person’s overall function in nonclinical settings.
Subjective measurements rely on the patient’s ability to
accurately recall activities they have been able/unable to do
over a specified period of time. The World Health
Organization conceptualizes function as the dynamic
interaction of a person’s physical activity within his/her
environment. The functional outcome measures currently
being used in clinical settings are unable to account for
environmental factors that can influence function. In an
attempt to address this significant measurement issue, we
have developed and validated a new functional outcome
measure, the Movement and Activity in Physical Space
(MAPS) Score, which combines physical activity and
geospatial data providing an assessment of real-world
function across multiple days. This new functional outcome
measures produces 14 different outcome variables (e.g.,
MAPS intensity score: MAPSI, MAPS volume score:
MAPSV, total number of trips, total number of steps and
physical activity counts at locations other than home, etc.)
from the two data sources. The other MAPS system
outcome measures: 1) total physical activity counts, 2) total
physical activity counts at home, 3) total physical activity
counts at locations other than home, 4) total step counts, 5)
total step counts at home, 6) total step counts at locations
other than home, 7) total time at home, 8) total time at
locations other than home, 9) total travel time), 10) total
number of trips away from home, 11) total number of
instrumental trips, and 12) total number of discretional trips.
While reliability for MAPSI and MAPSV has been previously
established, the inter-rater reliability of the MAPS system
variables has not yet been addressed. RESEARCH
OUTCOME: The purpose of this study was to examine the
inter-rater reliability of the MAPS system variables.
METHODS: Design: Inter-rater Reliability
Laboratory Participants: There were two sets of two person
raters MAPS processing teams. Both teams of raters were
selected because they are currently using the MAPS system
for various research projects. Activity can be based on either
the accelerometer activity counts (indicator of the intensity of
physical activity) or step counts, with activity counts
providing a MAPS intensity score (MAPSI) and step counts
providing a MAPS volume score (MAPSV). Essentially, the
MAPS score will be lower for a person who has greater
disability or functional limitations as compared to a person
who is healthy with normal function. Protocol: Participants
completed an informed consent and were given the
accelerometer, GPS receiver, and instructions about how to
use the devices. Participants wore the accelerometer on the
non-dominant hip and clipped the GPS receiver to their belt,
keys or purse. The monitoring devices were worn five
consecutive days between the time the person got out of bed
in the morning and went to bed in the evening. ANALYSIS:
The GPS data were downloaded into the Past Track
LandAirSea software program and the accelerometer data
were downloaded using ActiLife software. The GPS data
were processed by the software and an activity report that
contained all GPS identified trips was generated. The activity
report is linked to Google maps for GIS and display
purposes. The Past Track software is also linked to the
activity report and this software provides second-by-second
information about the speed and location of the GPS
receiver. These data were processed by two individuals
working together to extract the MAPS system variables.
Archive Data: Six days of unprocessed MAPS data were
chosen from three individuals (two days from the same past
participant) for data processing in this study. The days were
selected based on the difficulty in processing. Two were
selected to represent easy and complete data, two were
difficult, and two were average. Procedures: Each
processing team examined the same six days independent
from each other and extracted the MAPS system variables
for each day. The variables that were extracted were 1) total
physical activity counts, 2) total physical activity counts at
home, 3) total physical activity counts at locations other than
home, 4) total step counts, 5) total step counts at home, 6)
total step counts at locations other than home, 7) total time
at home, 8) total time at locations other than home, 9) total
travel time), 10) total number of trips away from home, 11)
total number of instrumental trips, and 12) total number of
discretional trips. Data Analysis: Inter-rater reliability was
examined by calculating interclass correlation coefficients
(ICC) for each of the variables. RESULTS: The inter-rater
reliability for most of the MAPS variables is good. This allows
for multiple teams to process and combine data. This will
allow for larger MAPS studies to be conducted at multiple
sites. The only variables that had borderline reliability were
the Total Time at Home and Locations. These variables are
connected and that future procedural work should be done to
reduce the error. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the MAPS
system produces reliable functional measures in nonclinical
Advisor: Dr. Youngsun Kim
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Effects of Age and Gender on Oropharyngeal
Transition of the Bolus in Normal Swallowing
BACKGROUND: A significant amount of research has been
conducted examining the effects of aging on the normal
physiological process of swallowing. Adults over sixty years
old with no medical history of dysphagia (swallowing
disorder) exhibit different swallowing physiology from
younger adults of the same gender. There has also recently
been increasing interest in gender differences in the oral and
pharyngeal phase of the swallowing. A surplus of research
on normal swallowing focuses on measurements pertaining
to airway protection and hyolaryngeal excursion. However, it
is also important to have age and gender difference data
relating to the bolus transfer like the oropharyngeal transition
times. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to
determine the effects of age and gender on oropharyngeal
transition durations of thin and nectar thick liquids and puree
swallows of normal subjects. METHODS: For this study,
temporal measurements were obtained from 40 normal
subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups. This
included 20 younger subjects and 20 older subjects, with
each age group consisting of 10 males and 10 females. The
Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Examination (VFSE) of each
subject was analyzed for two 5ml thin and nectar thick
liquids, and one 5ml puree swallows. Two temporal
measurements of oropharyngeal swallowing were measured:
Oral Transition Time (OTT) and Pharyngeal Transition Time
(PTT). Statistical comparisons were made by a three-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the significance level was
set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Age and gender did not have a
significant effect on the oral transition of the bolus. However,
older subjects exhibited longer pharyngeal transition than
younger subjects. Longer OTT and PTT were recorded in
puree swallows than liquid swallows. Clinical implications are
Advisors: Drs. David Holben, Nancy Manring, Ted
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Does Living in a Food Desert Affect Access and
Related Outcomes Among SNAP Recipients Using
the Athens Farmers Market? A Pilot Study
BACKGROUND: Living in a food desert is associated with
low intake of healthy food. RESEARCH OUTCOME: This
study (a) examined if other forms of access, food security
and social capital differ for SNAP participants using the
Athens Farmers Market and living in a food desert as
compared to those who do not live in a food desert; (b)
assessed differences in fruit and vegetable intake and
perceived health status for SNAP participants using the
Athens Farmers Market and living in a food desert as
compared to those who do not live in a food desert; (c)
examined personal reasons low-income households access
the Athens Farmers Market. METHODS: Validated
measures of Household Food security, social capital, fruit
and vegetable intake and perceived health status were used.
Qualitative data regarding reasons for accessing the market
were also used. PASW Statistical Software (version 18) was
used to determine differences in food security, social capital,
perceived health status (Mann-Whitney U) and fruit and
vegetable intake (t-test) for those living in food deserts and
non-food deserts. RESULTS: Participants (n = 30) (food
desert, n = 11; non-food desert n = 19) were 42.5 ± 19.5
years of age, and the majority were female (n = 21,),
Caucasian (n = 28) and had a college degree or higher (n =
24). Overall, 20 (71%) were food secure, 12 (50%) had high
social capital, 12(50%) had low social capital, 28 (93%) had
a good perceived health status, 2(7%) had a low perceived
health status, and average daily fruit and vegetable intake
was 4.9 ± 1.9 servings. Characteristics of those living in food
deserts and not living in food deserts were not statistically
significant from each other (p > 0.05). Primary reasons for
shopping at the AFM were socially related or related to
'local'. CONCLUSIONS: Food security, social capital, fruit &
vegetable intake, and health status did not differ for those
living in food deserts or non-food deserts. Shopping local
and reasons related to social support were the primary
reasons stated for shopping at the Athens Farmers Market.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Job Satisfaction and Burnout of Mental Health
Professionals in a Rural Mental Health Agency
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised that higher
burnout and less perceived job satisfaction in community
staff may make community-based services for mentally ill
people difficult to sustain. RESEARCH OUTCOME: The
study examined job satisfaction (JS) and burnout (B) among
mental health professionals in a rural mental health agency
to determine if the following variables are associated with JS
or B. The variables that were tested with JS and B with the
mental health professionals are: organizational job
satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, supervision, autonomy,
clarity, client caseload, years in practice, profession, and
gender. METHODS: Utilized a Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS),
Burnout Measure-short version (BMS), and a Demographic
form to obtain data from the respondents. Using PASW
Statistical Software (version 18.0, 2009). Pearson correlation
was used to assess the relationships between organizational
job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, supervision,
autonomy, clarity, client caseload, years in practice, and
burnout. An independent samples t-test was used to
determine relationship between gender and job satisfaction.
An ANOVA was to determine relationship between
profession and job satisfaction. RESULTS: Respondents (n
= 47) were 33 females and 14 males. There was a strong,
positive correlation between Organizational job satisfaction (r
= .642), supervision (r = .717), autonomy (r = .698), and
clarity (r = .723) with overall job satisfaction. There was a
strong, negative correlation between burnout (--.506) and
overall job satisfaction. All were correlated with a p=.000).
Within profession, Crisis Workers are the most satisfied
mental health professionals within the agency, with M =
116.60. Case Managers had the lowest job satisfaction
among the professions within the agency, with M = 99.25.
Social Workers were the second least satisfied profession
within the agency, with M = 101.91. However, the results are
not statistically significant. Females were more satisfied
within their job (M = 108.33) as compared to males (M =
104.79), which were less satisfied. However, the results are
not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Similar to findings
in the literature, it was found that mental health
professionals’ perception of supervisory support , clarity of
job and role, and autonomy are important variables that
make professionals satisfied in their jobs. These variables
were strongly correlated with job satisfaction.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Positive Psychological "Flourishing"
Rural Appalachian Adolescents
BACKGROUND: Children in the U.S. are being
disproportionally affected by mental illness compared to
adult populations. Further, children who reside in
Appalachian areas of rural Southeast Ohio struggle with
poor mental health compared to national averages.
PURPOSE: The following study aims to investigate positive
psychological characteristics such as flourishing, recent
positive and negative emotions, life satisfaction, as well as
emotional and physical health, among a group of rural,
Appalachian, adolescents (12-18 yr) to help inform strengthbased approaches to interventions and treatments for child
and adolescent mental health practitioners. METHODS: A
connivance sample of adolescents (age 12-17 yr) completed
the following validated positive psychological scales: the
Flourishing Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative
Experience (SPANE), Brief Multi-Dimensional Student Life
Satisfaction Survey (BMSLSS). Participants also completed
the Short Form 12 health survey and demographic
information including their grade in school, gender, and
ethnicity. RESULTS: Participants (n = 11) ranged in age
from 12-13 yr (m = 14), currently in grades 7-12, a majority
were female (54.5%), and all participants were Caucasian
(100%). A significant negative relationship was found
between the participants grade level and overall Flourishing
Scale score (p = 0.21). As their grade level increased, their
level of flourishing decreased. A single-sample t-test was
significant when comparing the sample’s mental health
scores and national averages (p = 0.23). No other measures
were significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There are
flourishing, healthy teens who reside in Southeast Ohio. The
sample reflected mental health scores ranging above
average for adolescents, but within average range compared
to general population averages. Adolescents in higher grade
levels flourished less compared to participants in lower
grade levels. More research needed to explore the
relationship between positive psychological variables and
their impact on adolescent mental health in rural,
Appalachian, Southeast Ohio.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Ohio University’s Student Social Worker’s
Perception of the Role of Spirituality and Religion
in Curriculum and Practice
PURPOSE: This study examines how Ohio University Social
Work Students' perceive the school's
Social Work
Curriculum’s addresses religion; the students ability to
handle religion /spiritual interventions in practice situations
and if these dependent variables are correlated with the
independent variables of students religious or spiritual
identification, their extrinsic or intrinsic motivation, or their
age. METHODS: Two validated measures the religious
section of the General Social Survey and Hoge's Intrinsic
Motivation were used as was a survey constructed by the
researcher. Using SPSS 19 2011 for the statistical sciences
significant correlations were found between several of the
CONCLUSIONS: Having Intrinsic Motivation appeared to be
the best indicator of students’ support for including
spirituality and/or religion in curriculum and practice. As 13 of
the 22 dependent variables showed either moderate or
strong correlations with this independent variable with the
strongest correlations: I would pray with a client if asked
(strong, positive .606**); I believe it is appropriate to use
religious texts when working with clients(strong, positive,
.507**); Spirituality is an important tool in working with clients
positive, .445**). Independent variables
identifying as having spiritual or religious practices each
positively correlated with 8 of the 22 dependent variables,
but were more moderate in nature. The top three variables
for each were Religious Practices: I would pray with a client
if asked (moderate, positive .388**); I believe it is appropriate
to use religious texts when working with clients (moderate,
positive, .370**); Spirituality is an important tool in working
with clients (Moderate, positive,.366**). Spiritual Practices: I
believe it is appropriate to use religious texts when working
with clients(moderate, positive, .390**); OU’s Social Work
Department should offer a class in spirituality as a
requirement (Moderate, positive, 378**); Spirituality is an
important tool in working with clients (Moderate, positive,
.372**). Having Extrinsic Motivation was negatively
correlated with 5 of the 22 dependent variables with the
strongest correlation being: I believe that it is appropriate to
use religious texts when working with clients (Moderate,
negative, -.320**); OU should include a class in addressing
religious issues with clients ( Weak, negative, -.293**); I feel
my religious beliefs are in conflict with OU’s Social Work
Curriculum (Weak, negative,-.277**). The demographic
variable of Age was negatively correlated with 6 of the 22
variables with the strongest correlations being: Religious
matters do not belong in Social Work (Weak, negative,264**); I feel comfortable expressing my religious views in
class (Weak, neative,-248*); Religious practices should be
covered in client assessment (Weak, negative); OU’s Social
Work Department should offer a class in spirituality as a
requirement (Moderate, positive, 406**).
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
Variability in Context of Time in Athletic TrainingRelated Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs)
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are
essential in establishing evidence-based practice. While
many PROs are available, proper selection and use is
important because many are designed for specific purposes
over different lengths of time. For example, when using
PRO to measure the immediate impact of an injury it is
important to use a measure that uses the correct context of
time (e.g., last 24 hours and not over the last 4 weeks).
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the
variability of the context of time on common Health-related
Quality of Life PROs in athletic training. METHODS: PRO
studies were identified from PubMed searches, and reviews
of Athletic Training Journals. Search terms included “upper
extremity self-report” “lower extremity self-report” and
“quality of life.” A total of 68 instruments were indentified
from the literature. Common instruments were separated into
three categories: Upper Extremity (n = 26), Lower Extremity
(n = 27), and Quality of Life (n = 15). Study Selection:
Content experts reviewed then identified the commonly used
athletic training PROs. Upper Extremity PROs included:
Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), Flex-ilevel Scale of Shoulder Function, Shoulder Pain and
Disability Index, Dutch Shoulder Disability Questionnaire,
and the PROMIS Pediatric Upper Extremity Scale. The
Lower Extremity PROs included: Knee Injury and
Osteoarthritis Score, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis
Outcome Score, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, Foot and
Ankle Ability Measure, International Knee Rating Scale, and
the WOMAC Knee Scale. The Quality of Life PROs were the
PedsQL, SF-12 and SF-36, and Adult Quality of Life. Data
Extraction: The PRO context of time were identified and
recorded. For example, DASH items used “Within the last 7
days…” context of time. RESULTS: The DASH, WOMAC,
SF-36 were the most frequently used PROs. The most
commonly used context of time, the shortest and longest
context were identified. The most commonly used Upper
Extremity time frame referred back to the time of injury. The
shortest timeline for the Upper Extremity category was the
last 24 hours and a longest time frame was within the last 6
months. Lower Extremity PRO most common and shortest
time frame was the in last 7 days with the last 4 weeks the
longest. The Quality of Life category had no common time
frame and the shortest being daily evaluations while the
longest was within the last month. CONCLUSION: With
large variability in context of time across PROs, it requires
that the Athletic Trainer choose the appropriate one to
produce valid outcomes. The lack of a time reference on
some instruments poses significant validity issues. Athletic
Trainers should be aware and use the best instrument with
the most appropriate time frame for their needs.
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
Characteristics Using the Theory of Unpleasant
BACKGROUND: Self-reported symptoms are currently the
focus of concussion diagnosis and management. Research
has identified the 22 most common concussion-related
symptoms that only measure the severity of the symptoms.
The Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms (TUS), developed from
nursing literature, has identified symptoms to have four
characteristics: frequency, severity, bothersomeness, and
affect. Evaluating concussion-related symptoms using the
TUS may provide useful information on symptoms and their
management. PURPOSE: Using three of the four
measureable characteristics (frequency, severity, and
bothersomeness) based on the TUS to determine the
relationship of self-reported concussion symptoms.
METHODS: Observational design. Setting: Athletic Training
Facility. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen participants
volunteered for this study (4 females, 9 males) with a mean
age of 19.7 ± 0.9 years. All participants were active
members of a collegiate division I, III, or club sport team.
Interventions: A self-reported symptom assessment was
developed using the TUS for the 22 common concussionrelated symptoms that evaluate frequency, severity, and
bothersomeness. The characteristics were adopted from
symptom scales currently used to measure other chronic
diseases. Frequency was measured on a 4-point Likert scale
from never to always. Severity was measured on a 3-point
Likert scale from not at all to a great deal. Bothersomeness
was measured on a 5-point Likert scale from not at all to
extremely. The characteristic affect was not measured
because it is too highly personalized. Participants completed
the symptom assessment immediately following the initial
injury until the patient became asymptomatic (up to four days
post injury). Main Outcome Measures: The dependent
variables were the total scores for each of the three
symptom characteristics. The relationships of the three
characteristics were evaluated with correlations. Significance
was set a priori at alpha level < 0.05. Descriptive statistics
for symptom characteristic totals for the first four days
following the injury were calculated. RESULTS: The
characteristics severity and bothersomeness (r = 0.93; p <
0.05) and severity and symptom frequency (r = 0.94; p <
0.05) were highly correlated. The characteristics frequency
and bothersomeness were also highly correlated (r = 0.98; p
< 0.05). The mean symptom totals for frequency over four
days were 20.5 ± 9.2, 10.3 ± 8.2, 9.2 ± 6.3, and 7.8 ± 5.1.
The mean symptom totals for severity over four days were
14.0 ± 6.5, 6.3 ± 6.1, 7.2 ± 7.0, and 4.8 ± 4.7. The mean
symptom totals for bothersomeness over four days were
23.1 ± 11.8, 10.3 ± 10.2, 7.2 ± 7.3 and 6.6 ± 5.3.
The three measurable symptom
characteristics were highly related providing no unique
additional information. It is important to note that these
results are only based on immediately following an injury and
in the early stages of recovery (first four days). The TUS
may provide more useful information for the long-term
concussion management cases. Additional research in the
acute phase is warranted to better understand symptom
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
Objective Assessment of Function following Head
Injury Using Movement and Activity in Physical
Space (MAPS) scores: A Case Report
BACKGROUND: A 21-year-old NCAA Division III women's
soccer midfielder suffered a blow to the back of the head
from an opponent's shoulder while participating in an away
match. There was no athletic trainer present to immediately
diagnose the injury. The patient reported to the athletic
training room the following day complaining of a headache,
"pressure in the head," dizziness, confusion, not "feeling
right," light sensitivity, feeling "slowed down," difficulty
concentrating and remembering, fatigue, drowsiness, and
being emotional. A thorough head and cervical spine
examination was performed. Vital signs and cranial nerve
function were within normal limits. The Sport Concussion
Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was administered post-injury
yielding a total score of 67 of 105, substantially lower than
her baseline score of 98 of 105. The purpose of this case
report is to highlight the use of an objective functional
measure, the Movement and Activity in Physical Space
DIAGNOSIS: Concussion, mild traumatic brain injury,
intracranial hemorrhage. TREATMENT: The athlete was
removed from activities. Symptoms were monitored based
on the Zurich guidelines. She was also instructed to wear a
beeper sized accelerometer on her hip and to carry an onperson Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver at all times
for 10 days except for when sleeping or bathing. These
devices measure physical activity (intensity) each minute
and location (latitude/ longitude). Daily MAPS scores were
calculated by combining data from the GPS and
accelerometer for each day during the recovery period to
assess the patient’s level of function in free-living conditions.
She was asymptomatic five days after the injury and began a
gradual return to play protocol on day six. This protocol
involved light activity that progressed to moderate/vigorous
activity and finally returning to practice (day nine) following
clearance by a physician. The MAPS data, representing the
patient’s interaction within her environment, were analyzed
to provide an objective measure of function following injury.
UNIQUENESS: We monitored the patient’s function during
the concussion recovery process using GPS and
accelerometers creating MAPS scores. This novel approach
to measuring function following injury may provide a useful
complimentary tool to objectively determine return to play
status. In this case the patient’s symptom totals for the four
symptomatic days were 82, 39, 49, and 36 (mean 51.5). Her
MAPS scores for days 2-4 were 865.2, 815.4, and 1022.1
(No MAPS score was calculated for day one because it was
not a full day). Her mean MAPS functional score while
symptomatic was 900.9, and while asymptomatic 2734.9
representing a three-fold increase. An interesting
observation was that on day three she attended a volleyball
game which increased her symptoms. This increase in
symptoms was also reflected in her MAPS score for that day
which decreased from 865 to 815. CONCLUSIONS: GPS
and accelerometers were used to observe the patient’s
physical activity in a free-living environment, allowing for an
objective measure of function during recovery. MAPS scores
were low while she was symptomatic and increased as she
became asymptomatic. In this case, we saw the expected
inverse relationship between symptoms and function. In
situations where accuracy of reported symptoms may be a
concern, this measure may provide a way to verify the
validity of, or raise doubts, about self-reported symptoms.
Current concussion assessment tools focus on symptoms
and impairments and are largely subjective in nature. MAPS
scores present an objective way for athletic trainers to
measure athlete function following concussion, which may
be used as part of the return to play decision.
Advisor: Dr. Gary Chleboun
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Physical Therapy
The Relationship Between Quadriceps Muscle
Fascicle Length and Patellar Tendon Length in
Typically Developing Children
PURPOSE: A high incidence of patella alta has been shown
to exist in the spastic cerebral palsy population, with
occurrence rates as high as 58-72%. This prevalence of a
high set patella and increased patellar tendon length has led
to questions of whether changes in quadriceps muscle
architecture related to patella alta exist in the spastic
cerebral palsy population. The purpose of the overall study is
to investigate the relationship of patella alta, patellar tendon
length, and changes in muscle fascicle length of the
quadriceps (vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius) muscles
using ultrasound imaging. We hypothesized that children
with spastic cerebral palsy who exhibit the characteristics of
patella alta will also demonstrate decreased quadriceps
muscle fascicle length when compared to typically
developing children. The specific purpose of this portion of
the study is to determine the relationship of patellar tendon
length to quadriceps muscle fascicle length in typically
developing children. METHODS: Number of Subjects: 9
typically developing children participated in this study (n = 9,
5 males and 4 females, mean age of 11 years + 3.2). To be
included children must be between the ages of 7 and 17.
Materials/Methods: Vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius
muscle fascicle length and pennation angle, as well as
patellar tendon length was measured using ultrasound
imaging at 7 knee joint angles. The ultrasound images were
taken at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° with the leg
supported to prevent quadriceps muscle activity and with the
hip joint angle fixed at 30°. RESULTS and CONCLUSION:
Ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and vastus
intermedius muscle architecture in typically developing
children have allowed us to draw several conclusions
regarding muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles.
Throughout the 7 knee joint angles, muscle fascicle lengths
increased as the angle of knee flexion increased. In contrast,
the pennation angles decreased as the angle of knee flexion
increased. Patellar tendon length remained unchanged
across all knee joint angles due to low compliance of the
tendon. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Muscle fascicle length is
the primary determinant of the amount of muscle excursion
available and also influences the speed at which a muscle
can contract. By influencing both force production and
velocity of contraction, one can suggest that muscle fascicle
length also directly affects power production; with longer
fascicle lengths allowing for increased power production and
shorter fascicle lengths being limited in their ability to
produce power. Power generation has been shown to have a
positive effect on the ability of a person to perform functional
activities. As children with cerebral palsy typically lead one of
the most sedentary lifestyles across pediatric disabilities, an
inability to produce power needed for functional mobility due
to shortened muscle fascicle lengths will continue to
perpetuate their sedentary lifestyle.
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
The Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training on
Modifying Landing Kinematics Associated With
Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of ACL injuries are
linked to noncontact mechanisms, and more than 70% occur
when landing from a jump. Females have more risk factors
and sustain 4-6 times more ACL injuries than males.
Neuromuscular training (NMT) programs have been shown
to reduce the rate of female ACL injuries by modifying risk
factors. However, a major problem with this research is it
lacks adequate control groups, making it difficult to
determine whether these benefits are due to the NMT
program or an increase in exercise workload. PURPOSE: To
evaluate the effectiveness of a NMT program on a
modifiable ACL risk factor relative to a resistance training
(RT) program of equal volume and frequency of exercise in
females. METHODS: Single-blinded randomized clinical trial
(Identifier: NCT01433718). Female college underclassmen
(n = 29; Age = 18.8 ± 0.7 years; Height = 116.1 ± 7.4 cm;
Weight = 61.7 ± 8.9 kg) volunteered for this study.
Participants were assigned to the NMT or RT group by
covariate adaptive randomization for Body Mass Index and
athletic experience. Participants performed either NMT or RT
consisting of 3 training sessions per week for 6-weeks of
equivalent exercise volume and frequency after baseline
testing (NMT: n = 15; RT: n = 14). Landing mechanics were
analyzed using Sportmetrics drop-jump test (DJT) software
to measure knee separation relative to hip width at PreLand, Landing, and Take-Off. The tests were repeated after
the completion of training. Three 2 x 2 repeated measures
ANOVA with an intent to treat approach were calculated for
knee separation at Pre-Land, Landing, and Take-Off (alpha
< 0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant interaction for
Pre-Land knee separation (F = 0.62; p > 0.05). NMT
baseline group mean knee separation was 61 ± 17% and RT
was 54 ± 8%. After training, NMT knee separation was 59 ±
14% and RT knee separation was 51 ± 9%. There was no
significant interaction (F = 0.41; p > 0.05) for Landing knee
separation. NMT baseline mean knee separation at Landing
was 50 ± 24% and RT was 41 ± 11%. After training, NMT
knee separation was 45 ± 18% and RT separation was 39 ±
15%. There was no significant interaction for Take-Off knee
separation (F = 0.78; p > 0.05). Prior to training, the NMT
group’s mean knee separation at Take-off was 48 ± 20%
and RT was 39 ± 8%; following training NMT mean knee
separation was 46 ± 16% and RT was 39 ± 11%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there was no
additional benefit from NMT in knee separation distance
during the DJT relative to a comparable controlled RT.
Additional research is needed to determine if the reduction of
ACL injuries is still present when compared to adequate
Advisor: Dr. Jeffery DiGiovanni
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Acoustical Properties of Current Digital Hearing
Aids Evaluated Using KEMAR
There have been great improvements to hearing aids in the
past 20 years such as digital noise reduction (DNR) and
directional microphones (DM). However, there is little
published data on the effectiveness of these technologies. It
is hypothesized that the technologies under test are
functioning according to their design and it is our goal to
quantify their performance using acoustic analysis. Knowles
Electronic Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) was fit
with high end receiver in the ear hearing aids from Resound,
Oticon and Starkey. DNR was tested by presenting Hearing
in Noise Test (HINT) sentences with either babble noise or
pink noise at a signal to noise ratio of +5 dB SPL. DM was
tested with pink noise at 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees in
azimuth. All stimuli were presented at 60 dB SPL. For DNR
Starkey and Resound reduced gain at all frequency bands
for both conditions. Oticon had little difference in the speech
frequencies for the babble condition and an increase in gain
with DNR activated for most frequencies in the pink
condition. Starkey and Oticon decreased gain for most
frequencies at all positions with DM activated. Resound had
the greatest affect on gain reduction in the higher
frequencies at 180 and 270 degrees in azimuth.
Advisor: Dr. Li Xu
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Relative Importance of Amplitude
Frequency Variations in Speech Perception
Both spectral and temporal cues for speech perception exist
in naturally-spoken utterances. PURPOSE: The goal of the
present study is to address the relative contributions of
amplitude and frequency variations in the acoustic signal to
speech perception. METHODS: Twenty-five normal-hearing
listeners were randomly assigned in one of two experiments.
In Experiment 1, sine-wave replicas of CUNY sentences
were processed in four ways: Condition (1) consisted of the
original sine-wave replica of the CUNY sentence, in which
the first three formants were estimated and were then
replaced with sinusoids that follow the peak frequencies of
the first three formants. The temporal amplitudes of the
formants were preserved in the four sinusoids. In condition
(2) sine-wave replicas had preserved frequency-contour
information but constant amplitude contours. Condition (3)
was the same as condition (2) except a 22-channel toneexcited vocoder. Lastly, the sine-wave stimuli in condition (4)
had preserved amplitude-contour information but constant
frequency contours. RESULTS: Results showed that while
listeners achieved nearly perfect recognition of the original
sine-wave replicas, they could only recognize approximately
40% and 10% correct for the above-mentioned two
conditions. In Experiment 2, the frequency contours of the
sine-wave replicas were replaced with step values of 1, 2, 3,
or 4 all with preserved amplitude contour information.
Listeners achieved approximately 10%, 48%, 88%, and 95%
correct in sentence recognition for the 1 through 4 steps of
frequency contours, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study
indicates that both spectral and temporal cues contribute to
speech perception. While frequency information appears to
be more important than amplitude information, very coarse
spectral information is sufficient for excellent speechrecognition performance in quiet listening conditions. The
result may have important implications in developing
rehabilitative devices for the hearing impaired.
Advisors: Mr. Michael Clevidence, Drs. Gordon
Brooks, Michael Kushnick
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
Predicting the Oxygen Consumption of Aerobic
Athletes From Work Rate on a Cycle Ergometer
INTRODUCTION: Prediction equations are inexpensive,
easy and commonly used to estimate the oxygen
consumption (VO2) and caloric expenditure of physical
activity. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
publishes prediction equations for many different modes of
exercise. Some of these equations have limitations,
including a stated limit of accuracy of the cycling equation up
to a work rate (WR) of 200 watts. This is not favorable to
trained individuals who can cycle at WR much higher than
200 watts. PURPOSE: To create a VO2 prediction equation
for cycling WR below and above 200 watts. METHODS:
Twenty four participants qualified for this study by achieving
a maximal WR (WRmax) of at least 300 watts during a
maximal graded exercise test. These individuals then
completed two submaximal exercise trials (SXT). Each six
stage SXT was created individually for participants by
calculating percentages of their WRmaxfrom 35-90%. During
the SXT, steady state VO2 was collected for each WR. All
VO2 and WR data were analyzed by linear regression.
RESULTS: The 24 men were 28 ± 9years old, 1.80 ±
0.05meters tall, weighing 78.00 ± 8.00kg with a body fat
of8.61 ± 3.36% and a WRmax of 362.50 ± 37.80 watts.
According to the analysis of this sample, the data suggests
VO2 (ml/kg/min) = 10.99 (WR/body weight) + 4.27 with an
R2 of 0.955. CONCLUSION: The regression equation
created from this data to predict VO2 is useful to estimate
the oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure of trained
individuals who cycle below and above 200 watts.
Presented by: Andrea Johnson, Kristen Grinnan
Advisor: Ms. Janice Howman
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Physical Therapy
The Effect of Anonymity on Doctor of Physical
Therapy Students’ Assessment of Clinical
Instruction: A Multi-Institutional Study
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to
determine the effect of anonymity on Doctor of Physical
Therapy (DPT) student ratings of clinical instruction when
adjusting for confounding clinical instructor (CI) and
internship characteristics. Currently the American Physical
Therapy Association’s (APTA) Physical Therapist Student
Evaluation: Clinical Experience and Clinical Instruction
(PTSE) instrument recommends that students share their
ratings with the CI. Sharing evaluations may result in more
positive ratings; therefore it was hypothesized that
anonymous ratings would be more critical when confounding
factors were controlled. Number of Subjects: 276 students
from seven DPT programs in Ohio and Kentucky who
completed full time internships between July 1, 2010 and
December 31, 2010. Students with more than one CI (n =
45) were excluded. METHODS: Students evaluated and
shared ratings with their CI using the PTSE (PTSE-1), which
assesses the clinical education experience and the CI’s
clinical instruction using a 5-point Likert scale. Upon return
to campus, participants rated their clinical instruction again,
but anonymously, using a subset of the PTSE (PTSE-2) and
reported rotation and CI characteristics on a de-identified
general information form. Participants were
assigned to either the anonymous or shared group. Onetailed independent samples t-test was used to determine
significant differences (p < 0.05) between shared and
anonymous ratings on all 21 questions common to PTSE-1
and PTSE-2. Using the univariate General Linear Model
(GLM), items were further analyzed for main effects,
adjusting for the condition of anonymity and rotation and CI
characteristics. RESULTS: Overall CI’s had a mean of 7.8
years of experience as a CI, and 10.9 years as a clinician.
57% of the CI’s were APTA credentialed, 46% were
members of the APTA, and the majority of CI’s had graduate
degrees (64%). Most participating students were on an
intermediate (58%), 8-week (50%) clinical experience within
an Ambulatory Care/ Outpatient setting (38%). The
anonymous group ratings (n = 112, 48.5%) were found to be
significantly lower than the shared (n = 119, 51%) on 15 of
the 21 items. The same 15 items were rated significantly
lower under the condition of anonymity when controlling for
internship length, internship level, clinician experience, CI
degree earned, APTA credentialed CI status, and APTA
membership. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that
the condition of anonymity generated a more critical student
assessment of clinical instruction across multiple DPT
programs when controlling for other factors that may
influence CI effectiveness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is
essential to have accurate evaluations of CIs in order for
DPT academic faculty to make sound decisions about their
clinical education curriculum and to provide meaningful
professional development activities for their CIs.
Recognizing that the method of administering student
evaluations may skew ratings is relevant to the clinical
education assessment process.
adult). Dissected adipose tissue was treated immediately
with collagenase and the SVF collected. The SVF samples
were incubated with a series of fluorphore antibodies and
analyzed by FACSAria II flow cytometer with FlowJo
software to observe immune cell characteristics. RESULTS:
The results demonstrate a unique inflammatory profile in the
21-month subcutaneous and mesenteric depots with
significant macrophage and dendritic cell populations
compared to retroperitoneal and epididymal depots. In
addition, CD45+ cells were identified in subcutaneous,
epididymal, and mesenteric depots indicating the presence
of B-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in immune
cell composition at two age points provided a better
understanding of the diverse functionality of immune cell
populations, their depot-specific expression, and their
potential role in adipose tissue inflammation.
Advisors: Dr. Darlene Berryman, Edward List, John
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
The Effects of Previous Exercise on Metabolic
Responses to Eating Carbohydrate
Depot Specific White Adipose Tissue Immune Cell
Populations in Male C57Bl/6J Mice
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a
multifaceted organ composed of many cell types within the
stromal-vascular fraction (SVF). An assortment of leukocytes
is present in SVF including adipose tissue macrophages
(ATMs), dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. These immune
cells have been shown to have a role in fat tissue
inflammation, glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance
through cytokine secretion and cell recruitment. Cell
populations change in obese states and appear to alter the
endocrine products secreted from adipose tissue and
contribute to the inflammation commonly associated with
obesity. Many of these general classes of immune cells can
be further subdivided based on physiological function. Thus,
it is important to not only evaluate the general classes of
immune cells present in the tissue under a given condition
but also to determine the subclasses in order to better
appreciate their role in adipose tissue physiology. Adding to
the complexity of adipose tissue are depot specific
differences in cellular complexity and endocrine output. To
date, little is known regarding the depot differences in
immune cell populations or the influence of aging.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize
the depot specific differences of immune cell populations in
relation to age. METHODS: Adipose tissue from four distinct
mesenteric) was collected from male C57Bl/6J mice at 5
months of age (young adult) and 21 months of age (aged
Advisor: Dr. Michael Kushnick
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Exercise Physiology
INTRODUCTION: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is
used clinically to assess glycemic control. Routine and short
term physical activity (including a single bout of exercise) is
known to enhance overall glycemic control and improve
insulin sensitivity. PURPOSE: To examine the influence of
an acute bout of exercise on an OGTT. METHODS: Five
aerobically trained men (age = 24 ± 4yrs, VO2max 64.5 ±
4.5ml/kg/min) completed this cross-over investigation where
they served as their own control. Two trials were randomly
completed–one with exercise (EXER; 30 minutes on a
treadmill at 65% predetermined VO2max) and one without
exercise (CON) 12-15 hours the evening before the OGTT.
Subjects were in an 8-10 hour fasted state, on similar diets,
and had not participated in physical activity above their daily
routine for three days prior to each trial. Serial blood
samples were obtained at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120
minutes postprandial and each were analyzed for plasma
insulin and glucose. Paired t-tests were used to compare
glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) between
CON and EXER, and repeated measures ANOVA was used
to compare time points during each trial. RESULTS: Glucose
response to the OGTT in the EXER and the CON trial were
similar, but insulin response was significantly different in
EXER. EXER insulin AUC was significantly less than CON
(EXER = 415.3 ± 142.7 < CON = 536.7 ± 83.4, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: In this group of aerobically trained men
significantly less insulin was required for the same glycemic
response to an OGTT 12-15 hours after an acute bout of
Advisor: Dr. Sally Marinellie
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Third Graders' Comprehension of Derived Words:
Analysis of Frequency, Productivity, and
Grammatical Class
INTRODUCTION: Children encounter a large number of
derived words during the school years (e.g., Anglin, 1993),
and derivational knowledge is associated with literacy skills
in school-age children (e.g., Nagy et al., 2006). In the
derivational morphology literature, few studies have
investigated the factors of root word frequency, suffix
productivity, and grammatical class in children as early as
grade 3. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gather
information about young children’s comprehension of
derived words as it relates to frequency of root words, suffix
productivity, and grammatical class of the derived word.
METHODS: Two tasks were administered to typicallydeveloping children in grade 3. Task 1 was a written multiple
choice task that included derived nominals with familiar root
words and a variety of high- and low-productive suffixes.
Task 2, included derived nominals and derived adjectives
that contained unfamiliar root words with a variety of highproductive suffixes. Scoring and analysis for Task 2 reflected
partial knowledge of derived words. RESULTS: In Task 1,
children exhibited a wide range of performance for target
derived nominals. Significantly higher performance was
found for high-productive compared to low-productive
suffixes. In Task 2, with low-frequency base words that
contained high-productive suffixes, children had difficulty
coordinating root word knowledge with correct suffix
knowledge. Also, performance for root word knowledge was
higher for derived nominals compared to derived adjectives.
CONCLUSION: Frequency, productivity, grammatical class
and task demands exert significant influences on young
children’s comprehension of derived words.
Advisor: Dr. Gary Chleboun
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Physical Therapy
Measurement of Segmental Lumbar Vertebral Side
Bending Motion Using Ultrasound Imaging
PURPOSE: To determine, with ultrasound imaging, the
amount of lumbar segmental side bending motion at L2, L3,
and L4 that occurs after a single repetition and with repeated
side bending in asymptomatic individuals. This study is
descriptive in nature and aims to determine if ultrasound
imaging is a clinically useful tool to determine segmental
motion of the lumbar spine. Subjects: Healthy subjects (n =
20; mean age 23.0 ± 1.2 years) with (a) no history of back
pain that required medical treatment or resulted in missing
work, school or recreational activity, (b) no history of spinal
surgery, and (c) were currently not pregnant. METHODS:
Ultrasound images of L2, L3, and L4 transverse processes
were recorded using a 6cm curvilinear transducer (6 MHz,
Esoate, Biosound MyLab 25). Images were taken with the
subjects standing in three separate positions: relaxed upright
standing (neutral), right side bending (RSB), and left side
bending (LSB). Images were recorded of the right and left
L2, L3, and L4 transverse processes in each position.
Ultrasound images were recorded after a single repetition
and after ten repetitions in both RSB and LSB. Final images
in neutral were taken for a total of 14 images per level of the
lumbar spine. The order of RSB or LSB was randomly
assigned. Results were analyzed using a repeated
measures ANOVA. RESULTS: When RSB, the distance
between left transverse processes increased from neutral
(L2-L3 = 0.39 ± 0.28cm; L3-L4 = 0.54 ± 0.30cm; p < 0.05),
and the distance between right transverse processes
decreased from neutral (L2-L3 = 0.26 ± 0.20cm; L3-L4 =
0.29 ± 0.25cm; p < 0.05). When LSB, the same pattern was
found with the right transverse processes increasing from
neutral (L2-L3 = 0.37 ± 0.30cm; L3-L4 = 0.48 ± 0.25cm; p <
0.05), and the distance between left transverse processes
decreasing from neutral (L2-L3 = 0.34 ± 0.22cm; L3-L4 =
0.33 ± 0.25cm; p < 0.05). The amount of movement from
neutral to side bending on either side was not different
between L2-L3 and L3-L4 (p > 0.05). For example, the
values for the left transverse processes were: L2-L3 RSB =
0.39 ± 0.28cm, L3-L4 RSB = 0.54 ± 0.30cm; L2-L3 LSB =
0.34 ± 0.22cm, L3-L4 LSB = 0.33 ± 0.25cm. Repeated side
bending had no effect on the distance between the
transverse processes (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is
a significant amount of side bending motion at L2-L4 that
can be detected using ultrasound imaging in asymptomatic
individuals. Repeated side bending does not change the
amount of segmental motion in asymptomatic individuals.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ultrasound is an inexpensive and
efficient means of imaging movement of lumbar transverse
processes in asymptomatic individuals. Applying this
technique to the examination of patients with low back pain
or other disorders that restrict motion may provide a way to
determine changes in segmental vertebral motion as a result
of various interventions and if these changes in motion are
related to changes in symptoms.
Advisor: Dr. Dennis Ries
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Influence of Feature Detection on Working
Memory in Complex Auditory Fields
BACKGROUND: Feature detectors have been shown to aid
in auditory discrimination and detection tasks, but it is
unknown whether they aid in facilitation of memory.
RESEARCH OUTCOME: To explore whether feature
detection influences AWM in challenging listening situations.
METHODS: Listeners performed a same-different task
comparing two time windows containing multiple auditory
stimuli. Each field contained 4 background and 1 target
stimuli within a 2-s window. These windows differed in
whether the background and/or target were modulated.
RESULTS: The results indicated that modulated background
conditions were significantly more difficult than unmodulated
background conditions; no significant difference was seen
across differing retention intervals. CONCLUSIONS: These
results indicate that pre-attentive auditory processing
differences, likely as a consequence of the presence of
feature detectors, can positively or negatively determine the
extent to which AWM can maintain an accurate depiction of
our listening environment. Future research in this area
should consider exploring other auditory dimensions (e.g.,
duration, location) as well as using fewer background stimuli
to determine the extent of sensory limitations upon the use
of AWM in modulated background conditions.
Advisor: Dr. Brian Ragan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Athletic Training
Improving the Memory Items of the Standardized
Assessment of Concussion Through Rasch
BACKGROUND: The Standardized Assessment of
Concussion (SAC) is a common concussion screening tool
that is included in the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation
(MACE) and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 2
recommended by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association
(NATA) is an individual-centered approach that emphasizes
the validity and accuracy of baseline test scores. The validity
of the SAC baseline memory scores has been questioned
with many of the memory items not meeting acceptable
psychometric thresholds. PURPOSE: To evaluate the items
for a new memory section on the modified SAC (mSAC)
using Rasch modeling. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional
design. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Two-hundred
participants with no history of concussion in the previous 6
months (aged 19.6 ± 2.2 years; n = 93 men, n = 107 women)
volunteered for this study. Intervention: Participants
completed a health history questionnaire. The mSAC test
was a verbal interview taking approximately 5 minutes to
complete. Ten new words were selected to make it more
difficult to remember by increasing word length, examining
relationships among words, and determining rhyming
patterns. The administration of the memory sections
changed increasing the immediate memory to 10 words
repeated 1 time and the delayed memory to 10 words. The
participant’s responses were analyzed using the Rasch
model for model-data fit. Common items were anchored
based on a previous SAC calibration. Main Outcome
Measures: Model-data fit was evaluated using infit and outfit
statistics (< 0.5 and > 1.5). A Wright item-person map was
visually inspected for the alignment of item and person
estimates. Rasch modeling places items and people on the
same common metric. Descriptive statistics of the
participants’ abilities were examined. Item difficulties were
assessed. RESULTS: The data fit the model with all of the
new items having acceptable infit/outfit statistics (misfit). The
Wright item-person map showed a good overlap between
persons and items. The mean participant ability estimate
was (mean ± SD) 2.55 ± 0.87 logits, where a higher score
represents higher ability. The mean difficulty estimates were
2.42 ± 1.6 logits for immediate memory and 3.02 ± 0.94
logits for delayed memory. A range of ± 2 SD based on
participant estimates was calculated at 0.81 to 4.29 logits.
All, but one item (90%) from the immediate memory section
and all items (100%) in the delayed memory section fell
within the range of the participant ability estimate. Item
difficulties for the immediate memory section ranged from 1.39 to 3.82 logits while the delayed memory section ranged
from 1.17 to 4.33 logits. The higher the logit score
represents more difficult items. CONCLUSIONS: Rasch
modeling is a powerful tool used to develop and improve
measures. Despite validity issues is appears that the SAC
memory section can be improved to provide valid baseline
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Characteristic Differences Among Cord Stat Drug
Testing in Postnatal Women
BACKGROUND: Adena Regional Medical Center has begun
cord stat drug screening (a new drug test format that utilizes
a piece of the umbilical cord tissue) to determine illegal
substance abuse during the last 20 weeks of pregnancy.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the
characteristics of women at risk for abusing substances
during pregnancy and, (2) to compare the characteristics of
the positive cord stat drug screen population with the
negative cord stat drug screen population. METHODS: The
study utilized a Non-Probability Sampling Design also known
as purposive sampling focusing on a homogeneous
sampling method. The target population was the women in
the postnatal stage of pregnancy that were admitted to the
Women’s and Children’s inpatient unit during the months of
August, September, and October 2011. Participants were all
cord stat drug screened due to meeting the Adena Regional
Medical Center’s criteria of being considered high-risk for
substance abuse while pregnant. Participant characteristics
were compared according to their cord stat drug screen
results (positive vs. negative results). RESULTS:
Participants (n = 101). 19.5% of women that received
prenatal care throughout their pregnancy had a positive cord
result vs. 60% of women that screened positive without
prenatal care. Women that reported any form of physical,
mental, or sexual abuse had a 40% positive cord rate vs. the
15.3% that screened positive that had denied abuse. Of the
women that presented with financial assistance, 15.3% had
a positive screen vs. the 6.3% that screened positive without
financial assistance. Thirty-eight percent of women
screening positive reported a legal history whereas 16.7% of
women screened positive without a legal history. Women
with a reported history of substance abuse had 39.4% of
participants screening positive vs. the 11.9% that denied a
history of substance abuse. Women that had involvement
with child protective services resulted in 41.7% positive
results whereas 18.6% of participants that denied child
protective services screened positive. CONCLUSIONS:
Characteristics such as a history of substance abuse,
utilization of financial assistance, child protective service
involvement, physical, mental, or sexual abuse, and legal
history all increase the likelihood of being at a higher risk of
abusing substances during pregnancy, whereas presenting
for prenatal care throughout pregnancy decreases the
likelihood of screening positive on a cord stat drug screen.
Advisor: Dr. Youngsun Kim
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallows in
Poststroke Patients: Do Hyoid and Laryngeal
Movements Differ?
BACKGROUND: Hyolaryngeal excursion, which involves the
superior-anterior movement of the hyoid and larynx, plays an
important role in airway protection and opening of the upper
esophageal sphincter (UES). PURPOSE: This investigation
aimed to examine the differences in anterior and vertical
movements of the hyoid and larynx between aspirating and
nonaspirating swallows of poststroke patients. METHODS:
The videofluoroscopic swallowing examinations (VFSEs) of
106 poststroke patients were examined and the
biomechanical measurements were recorded from 35
aspirating and 35 nonaspirating thin liquid swallows of 24
poststroke patients with aspiration. Using the ImageJ 1.32
program, the anterior and vertical displacement measures of
the hyoid and larynx were measured from two frames
showing the resting and maximum displacement of the hyoid
and larynx during the swallow, respectively. To determine
the differences in hyoid and laryngeal displacements
between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows, a one-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each
measurements. RESULTS: There were no significant
differences observed in anterior and vertical hyoid
movements and vertical laryngeal movement between
aspirating and nonaspirating swallows, p > 0.05. Anterior
laryngeal movement was observed to be significantly
reduced in aspirating swallows (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:
Reduced anterior laryngeal movement was observed in
aspirating swallows than in nonaspirating swallows of
poststroke patients, which could affect UES opening and
bolus clearance during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing.
Advisors: Drs. Grace Brannan, Karen Collins, Godwin
Centers for Osteopathic Research and Education
Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic
Appalachia: A Preliminary Study in Participatory
BACKGROUND: Communication is an essential ingredient
in patient-physician interactions and is pivotal in determining
patient adherence to physician instructions with the ultimate
goal of enhancing patient outcomes. Little research has
focused on understanding the dynamics of the patientphysician relationship and the quality of communication on
patient satisfaction and health outcomes in rural southeast
Ohio. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to identify gaps in
patient-physician communication in rural southeast Ohio and
explore participant engagement in focus groups.
METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted to gauge
participants’ perceptions of communication during their
recent interactions with their physicians. One focus group
was facilitated by a ‘cultural insider’, another by a ‘cultural
outsider’, and a third by both in a co-facilitation manner. The
focus groups involved semi-structured and open
discussions. The open discussions were to afford the
participants the opportunity to freely articulate their personal
experiences through their own narratives. Transcripts were
developed from these focus groups and the transcribed data
coded inductively as well as deductively. The research team
highlighted key data points and grouped raw data into
analytic themes. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: These findings will
provide a unique foundation to further explore the impact
that culture has on patient-physician communication. By
gleaning higher quality information related to patientphysician communication problems and gaps, we will gain a
better understanding of how to improve patient-physician
relationships and health outcomes of southeast Ohio
Advisor: Dr. Youngsun Kim
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Oropharyngeal Transition
Poststroke Patients
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine
whether two bolus transition durations (OTT, oral transit
time; PTT, pharyngeal transit time) were different during
oropharyngeal swallowing in poststroke patients who
aspirated or did not aspirate and examine those differences
across varying bolus viscosities. METHODS: Means and
standard deviation of OTT and PTT were analyzed on 5ml
thin and nectar thick liquids and puree swallows from
videofluoroscopic swallowing examinations of 30 poststroke
patients. Statistical comparisons were made by repeated
measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with within subject
variable being three consistencies and between subject
variable being two groups. Significance level was set as p <
0.025. RESULTS: Oral transition of the bolus did not differ
between the two patient groups. Pharyngeal transition of the
bolus differentiated the patients with aspiration from patients
without aspiration. Both oral and pharyngeal transitions
differed significantly for puree compared with thin and nectar
thick liquids. CONCLUSION: The prolonged pharyngeal
transit time of the bolus may put the patients at risk for
Advisor: Dr. David Holben
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
Program Improves Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Profile in an At-Risk Adult Population After 1 year
BACKGROUND: The most recent update released by the
American Heart Association estimates that 82,600,000
Americans have at least one type of cardiovascular disease.
RESEARCH OUTCOME: The study examined the
effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention
(nutrition, physical activity, stress management) to reduce
risk of significant cardiovascular (CVD) events. METHODS:
Ninety-seven adults (72 females [74.2%] and 25 males
[25.8%]) at risk for CVD participated in a one-year
intervention. Each participant completed a physical
assessment including measurements of lung function, body
composition, blood work for glucose and lipid levels, and an
exercise stress test that determined maximal oxygen uptake
and lung capacity (baseline, 100 days, 1 year). Repeated
measures analyses of variance were used to evaluate
parameters related to body composition (body weight, % fat,
lean mass, fat mass, BMI, waist circumference), blood lipids
and lung function. RESULTS: All parameters significantly
improved from baseline to 100 days and from baseline to 1
year of treatment (p < .05). However, only HDL cholesterol
improved from 100 day to one year (p < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: This multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention
was effective in reducing CVD risk factors for the length of
the program. However, excluding HDL, no significant
changes were seen from 100 day to 1 year. Future studies
should examine how to increase program compliance after
the initial 100 days.
Advisors: Drs. Mingun Lee, Judi Haberkorn, Natalie
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Dependent Adolescents in Residential Treatment
and Treatment Duration
BACKGROUND: Opioid use among adolescents can lead to
addiction, overdose, and death. There is a dearth of
literature regarding the population of opioid dependent
adolescents. PURPOSE: This study identified psychosocial
characteristics of adolescents at admission to residential
substance abuse treatment in order to more effectively tailor
treatment services to meet the needs of this population.
METHODS: Fifteen chart reviews were conducted of
adolescents who met facility admission criteria, were
between the ages of 13 and 18, were diagnosed at
admission with opioid dependence as their primary disorder,
and who completed treatment successfully (discharged with
staff approval). Data were summarized using descriptive
statistics. RESULTS: Experiencing a history of sexual and/or
physical abuse was reported by 26.7% of the sample;
61.5% of the sample indicated that they were on probation at
treatment admission. Many adolescents reported that their
parent(s) had a mental illness (50%) or abused substances
(53.3%); 46.2% of the adolescents reported using daily prior
to entering treatment, and 75% reported injection as their
primary route of administration of opioids. The mean length
of stay in treatment was 81.53 days (SD = 40.437).
CONCLUSIONS: Opioid dependent adolescents reported
facing a range of issues, including legal problems, abuse,
and familial mental illness and substance abuse. Increased
knowledge about these characteristics enables treatment
providers to develop more effective interventions and
improve policies that affect treatment services.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
BACKGROUND: Predictors of compassion fatigue (CF)
RESEARCH OUTCOME: This study examined associations
between CF and several variables, including: sense of
humor, self-care, age, gender, caseload size, job title, and
years experience. METHODS: Data was collected from
SOMC Hospice employees who have direct contact with
patients via self-report questionnaires. Using SPSS
Statistical Software, Pearson correlation was used to assess
the relationship of CF and sense of humor as well as CF and
self-care. One-way analysis of variance was used to
compare mean scores among CF and the remaining
variables. RESULTS: Participants (n=44) were mostly
female (83.7%) and over age 40 (55.9%). They were
primarily nurses (59%), most have been employed at
Hospice less than 10 years (81%), and the majority had
caseload sizes of 20 or less (82.3%). Regarding gender, the
study found that female Hospice employees (M = 24.60)
have higher levels of CF than male employees (M = 22.71).
It also found that there is a weak negative correlation
between CF and sense of humor (r = -.166) as well as a
weak negative correlation between CF and self-care
activities (r = -.196). These results were not found to be
significant (p = .287 and p = .219). CONCLUSIONS: There
were slight associations between CF and gender, sense of
humor, and self-care, however, they are not significant.
Therefore, these variables cannot be considered predictors
of CF.
Advisors: Drs. Jay Shubrook, Frank Schwartz
Centers for Osteopathic Research and Education
Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic
Transdermal Metformin: A Case Series Review of
a Novel Application of Metformin
BACKGROUND: Oral metformin is considered a
cornerstone of treatment in type II diabetes mellitus and can
also be used in conditions such as pre-diabetes and
polycystic ovarian syndrome. Studies show that 20% of
patients taking metformin have a side effect with at least 5%
of those patients discontinuing the medication due to the
side effects. PURPOSE: Transdermal metformin holds the
potential to be an effective alternative treatment modality in
patients with insulin resistance who are unable to tolerate
the oral preparation. The purpose of this study is to
determine if transdermal absorption allows the medication to
avoid the gastrointestinal side effects that frequently warrant
discontinuation of oral metformin while maintaining clinical
efficacy. METHODS: For this study, participants were
chosen based on a history of metformin intolerance that
were clinically determined to gain benefit from continued
metformin treatment. The participants are being followed for
up to one year at which point charts will be retrospectively
reviewed for occurrence of side effect, general tolerability
and efficacy as determined by HbA1c lowering ability. Exit
questionnaires were used to evaluate patient tolerability and
compare their experiences with oral metformin to
transdermal metformin. RESULTS: Results show that
transdermal metformin has the capability to decrease blood
glucose levels and hemoglobin A1C levels with a 90%
reduction in dosage. Patients were placed on a dose of
either 100mg or 200mg transdermally twice daily. The
average drop in hemoglobin A1C was 1.26%. Exit
questionnaires showed that all 30 of the patients who had an
experience with transdermal metformin preferred the gel
over the pill. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal metformin is a
novel and effective use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
One advantage of using transdermal metformin is its ability
to bypass the gastrointestinal system while being
systemically absorbed. Anecdotal evidence suggests that
another benefit of transdermal metformin is a 90% decrease
in dosage from the oral preparation. The significant decrease
in dose leads to the implication that transdermal metformin
could be used in hepatic and renal failure patients as well as
decrease the incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency associated
with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
A Pilot Study of Kinship Care Providers' Quality of
Life and Satisfaction With the Athens County
Children Services Kinship Program
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that kinship
caregivers tend to report satisfaction with services received.
Although studies have revealed kinship families tend to be
satisfied with services, very little research has focused on
outcome variables associated with providing kinship care.
Studies with other populations including people with physical
disabilities and mental illness have shown an association
between satisfaction with services and quality of life which is
considered an outcome variable. PURPOSE: This study
assessed kinship care providers’ satisfaction with the ACCS
Kinship Program and life satisfaction in four domains
including finances, spare time, family, and health. The study
also sought to examine the relationship between
participants’ program satisfaction and their satisfaction with
the four life domains. METHODS: Data was collected from
participants' responses to the Client Experiences
Questionnaire. Using PASW Statistical Software (version
18.0, 2009), descriptive statistics were used to explore
program and life satisfaction scores. Pearson correlation
was used to assess the relationship of respondents' program
satisfaction and satisfaction with life in the four domains.
RESULTS: Participants (n = 8) were primarily female
(62.5%), fell in the age range 40-50 (62.5%), and were
grandparents of the children in their care (75%). Measures
that rated the highest included: worker’s warmth and
interest, amount of respect shown to you, consideration of
your feelings, worker’s familiarity with case, and worker
checks on problems. With all these items, M = 7.00(.000).
The lowest measure was thoroughness of worker M =
6.50(.535). A statistically significant and strong negative
association was found between respondents’ program
satisfaction and satisfaction with finances (r = -.731, p =
.039). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other studies, ACCS
kinship providers reported high satisfaction with services.
Results suggest that the ACCS kinship program should
continually assess kinship care providers’ financial situations
and link them to resources as much as possible in order to
maintain a stable environment for the children in care.
Advisor: Dr. Betty Sindelar
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Physical Therapy
Mechanical Testing of Six Orthopedic Surgical
Shoulder Anchors Measured by Single Tensile
Load to Failure Testing
PURPOSE: Test and evaluate 6 surgical shoulder anchors
for pull-out strength in tension. METHODS: Anchors were
implanted per manufacturer’s guidelines in four pig femurs
and two pig humeri. Bones with anchors in place in the
testing apparatus (Q Test 10; MTS, Minneapolis) and
positioned so the force of the load was perpendicular to the
axis of the anchor. Tensile load was applied at a rate of 12.5
mm per second until the device failed. Data was collected at
100 samples per second. Failure load and method was
recorded. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were calculated.
Between group ANOVAs and within group T-tests were
used. No statistical difference was observed femurs and
humeri. Suture break was the predominant failure for the
Juggerknot 1.4 mm, Biomet MicroMax 2.9 mm Flex anchor,
and Depuy’s Mitek Gryphon anchor. Anchor pullout was the
predominant failure for the Juggerknot 1.5 mm and Smith
and Nephew’s Biorapter 2.3 mm, while the Arthrex suture
slipped through the anchor as its primary failure mode. A
One-Way ANOVA was performed and resulted with the
Biomet MicroMax 2.9 mm Flex anchor as the only type to
demonstrate significant difference from every other type of
anchor. The Smith and Nephew’s Bioraptor 2.3 mm and
Arthrex’s PushLock anchor were significantly different from
each other as well as the Biomet 2.9 mm anchor. The
Juggerknot 1.4 and 1.5 and Depuy’s Mitek Gryphon anchors
were only significantly different from the Biomet 2.9 mm
anchor. CONCLUSIONS: New suture anchors are constantly
being designed for orthopedic surgeries claiming to have
superior strength and durability due to the improved design
or components of the mechanism. The strength of the
anchor mechanism is fundamental in the prevention of the
repair failure after surgery, as well as to allow early dynamic
physical therapy to the patient. Testing these new anchor
designs is important to decipher if they are indeed enhanced
for the use in orthopedic surgeries.
Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey DiGiovanni
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Measurements in Listening Effort for Young and
Old Adults With Normal Hearing
BACKGROUND: A reduction in listening effort has been
offered as an explanation for inconsistencies between poor
objective outcomes and favorable subjective ratings of
hearing aid noise reduction schemes. RESEARCH
OUTCOME: This study examined the differences accuracy
and reaction time for young and old adults in two working
memory tasks presented in quiet and in the presence of
noise. Noise was controlled to ensure that stimuli were
highly intelligibility in all conditions. METHODS: A split
attention task required participants to update two memory
banks of digits concurrently. A dual task measured
participants’ digit spans in a task which alternately presented
digits and sentences. Participants were required to identify
whether sentences were true of false. Repeated measures
ANOVAs were used to identify differences between groups
as well as between conditions. RESULTS: Participants (n =
46) (young, n = 29; old, n = 20) showed longer reaction
times and worse performance for the split attention task
when the task was completed in background noise. Dual
task findings did not show an effect of noise. Performance
accuracy was mostly equivalent between groups for both
tasks, yet reaction times were longer for the old adult group.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite presentation of stimuli at levels
consistent with satisfactory speech intelligibility, one task
showed decreases in SNR produced degraded performance
in accuracy and reaction time, apparently due to an increase
in listening effort. Other findings highlight the increased
cognitive requirements of older adults.
Advisor: Dr. Mingun Lee
Social and Public Health
Social Work
Evaluation of a Psychoeducational Sexual Assault
Intervention With College Women
BACKGROUND: College women experience sexual assault
at a disproportionate rate to the general population; 20%25% will be victims of completed or attempted rape during
their college career (Centers for Disease Control, 2008). The
identification of efficacious interventions is crucial in order to
assuage the deleterious effects of sexual assault and to
prevent the future risk of revictimization, which is likely is
symptoms are not addressed (Sarkar & Sarkar, 2005).
METHODS: A sample of female college students enrolled in
the Psych Pool participated in the study (Exp. = 31; Control
= 12). The study was open to all women regardless of sexual
assault history and the Sexual Experiences Survey was
employed at pre-test to ascertain which participants were
sexual assault survivors. Participants in the experimental
group attended a three-session program, which focused on
teaching specific coping skills to facilitate the recovery
process. A pre-test post-test design was employed with the
following measures: Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, Coping
Strategies Inventory, and Trauma Symptom Checklist-40.
Participants in the control group completed the same
measures during weeks 1 and 3 of the study, but did not
participate in the program. RESULTS: Participants (n = 43)
(Experimental = 31; Control =12) were primarily Caucasian
(95.3%). The age of participants ranged from 18-23 yr with
an average age of 8.77 (SD = 1.0). The number of sexual
assault survivors in the experimental and control groups that
completed pre-test and post-test measures were 11 and 3
respectively. Over 50% of the sample had experienced some
form of sexual victimization. Survivors in the experimental
group demonstrated statistically significant increases in
engagement coping behaviors and reductions in total trauma
symptoms as well as reductions on each subscale measure.
Survivors in the control group demonstrated increases in
engagement coping strategies, but these were not
statistically significant. Survivors in the control group only
demonstrated reductions on the depression and sleep
disturbance subscales of the TSC-40. Participants in both
groups exhibited increases in their coping self-efficacy score;
however, the experimental groups' gains were more
substantial, although neither groups' changes were
statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There is preliminary
evidence to suggest that a psychoeducational intervention
with college women who have experienced sexual assault
may be efficacious to improve recovery outcomes by
increasing engagement coping behaviors and reducing
trauma symptoms. Further research on psychoeducational
interventions with sexual assault survivors with a larger
sample size and higher level of control is indicated.
Advisors: Drs. John Cotton, Betty Sindelar
Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
Physical Therapy
Condylar Bone Mineral Density Differences in
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between treatment
and changes to the underlying subcondylar bone mineral
density (BMD) in the mandibular condyles along various
axes. METHODS: Twelve dried mandibular condyles from 9month-old miniature pigs were obtained from a previous
experiment where two-thirds wore chrome-cobalt intra-oral
splints for two months. Subchondral bone scans (GE
eXplore Locus Small animal MicroCT Scanner) of each
condyle were reconstructed with 0.1mm voxel size and
converted to three-dimensional images. An iso-surface of the
entire condyle was created (MicroView) to determine the
relative medial-lateral (M-L) axis. A-P direction was defined
as normal to both the M-L and S-I axes. Origin of the
resulting coordinate system was centered between the M-L
poles creating an axis 4 mm deep to the central portion of
the condylar articular surface. Regions of interest (ROI) 2
mm^3 were collected every 2 mm along A-P and S-I axes.
Examiners were blinded to splinted/non-splinted grouping.
T-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: No significance difference between splinted and
non-splinted groups was observed along either axis. Pooling
all specimens in the A-P direction, the most posterior ROI
was significantly less dense (400mg/cm3 ± 148) than all but
one ROI (most anterior) and the densest ROI, on average,
was the origin (647 ± 110mg/cm^3). Along the S-I axis, the
non-splinted group was significantly less dense near the
condylar surface than below the origin. High variability was
seen in the splinted group along the S-I axis.
CONCLUSION: Two months of splinting did not produce any
significant change in condylar subchondral BMD. Variations
in BMD along the A-P and S-I axes are consistent with
theoretical loading pattern of a pig mandibular condyle
during function.
predusted, battered, and breaded. Six treatment groups
were generated. Chicken pieces were dipped in 10% (w/w)
WPI, α-la, β-lg, or a combination of α-la and β-lg (25%/75%,
50%/50%, and 75%/25%). An undipped control and chicken
pieces dipped in water at pH 2 (0% protein) served as
controls. Moisture was evaluated using an oven. The Soxhlet
procedure was used to measure lipid content. Color and
texture were also measured using a colorimeter and texture
analyzer, respectively. RESULTS: The highest lipid
reduction was 28.4% for pieces treated with WPI compared
to the untreated control. No significant difference in oil
inhibition was observed in pieces treated with solutions that
contained 50%, 75%, and 100% β-lg. Pieces dipped in
solutions containing 75% and 100% α-la were not
significantly different in lipid content than the undipped or 0%
protein controls. It is likely that the ingredient responsible for
oil inhibition was β-lg. Moisture content, texture, or color was
not affected by the different dips. CONCLUSIONS: These
results suggest that oil inhibition using WPI can be enhanced
with the addition of β-lg.
Advisor: Dr. Robert Brannan
Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Food and Nutrition Sciences
β-Lactoglobulin, but Not α-Lactalbumin, Inhibits
Oil Absorption in Fully Fried Breaded Chicken
BACKGROUND: Whey protein isolate (WPI), when applied
as a 10% solution after breading, has been shown to inhibit
oil absorption in fried chicken patties by as much as 37%.
WPI consists primarily of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg, ~50%) and αlactalbumin (α-la, ~25%). Preliminary work has shown that βlg caused reduction in oil absorption in boneless chicken
patties (21%) and bone-in chicken thighs (27%). These
results were not compared to WPI in these systems. What is
not known is whether the reduction observed by WPI can be
attributed to either α-la or β-lg. RESEARCH OUTCOME: The
objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of
α-la and β-lg solutions compared to WPI when used as
postbreading dips for deep-fried chicken.
Chicken tenderloins were cut into 10 g pieces which were

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