Energy-efficient, site-specific
planning
DLA. Tamás Perényi, BUTE Department of Residential Building Design
DLA. József Kolossa, BUTE Department of Residential Building Design
András Weiszkopf
PhD. Róbert Mészáros, ELU Department of Meteorology
Zoárd Mangel
Lilla Árkovics
Annamária Babos
Anita Bazsik
Dániel Csöndes
Petra Horogh
Gergő Kápolnás
Viktor Kiss
Éva Kovács
Lea Szabó
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Energy-efficient, site-specific planning
by DLA. Tamás Perényi
by DLA. József Kolossa, András Weiszkopf, PhD. Róbert Mészáros, Zoárd Mangel, Lilla Árkovics, Annamária
Babos, Anita Bazsik, Dániel Csöndes, Petra Horogh, Gergő Kápolnás, Viktor Kiss, Éva Kovács, and Lea Szabó
programming of the docbook format, and animations: Péter Brenyó
collection of data: Dorka Garay, Dávid Kohout, Zsófia Lukács
Publication date 2013
Copyright © 2013 BUTE Department of Residential Building Design,
,
,
Abstract
Currently 40% of the energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emission in the European Union is on account of to
the operation of buildings, a low extent efficiency improvement could already result in significant economic
savings.
Building energy dimensioning today in Hungary happens by the existing regulation and its sections. The
fundamental aim of the regulation is to make buildings comparable regarding energetics. By reason of
comparability it makes buildings comply with building energy requirements using projected average data from
over the country.
To get a more precise prediction about the buildings’ energy consumption, we have to take into account that the
inhabitants’ demands and the environmental effects impacting the building do change both in time and space.
In response to the previous thoughts, the Residential Building Design Department of the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics started a research. The result was a patented invention, a newly designed measuring
equipment and software system, called: DROID. By measuring site-specific environmental effects the
developed unit creates location and building geometry-specific data and organizes them into databases.
This curriculum, created by the Residential Building Design Department, would like to draw attention to the
afore mentioned issue.
Building energetics is the complex analysis of energies entering the building (energy gain), the energy consumption to produce the
necessary comfort level inside the building, and energies leaving the building (energy loss).
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Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... vi
1. Energetics and function .................................................................................................................. 1
1. 1.1. Definitions related to comfort level .............................................................................. 19
1.1. 1.1.1. The concept of heat sensation ....................................................................... 19
1.2. 1.1.2. The human body’s heat transfer, heat exchange and the effecting factors .... 20
1.3. 1.1.3. The thermal equilibrium of the human body ................................................ 20
1.4. 1.1.4. Determination of the expected subjective heat sensation ............................. 21
1.5. 1.1.5. Local discomfort factors ............................................................................... 22
1.6. 1.1.6. The interior air quality .................................................................................. 22
1.7. 1.1.7. The „Sick Building Syndrome” .................................................................... 23
2. Historical review of air conditions of living spaces ...................................................................... 25
3. Energetics and Climatic Conditions ............................................................................................. 66
1. 3.1. The definition of the climate ........................................................................................ 66
2. 3.2. The classification of the climatic conditions ................................................................ 66
2.1. 3.2.1. Climatic classification: ................................................................................. 67
4. Energetics and location ............................................................................................................... 173
5. The DROID and its history ......................................................................................................... 195
1. 5.1. The invented measuring system and its three components: ........................................ 195
1.1. 5.1.1. The measuring device: ................................................................................ 195
1.2. 5.1.2. The evaluating algorithm: ........................................................................... 195
1.3. 5.1.3. The visualization software: ......................................................................... 195
6. About the project ........................................................................................................................ 196
1. Test Exercise ..................................................................................................................... 196
7. Bibliography and Recommended Literature: .............................................................................. 197
8. Appendix .................................................................................................................................... 198
9. Test Questions on the curricula .................................................................................................. 199
iii
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List of Figures
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
3.1.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
5.1.
................................................................................................................................................... 21
................................................................................................................................................... 22
................................................................................................................................................... 23
................................................................................................................................................... 24
................................................................................................................................................... 66
................................................................................................................................................. 173
................................................................................................................................................. 173
................................................................................................................................................. 174
................................................................................................................................................. 192
................................................................................................................................................. 193
................................................................................................................................................. 195
iv
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List of Tables
1.1. Table No 4.
2.1. Table No 2.
3.1. Table No 3.
4.1. Table No 4.
.................................................................................................................................. 1
................................................................................................................................ 25
................................................................................................................................ 68
.............................................................................................................................. 175
v
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Introduction
Dear Readers!
Building energetics is the complex analysis of energies entering the building (energy gain), the energy
consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the building, and energies leaving the building
(energy loss).
Building energy dimensioning today in Hungary happens by the existing regulation TNM 7/2006. (V.24.) and
its sections. The fundamental aim of the regulation is to make buildings comparable regarding energetics. By
reason of comparability it makes buildings comply with building energy requirements using projected average
data from over the country.
In the course of the calculation, the regulation determines the value of outside temperature without reference to
the local circumstances, using a projected average data from over the country. The method of calculation
simplifies the radiation heat gain, assumes homogeneous inside heat load, and does not take the local climate
effects of the area, like the wind, the shading and the surface radiation into account.
Planning and constructing economical buildings in respect of energetics is becoming more and more important.
In its 2020 strategy the EU has set the target to reduce its energy consumption by 20%. Since 40% of the energy
consumption and 36% of CO2 emission is on account of to the operation of buildings, a low extent efficiency
improvement could already result in significant economic savings.
By using the current dimensioning system we end up getting a fake image about the buildings’ energy
consumption. Standardized data used by the regulation, can result in great differences on local levels. To get a
more precise prediction about the buildings’ energy consumption, we have to take into account that the
inhabitants’ demands and the environmental effects impacting the building do change both in time and space.
In response to the previous thoughts, the Residential Building Design Department of the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics started a research, connecting to the BUTE program called „Development of
quality-oriented and harmonized R+D+I strategy and functional model at BME" (Project ID: TÁMOP-4.2.1/B09/1/KMR-2010-0002), supported by project New Széchenyi Plan. The result of this research was a patented
invention, a newly designed measuring equipment and software system, called: DROID. By measuring the sitespecific environmental effects the developed unit creates location and building geometry-specific data and
organizes them into databases. The research clearly demonstrated, that the energy balance of a building is
significantly affected by local environmental effects.
Video 1.- The Research
This curriculum, created by the Residential Building Design Department, supported by a curriculum developing
tender, called: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0055 - „Tananyagfejlesztés a lakóépületek tervezése tárgykörben,
különös tekintettel a fenntartható és energiatudatos szemléletmódra” would like to draw attention to the afore
mentioned issue.
The chapters of this curriculum present different aspects of the topic of energy efficient design: One chapter
presents the modern people’s demands regarding comfort level in different residential spaces. Another chapter
presents the change in user’s demands through time and space on different examples from periods in the
Hungarian history. Yet another chapters show how influential the global and local climatic conditions are to the
energy usage of buildings. Finally the curriculum brings on a case study including a complex approach, that
shows the possibilities of the site-specific architectural design methodology.
We believe that the assumptions presented in this curriculum can support the reform of building energy
dimensioning methodology in the long-term, and can provide aggregates to public opinion on the matter.
Budapest, November 2013.
The ESP Team
vi
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Chapter 1. Energetics and function
To approach the topic of this curriculum – energy-efficient, site-specific planning - it is imperative to understand
the basics of building energetics and comfort theory. Building energetics is the complex analysis of energies
entering the building (energy gain), the energy consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the
building, and energies leaving the building (energy loss). Several well useable curricula and textbooks were
made in the subject by the BUTE Faculty of Architecture Department of Building Energetics and Building
Services, therefore this study does not discuss these particularly – it leans on them.
In regard of comfort theory this study builds on the book of László Bánhidi – László Kajtár: Komfortelmélet,
Budapest, Műegyetemi Kiadó (2000).
Human needs on residential environments are considered to be satisfied, when the residential environment
ensures comfort of its inhabitants. Comfort is a subjective relation between a person and the surrounding closed
space. Amongst others, building energetics deals with the human needs on residential environments, which
studies the energy consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the building, besides studying the
energies entering the building, and the energies leaving the building.
The factors primarily affecting the comfort level – the temperature, the humidity, the motion of air, the noise
and the lighting – all have direct effect on humans. The moderately influential factors of comfort level are sun
radiation, ionization and vibrations, that occur less and more periodic. The human organism’s conformation to a
specific environment is a complex process, the single factors apply combined as well as in interference, and the
human organism reacts to this collective effect.
In a generic case the first three of the comfort level manipulating factors, the temperature, the humidity and the
motion of air are closely related to building energetics. Table 1. - The needs on accommodations shows chosen
factors’ specific values based on the present Hungarian people’s general needs on residential environments.
Separating an ordinary residential environment into diversely functioning spaces, the differences between the
needs may be observed.
Table 1.1. Table No 4.
local climate
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Energetics and function
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of
the
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effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
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Vernacula
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Architect
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World
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Daniel
Coulaud Cambridg
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1998
Energetics and function
local climate
slope
southern
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ental
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the
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climate
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by the
greatest
amount of
solar
radiation;
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area same as
the
mountain
peak,
plateau,
hilltop
area;
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reception
of
southern
slopes is
grater
than that
of the
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climate
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the
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a
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with good house
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properties
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kr.com
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local
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climates architect
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8
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and function
local climate
built enviroment
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of
the
the
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by
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surplus
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phase
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observed
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morning
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the
evening,
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phenome
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due to the
thermal
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own wind
systems
of the
built
environm
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dense
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layout of
earth
buildings; houses
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due to the
change in
the
Earth's
surface,
no need
for thick
outer
perimeter
structures
due to the
higher
temperatu
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for
structures
with good
thermal
storage
capacity,
and outer
shadings,
due to
warm and
solar
radiation
intense
summers
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forest
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Dennis
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ental
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of
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the
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link
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then in insulating
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properties
spaces,
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shading
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vegetatio
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greatest
on the
canopy
level
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Oliver
11
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and function
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
Paul
Oliver:
Encyclop
edia of
Vernacula
r
Architect
ure of the
World
12
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
González
Claverán
Cambridg
e
Universit
y Press,
1997
Energetics and function
local climate
plain area
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ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
effected
by a great
amount of
solar
radiation,
more then
on
southern
slopes,
but less
than on
northern
ones; due
to the
lack of
natural
shadings
high
temperatu
re values
can be
typical,
lower
temperatu
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shadow;
temperatu
res can
vary in
areas
cultivated
by man
due to the
changes
in the
structure
of the soil
surface
wall
structures
with no or
little
openings,
outside
shading
structures
, due to
the high
temperatu
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the lack
of natural
shadings
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Oliver:
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Architect
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World
15
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Hamilton
Botelho
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Universit
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Energetics and function
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properties
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form the
ground
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often
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levels
Cambridg
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Universit
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1995
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
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the
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kr.com e_cerisier
17
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and function
local climate
valley
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ental
energy
of
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by
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nighttime;
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high
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and function
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effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
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Antar
Video 2. - Contemporary Comfort
Regarding the indoor temperature, there are differences between the values expected in summer and winter (the
favorable temperature in summer is an average of 24-26 ˙C, while in winter it is 20-22˙C), therefore they have to
be studied apart. The expected level of humidity is described in the table as the relative air humidity. The
allowed rate of air motion in dwellings’ interior spaces is 0,2 m/s, but usually it does not even reach 0,1 m/s.
It is important to note, that the level of comfort is a subjective human demand. Therefore the data shown in the
table are general values which, in reality vary by person to person. The different needs could be affected by the
environment, the cultural background as well as age. For example, the little children and the elderly people feel
comfortable in warmer temperated residential spaces than usual and it’s more difficult for them to conform
themselves to the changes of air conditions.
1. 1.1. Definitions related to comfort level
1.1. 1.1.1. The concept of heat sensation
The comfort level factor related to environment heat is called heat sensation factor. The emergence of this
subjective sensation is mainly affected by the following six parameters:
• air temperature, its distribution and change in space and time,
• radiational temperature of the surrounding surfaces,
• relative humidity of the air, and the partial pressure of steam within the air,
• speed of airflow,
• the human body’s heat production, heat transfer, and heat regulation,
• the heat insulating ability of clothing, its affect on evaporation.
The first four are physical parameters, while the latter two are related to the human organism’s adaptability. The
subjective heat sensation is fixed by standards in some countries, namely the so called comfortable heat
sensation, which, according to ASHRAE (1981) 55-81 standard is the following:
The comfortable heat sensation is the mental condition, which expresses the satisfaction related to thermal
environment. The question is how this „comfortably subjective” sensation could become quantified, generally
applicable. For this, the so called subjective heat sensation scales are applied, the following 7 point scale is the
most widespread today:
19
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Energetics and function
hot
+3
warm
+2
comfortably warm
+1
neutral
0
comfortably cold
-1
cool
-2
cold
-3
Within this scale, the +1, 0, -1 range is the so called comfortable zone. The subjective heat sensation scale
shows, that in an ordinary Hungarian person’s living room, decreasing the 21˙C winter time temperature
expected by them with 2˙C causes a cold heat sensation while leaving the comfortable zone.
1.2. 1.1.2. The human body’s heat transfer, heat exchange and
the effecting factors
The human body can transfer the heat developing inside it in four ways:
• through radiation
• through convection
• through evaporation
• through conducting
In engineering practice and during the calculations, in the range of comfort parameters out of the total heat
transfer:
• the radiational heat transfer is 42-44%
• the conventional heat transfer is 32-35%
• the evaporative heat transfer is 21-26%
The change of atmospheric conditions reviewed before cause greatly differing deviations of values, and
determines which kind of heat transfer predominates. The air temperature decreases due to an increase of the
speed of airflow. Since the general rules of thermodynamics also apply in the human body – the rate of
conventional heat transfer increases, over 30-34˙C and the organism takes on heat with convection. Sweating
starts at 28-29˙C environmental temperature. Over the 34˙C value, the evaporation and the sweating are the only
possible kind of heat transfer of the organism. With the decrease of the terminal surfaces’ temperature,
according to the radiational heat exchange law, the transfer of radiational heat rises. But if the air is more humid,
it absolves relatively more from the body’s radiation. The measure of evaporative heat transfer depends on the
relative humidity.
1.3. 1.1.3. The thermal equilibrium of the human body
The heat generated in the human body, and the heat emitted or absorbed in different ways moves towards a
equilibrium state. This state is the state of thermal equilibrium, that is affected by various conditions.
It is clear, that the human body’s heat exchange conditions are affected by clothing, and its heat insulation
ability. To determine the clothing’s heat insulation ability, the so called „clo” unit is used:
1 clo = 0,155 m2C/W”9. Specific clothes „clo” values (ASHRAE 1985)
long sleeved shirt 0,22
thick trousers 0,32
pullover 0,37
light skirt 0,1
20
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Energetics and function
vest 0,06
jacket 0,49
blouse 0,20
stockings 0,01
The clothing has an impact on the comfort level, because it effects the thermal equilibrium, therefore it can
effect the performance. Some work places by periodically loosening on their dress code – for example they do
not require stockings or ties on hot summer days – increase on the comfort level of employees’ comfort
sensation and therefore on their performance.
1.4. 1.1.4. Determination of the expected subjective heat
sensation
P. Ole Fanger worked out a principle, or rather practical method, according to which by knowing several
parameters, a predicted mean vote could be determined in specific points of a closed space. This is the so called
PMV value, the Predicted Mean Vote, and the PPD value, which is the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied.
Knowing about the concept of these two indicators is essential.
Figure 1.1.
Working out the PMV value, Fanger started from the heat balance equation, and from ASHRAE psychophysiologycally subjective heat sensation scale, as showed in the paragraph ’The concept of heat sensation’
After collecting many individual’s heat sensational values he assumed, that the average value of 0 should
correspond to the case when the heat balance equation’s result is 0, and the heat production and the outer heat
transfer is balanced.
It’s a known fact, that the human organism can keep the thermal equilibrium between wide borders (chemical
and physical heat regulation, sweating etc.), but in this wide range only a relatively narrow zone (PMV between
-1 and +1 values) could be regarded as the comfortable heat sensation range, the comfort zone. Fanger supposed
with reason, that the higher the discomfort rate is, the higher conformation for the maintenance of heat balance
is needed by the heat controlling mechanism. He supposed, that – on a specific activity level – the human heat
sensation is related to the heat load. This heat load was defined as the difference of the indoor heat load and the
heat quantity transferred towards the environment, which is 0 amongst comfort terms.
21
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Energetics and function
Fanger taking the heat balance equations created by himself into account and PMV-PPD values invented by
himself, worked out the so called comfort diagrams. These are directly able to be used for the heat sensational
dimensioning of closed places.
1.5. 1.1.5. Local discomfort factors
In recent years it has become evident, that there can be discrete points inside closed places dimensioned with the
most up-to-date methods, where a person being there has heat comfort complaints. These are called local
discomfort factors, because of the nature of their occurrence. By this notion we mean those parameters, which:
• only shows up on specific points of a closed place,
• their effect does usually not refer to the whole human body, but only to certain parts of it.
From the aspect of subjective heat sensation, and the human heat exchange, we currently track two kinds:
• asymmetric radiation and
• the draft effect.
By asymmetric radiation we understand the phenomenon when a person being in a closed space has radiation
heat exchange between his specific body parts and it is at relatively higher or lower temperated surfaces, so the
body part is effected by heat radiation, or radiative heat transfer is toward these surfaces.
A human’s sensibility to air motion depends on the air temperature and the effects of the air flow. Illustration 2.
- Permissible airflow speed values based on environmental temperature shows the values of permissible air
speed based on the values of environmental temperature. It must be concluded, that in point A of the curve at a
25˙C temperature, the airflow speed of around 0,3 m/s is still comfortable, while in point B at 18˙C, 0,1 m/s is
already disturbing. Body parts sensible to draft are neck and ankle.
Figure 1.2.
1.6. 1.1.6. The interior air quality
22
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Energetics and function
By the interior air quality (IAQ) we mean every non thermal characteristics of the comfort spaces’ air, which
effect a human’s welfare.
The contaminations affecting interior air quality:
• gas and steam
• odor substances
• aerosols
• viruses
• bacteria and their spores Illustration 3. - Sources of the interior air quality contaminations
Figure 1.3.
Fanger, based on his researches, worked out the method of rating the interior air quality. He invented a new unit
for rating the air quality and determining the source intensity of contaminations. For reference he chose the
human.
The unit of the contamination’s source intensity is: 1 olf. According to the definition, 1 olf is the contamination
source strength of an average human in a sitting position, in the physical state of rest, in an environment with
heat balanced comfortable, with average personal hygiene conditions.
The unit of sensible air quality is: 1 decipol. According to the definition, the air quality is 1 decipol in case of a
perfect blend in the comfort zone, when 1 olf is the source intensity of the contamination and the ventilating
air’s volumetric stream is 10 l/sec, or an equal 36 m3/h.
1.7. 1.1.7. The „Sick Building Syndrome”
In recent decades the building technology, the building materials, just as the building service engineering
systems have changed, and improved by much. Primarily the changes were brought by the increase in the
number of office buildings, shopping centers with air conditioning. Modern architecture is now unimaginable
without large outer glass surfaces and air conditioning systems.
The „sick building syndrome” (SBS) contains the complaints of the people working in modern buildings. The
most common complaints:
• feeling draft
• feeling drought
• tiredness
• headaches
• noise
23
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Energetics and function
• rheumatic complaints
• complaints related to air quality
It ensues from the non complete list, that the study of the problem concerns medical, medical hygienical,
building service engineering etc. specialities. In recent years a lot of researchers have dealt with this subject.
The studies contained subjective and objective measuring and researching methods. The subject has a wide
international literature. Even so it can not be said, that the problem is completely solved.
Figure 1.4.
24
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Chapter 2. Historical review of air
conditions of living spaces
The inhabitants’ comfort demands for the interior spaces of residential buildings are constantly changing. This
chapter presents the differing air conditions on typical residential examples from the different periods of
Hungarian history, organized into the Table 2. - Change of the Air Conditions in Historical Living Spaces.
Throughout the history until the mid-20th century people only controlled temperature out of the possible
characteristic features of interior air conditions, therefore the table only contains data on the interior air
temperature in summer and winter.
Table 2.1. Table No 2.
Name of
period
I.
Previ
ous
to
histor
y of
archit
ectur
e in
Hung
ary
(until
then
10.
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
prim
arily
caves
Archit
,
ecture
primi
of
before tive
Prehis
the 1st tents
toric
centur and
Age
y
huts and
habit
Bronz
ation
e Age
s
must
provi
Szelet
a Cave
(in the
Bükk
Monta
ins);
Baradl
a Cave
(Cave
of
Aggtel
ek
Karst)
;
"Basin
houses
",
Vértes
szőlős
(appro
x. 500
000
years
ago)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
pit
holes
with
a
diam
eter
of 89
meter
s; in
the
midd
le the
a
firepla
ces
(diam
eter:
40-60
centim
eters);
fueled
by:
wood
and
bones
of
animal
cold;
warme
r in
the
imme
diate
surrou
ndings
of the
fire,
but
farther
away
from
in the
basin
s and
at the
entra
nces
of
caves
the
temp
eratu
re
was
aroun
25
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Magy
ar
Régés
zet Az
Ezredf
orduló
n,
Nemz
eti
Kultur
ális
Öröks
ég
Minis
"Basin
houses
",
Vértes
szőlős
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
centu
ry)
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
de
from
rain,
snow
and
wind
contr
olled
use
of
fire
Vértes
szőlős
"Basin
houses
"
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
clear
area
provi
des
the
possi
bility
of
escap
e
from
enem
ies or
preda
tors;
sourr
ound
ed by
lime
tuff
cliffs
(a
loose
and
poros
e
mater
ial,
good
heat
insul
ation
)
s - the
bones
gave a
higher
tempe
rature
and
were
glowi
ng
longer
the
fire
the
tempe
rature
quickl
y got
colder,
inside
the
basins
it was
warme
r than
the
averag
e
outsid
e
tempe
rature;
at the
entran
ces of
caves
the
tempe
rature
was
the
same
as
outsid
e,
deeper
inside
the
caves
it was
warme
r,
aroun
d 0 to
+5°C
d the
same
as the
daily
avera
ge
outsi
de
temp
eratu
re,
deep
er in
the
caves
it
was a
coole
r, 812°C
"Basin
houses
",
Vértes
szőlős
Anna
mária
Babos
"Basin
houses
",
Vértes
szőlős
Anna
mária
Babos
26
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ztériu
ma,
Teleki
L.
Alapít
vány,
Budap
est
2003 78-79.
oldal
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
build
ing
of
primi
tive
habit
ats
motte
and
bunke
r
houses
,
Százh
alomb
atta
(Bron
ze
Age);
Tiszaj
enő Száraz
rétpart
(4.
millen
ium
BC);
Csany
telek
(4.
millen
ium
BC)
Nyíre
gyház
aMand
aboko
r
scythi
an
house
(7-4.
centur
y BC);
motte
and
bunke
r
house,
Százh
alomb
att
(Bron
ze
Age)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
recta
ngle
shape
d,
semisubte
rrane
an
hous
e;
walls
made
out
of
wow
en
wood
sticks
(watt
le)
and
are
plast
ered
with
mud;
roof
struct
ure
supp
orted
by
posts
and
piles;
thatc
h
roof
inside
and
outsid
e
kilns,
smoul
dering
pits,
gratin
g kilns
inside
temep
rature
was an
accept
able 816°C
becaus
e of
the
open
firepla
ces
and
kilns,
air
qualit
y
depen
ded on
the air
densit
y of
the
buildi
ng
the
temp
eratu
re
was
pleas
ant in
sum
mer,
due
to the
build
ing
being
sunk
into
the
grou
nd;
no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
Motte,
Százh
alomb
atta
Anna
mária
Babos
Motte,
Százh
alomb
atta
Anna
mária
Babos
27
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Magy
ar
Régés
zet Az
Ezredf
orduló
n,
Nemz
eti
Kultur
ális
Öröks
ég
Minis
ztériu
ma,
Teleki
L.
Alapít
vány,
Budap
est
2003,
- 152153,
180181.ol
dal
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Endrő
d and
Szoln
ok,ban
k of
the
rifer
Zagyv
asemisubter
ranean
houses
Bunke
r
house,
Százh
alomb
atta
28
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Archit
ecture
of the
Roma
n
Empir
e in
Hunga
ry
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
betwe
en the
1st
and
the 7th
centur
y
archit
ectur
e of
dwell
inghous
e is
diver
se
(dwel
linghous
es
with
store
s,
crafts
man
hous
es,
Gorsiu
m(Tác
),
Palati
um urban
villa
(3th
centur
y);
Neme
svámo
s,
Baláca
puszta
central
buildi
ng of
Villa
dwelli
nghouse
with
ornam
ental
garden
and
store,
Budap
est,
Aquin
cum
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
devel
opme
nt in
unbr
oken
rows,
walls
made
out
of
stone
s and
brick
s,
stock
brick
s and
hollo
w
brick
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
portab
le
smold
er
holder
s, but
the
central
ized
underf
loor
heatin
g is
more
signifi
cant the
aim is
to heat
the
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
the
qualit
y of
doors
and
windo
ws
define
d the
inside
tempe
rature,
the
floor
and
wall
heatin
g
provid
ed a
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
in
stone
bulid
ings
with
little
wind
ows
the
indis
e
temp
eratu
re
follo
wed
the
daily
mean
temp
29
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Hajnó
czi
Gyula
Pannó
nia
Római
Romja
i,
Műsza
ki
Könyv
kiadó,
Budap
est
1987,
- 2846.old
al,
Aquin
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Bunke
r
house,
Százh
alomb
att
Anna
mária
Babos
South
easter
n part
of
Aquin
cum
with
the
dwelli
ng
house
block
plan,
Budap
est
Gyula Hajnó
Hajnó czi J.
czi J. Gyula,
forrás:
Pannó
nia
Római
Romja
,
Műsza
ki
Könyv
kiadó,
Budap
est
1987
101.
oldal
116.
ábra
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
detac
hed
villas
);
gener
ic
struct
ures:
wall
made
out
of
stone
s and
brick
s,
low
angel
ed
pitch
roofs,
roofi
ng
with
tile
cover
ing;
flat
ceilin
g:
plank
,
beam
, reed
struct
ures,
floor
and
wall
heati
ng
rustica
(2-3th
centur
y);
Budap
est,
Aquin
cum dwelli
nghouses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
s;
low
angel
ed
pitch
roof;
roofi
ng
tiles;
glaze
d
wind
ows;
flat
ceilin
g:
plank
,
beam
, reed
layer
order
floor,
princi
ple of
operat
ion:
heat
transfe
r
throug
h air
flow
(it
consis
ted of
3
parts:
the
fire
makin
g
chamb
er, the
cellar
like
heatin
g
space
under
the
premis
es up,
a
hollo
w
syste
m in
the
walls
to help
the
ascend
ing
airflo
wthis
syste
m
high
level
of
comfo
rt,
large
faces
of the
walls
and
floors
were
alway
s
warm,
the air
tempe
rature
was
betwe
en 1416°C
eratu
re
with
a low
fluct
uatio
n; no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
Dwelli
nghouse
with
ornam
ental
garden
and
shop
premis
es axono
metric
drawi
ng,
Aquin
cum,
Budap
est
Gyula Hajnó
Hajnó czi J.
czi J. Gyula,
forrás:
Pannó
nia
Római
Romja
,
Műsza
ki
Könyv
kiadó,
Budap
est
1987
113.
oldal
141.
ábra
South
easter
n part
of
Aquin
cum
with
the
dwelli
nghouse,
Budap
est
Gabrie http://
lla Vid www.
enyelv.
hu/20
13-0728/mu
targy
mesek
/
30
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
cum
Polgár
városa
,
Budap
est
Történ
eti
Múze
um,
Aquin
cumi
Múze
uma,
Budap
est
1997,
- 19,
37.
oldal
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
as a
result
of the
open
firepla
ce the
tempe
rature
in
winter
was an
accept
able 412°C;
air
qualit
y
depen
ded on
the air
densit
y of
the
jurt
was
oberh
eated
in
sum
mer,
due
to its
small
ther
mal
inerti
a
Adagi http://
o
hu.wik
ipedia.
org/wi
ki/Jurt
a
reduce
d the
moistu
re
conde
nsatio
n in
the
faces
of the
walls)
this
heatin
g
syste
m also
helped
in a
better
insulat
ion of
the
rooms
Archit betwe co- jurts jurts
ecture en the occur and from
of
7th ence tempo the
Migrat and
of
rary Age of
ion
the mobi singel Settle
Period 10th
le space ment
centur and houses of the
y
fixed
Magy
habit
ars in
ats
Hunga
ry
(sampl
e
buildi
ng in
the
EMES
EArche
ologic
al
Park)
folda
ble,
trave
rse
hinge
d
wood
en
strut;
fram
ed
door;
rafter
s;
outer
finish
ing:
rush
mat,
reed
mat,
skins
open
firepla
ce in
the
center
if the
jurt;
smoke
hole
above
the
firepla
ce
31
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
http://i
stvand
r.kisze
ly.hu/
ostorte
net/03
0.html
http://
hu.wik
ipedia.
org/wi
ki/Jurt
a
Jurt,
mong
olian
steppe
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
and
felt
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
the
buildi
ng;
farther
away
from
the
fire
the
tempe
rature
got
colder
32
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
jurts
from
the
Age of
Settle
ment
of the
Magy
ars in
Hunga
ry,
EMES
EArche
ologic
al
Park
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Sándo http://
r Rab hu.wik
ipedia.
org/wi
ki/Jurt
a
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Baskir
jurt axono
metric
drawi
ng
33
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Gyula http://i
László stvand
r.kisze
ly.hu/
ostorte
net/03
0.html
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
II.Romanesq 1000- livin
ue
1241 g in
architecture
two
place
s is
chara
cteris
tic:
sum
mer shelt
ers,
tents;
winte
rsolid
build
ings,
Mate
rial
in
villag
es
and
town
s:
reed
(rarel
y
wood
or
stone
)
typic
al is
the
houses
with
wattle
walls
(Fony
ód Bélate
lep);
log
houses
(Edelé
ny borsod
i
földvá
r);
bunke
r
house
(Kard
oskút,
Doboz
Hajdúí
rtás,
Tiszal
ökRázo
m,Oro
sháza)
;
recons
tructio
ns of
bunke
r
soil
house
from
the
Age of
Árpád
(sampl
e
buildi
ng in
the
EMES
EArche
ologic
al
Park)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
semisubte
rrane
an
hous
e,
cover
ed by
grou
nd;
small
hous
e (23 by
3-4
meter
s);
roun
ded
squar
e or
circle
shape
; the
lower
part
of the
walls
was
the
side
of the
exca
vatio
n, the
upper
open
firepla
ces in
the
center
of the
subter
ranean
house,
the
smoke
left
the
house
throug
h the
door
and
splits
on the
roof
as a
result
of the
open
firepla
ce and
the
thicke
r wall
structu
re the
tempe
rature
in
winter
was an
accept
able 816°C;
air
qualit
y
depen
ded on
the air
densit
y of
the
buildi
ng
the
temp
eratu
re
was
pleas
ant in
sum
mer,
due
to the
build
ing
being
sunk
into
the
grou
nd;
no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
László http://
Méri mek.o
szk.hu
/0910
0/091
79/09
179.pd
f
34
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Magy
ar
Régés
zet Az
Ezredf
orduló
n,
Nemz
eti
Kultur
ális
Öröks
ég
Minis
ztériu
ma,
Teleki
L.
Alapít
vány,
Budap
est
2003,
- 325326.
oldal
http://
mek.o
szk.hu
/0910
0/091
79/09
179.pd
f
House
s form
the
Age of
Árpád
drawi
ngs
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
semisubte
rrane
an
hous
e
houses
can be
found
in the
Ages
of
Árpád
openair
ethnog
raphic
museu
mTiszaa
lpár,
Arche
ologic
al
Park Szarva
sgede
and in
the
EMES
EArche
ologic
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
part
was
clay
poac
hed
wick
er
(patic
s)
and
soil,
the
roof
struct
ure
was
supp
orted
by an
ear
Earth
house
from
the
Age of
Árpád,
Emese
Arche
ologic
al
Park
35
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Sándo http://
r Rab www.
panora
mio.co
m/pho
to/510
98583
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
al
Park
III.
Gothi
c
archit
ectur
e
(124
11536
)
Early 1241- the
Gothic 1300 aim
archite
of
cture
Gothi
c
archit
ectur
e in
Hung
ary
was
not
struct
keep
of the
Lower
castle,
Visegr
ád; castle
of
Diósg
yőr.
Diósg
yőr;
castle
keep
of
Lower
Castle,
Visegr
ád Salam
on
Tower
(1258,
rebuilt
aroun
d 1325
elong
ated
hexa
gon
shape
d
floor
plan;
the
walls
are
3,50
meter
hearts
on
every
storie
in the
northe
rn
wall
od the
keep
in
winter
the
keeps
of the
castles
could
not
provid
ea
pleasa
nt
comfo
due
to the
thick
er
walls
made
of
stone
, the
temp
eratu
res in
the
36
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Várépí
tészet
ünk,
Főszer
k:
Gerő
László
,
Műsza
ki
Könyv
kiadó,
Budap
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
House
from
the
near
of
Debre
cen drawi
ngs
Ecsedi http://
mek.o
szk.hu
/0910
0/091
79/09
179.pd
f156.ol
dal
Salam
on
tower
- keep
of
Lower
Castle,
Visegr
ád
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
ural
devel
opmn
et, it
was
the
takei
ng
ove
of
detail
s
from
previ
ews.
Citiz
enshi
p
stren
ghten
s,
devel
oping
of
of
Árva,
Árvav
áralja
(today
: in
Slova
kia)
)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
s
thick,
in the
corne
rs 7
meter
s; the
build
ing is
31
meter
s
high;
it has
5
storie
s;
timbe
r
ceilin
gs
made
out
of
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
rt,
regard
ing the
air
tempe
rature
the
semisubter
ranean
houses
were
better
than
the
castles
and
towers
;
temep
arutre
in
winter
was
lower
storie
s was
more
pleas
ant
than
the
accep
table
temp
eratu
res of
the
highe
r
storie
s; no
overh
eatin
g
storie
s
Anna
mária
Babos
37
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
est, Salam
1975,
on
287- tower
291. - keep
oldal
of
Lower
Castle,
Visegr
ád
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
cities
begin
s.
The
build
ing
mater
ials
were
prmit
ive
and
low
rise
build
ings
were
typic
al in
Hung
ary.
Rega
rding
resid
ential
hous
es,
the
royal
archit
ectur
e was
signif
icant.
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
oak
beam
s; an
outho
use
tower
belon
ged
to the
north
weste
rn
part
of the
tower
;
wind
ows
were
only
place
d on
the
weste
rn
and
easte
rn
facad
es
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
betwe
en 0
and
+10°C
38
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Salam
on
tower
- keep
of
Lower
Castle,
Visegr
ád
Anna
mária
Babos
Salam
on
tower
- keep
of
Lower
Castle,
Visegr
ád
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Mater 1300- typic Royal Castle
and 1526
al archite of
Late
medi cture: Tata,
Gothic
eval Castle Tata
archite
cities of (1397cture
appie Tata, 1409,1
red in Tata; 420 the keep, constr
mater Nagyv uction
and ázson s from
late
y; Age of
gothi castle Zsigm
c
with ond ,
perio tower, aroun
ds in Gyula; d 1460
Hung Civil
ary; dwelli constr
Roya ng- uction
l houses s from
archit : the Age of
ectur Budap Mátyá
e is
est
s)
impo Castle
rtant Hill in Tárno
resid
k
ential street
archit 14,
ectur Orszá
e,
gház
civil street
archit 18-20;
ectur Religi
e and ous
relig archite
ous cture:
archit Domi
ectur nican
castle
with
four
tower
s on
its
corne
rs
protr
uding
from
the
build
ings
wing
s,
recta
ngula
r
yard
nowa
days
only
the
south
ern
wing
and
the
exca
vated
plint
hs
can
be
visite
d
"stove
s from
the
age of
Zsigm
ond" threef
old
divide
d
stoves
covere
d with
tiles
the
hearth
s
caused
the
advan
camen
t of
inside
tempe
rature,
but in
the
castles
and
fortifi
ed
castles
the
comfo
rt was
not
good
in
winter
, the
temep
erautr
e was
betwe
en +4
+14°C
the
teme
perat
ure
was
accep
table
in
sum
mer;
no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
Várépí Castle
tészet
of
ünk, Tata,
Főszer Tata
k:
Gerő
László
,
Műsza
ki
Könyv
kiadó,
Budap
est,
1975,
276281.ol
dal
Anna
mária
Babos
Castle
of
Tata,
Tata
Anna
mária
Babos
39
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
e also
rise
in
impo
rtanc
e
IV.
Rena
issan
ce
(145
81686
)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Monas
tery,
Marga
ret
Island
Budap
est
Early 1458- The Castle The
and 1541 Rena
of
Royal
High
issan Simon Palace
Renais
ce in tornya
,
sance
Hung - Old Visegr
ary tower, ád
first Simon (1477appie tornya 1485 red in
;
rebuilt
the Keep,
)
court Sárosp
of
atak
struct
ures
made
out
of
stone
, in
the
back
yard
of
palac
hearth
s and
"stove
s from
the
age of
Mátyá
s" detaile
d
shapin
g,
as a
result
of the
better
hearth
s and
the
"stove
s from
the
age of
Mátyá
the
teme
perat
ure
was
accep
table
in
sum
mer;
no
overh
40
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Castle
of
Tata,
Tata
Anna
mária
Babos
Visegr The
ád, Royal
Király Palace
i
,
palota Visegr
ád
Tájak
Korok
Múze
umok
kiskön
yvtára
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
King
Máty
ás. In
the
early
perio
d of
Rena
issan
ce a
lot of
gothi
cal
castle
s and
keeps
were
built,
it is
the
time
of
palac
es in
(1541
renais
sance
rebuil
dung);
The
Royal
Palace
,
Visegr
ád
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
e is covere s" the eatin 11,
The
two d with comfo g in Cartog Royal
store tiles rt was sum raphia, Palace
y
pleasa mer Budap
,
cloist
nt, the
est, Visegr
er;
temep
1993
ád
Herc
rature
ules
in
Fonta
winter
in in
was
the
aroun
midd
d 15
le of
°C
the
court
;
livin
g
room
s and
bedro
oms
were
on
41
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
archit
ectur
e
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
the
secon
d
store
y,
with
a
lower
inter
nal
heigh
t with
timbe
r
ceilin
gs
The
Royal
Palace
,
Visegr
ád
42
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
Mater 1541- The Pipo
and 1686 count fortifi
Late
ry
ed
Renais
was castle,
sance
divid Ozora;
ed Károl
into
y
three Catle,
parts, Füzérr
and adván
the
y;
resid Bethle
ential
n
build manor
ing house,
evolv Bethle
ed nszent
differ miklós
ently (Roma
in all nia);
of Sopro
them. nkeres
Some ztúr
parts Nádas
had
dy
the Manor
typic House
al
,
castle Sopro
archit nkeres
ectur ztúr
e, (Austr
other ia);
parts Bethle
are
n
famo Fortifi
us for ed
the Castle,
mano Keres
r
d
hous (Roma
Nádas
dy
Manor
House
,
Sopro
nkeres
ztúr
(Austr
ia,
1625)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
recta hearth stoves the
ngle s and were amou
shape stoves simila nt of
d
r to glass
plan,
stoves ed
with
in
surfa
a
nowad ces
large
ays, gets
inner
these highe
court
provid r, the
; one
ed the heat
store
highes load
y,
t
grew
with
comfo in
four
rt until sum
corne
the mer;
r
19but
tower
20th
no
s,
centur overh
little
y
eatin
wind
(until g in
ows
the
sum
in
appear mer
great
ance
dista
of
nces
central
from
ized
each
heatin
other
g
syste
ms); at
first
the
perfor
mance
of the
stoves
was
low,
possib
ly
43
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Nádas
dy
Manor
House
,
Sopro
nkeres
ztúr
(Austr
ia)
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
es,
fortif
ield
castle
s
were
typic
al for
the
time.
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
nia);
Manor
House
of
Márku
sfalva,
Márku
sfalva
(Slova
kia);
Manor
House
of
Pácin,
Pácin;
Rákóc
zi
Castle,
Sárosp
atak
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
becaus
e the
comfo
rtlevel
was
compa
red to
the
low
comfo
rtlevel
s of
the
past
44
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Nádas
dy
Manor
House
,
Sopro
nkeres
ztúr
(Austr
ia)
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Nádas
dy
Manor
House
,
Sopro
nkeres
ztúr
(Austr
ia)
V. Islamic 1541During this period no significant residential
Rados
architecture 1686 building was built. New buildings were only built Jenő when no appropriate building was found, or when Magy
a new type of function e.g.: minarett.
ar
építés
zet
történ
et,
Műsza
ki
Tankö
nykiad
ó,
Budap
est
45
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
VI. Early 1618- Betw Cottag Fabric ghoti
Baro Baroq 1711 een e (the ius
cal
que
ue
1630 oldest House style
archit
and cottag
,
elme
ectur
1700 e in Sopro nts;
e
there the
n
devel
(161
was a Carpat (17th opme
8Turki hian centur nt in
1795
sh Basin) y)
unbr
)
prese
,
oken
nce Toroc
rows;
in
kó
build
Hung (Roma
ing
ary. nia);
with
This Esterh
3
uncer ázy
storie
tain Manor
s,
situat House
atriu
ion
,
m;
obstr Kisma
walls
ucted rton
made
the (Austr
out
wide ia);
of
sprea Fabric
stock
ding ius
brick
of House
s
baroq
,
tile
ovens
in the
corner
of the
bedro
oms
the
develo
pment
in
unbro
ken
rows
preven
ted the
quick
coolin
g
down
of the
house;
the
heatin
g of
the
buildi
ng
was
easier;
the
stoves
provid
ed an
the
amou
nt of
glaze
d
surfa
ces
gets
highe
r, the
heat
load
grew
in
sum
mer
beca
use
of
this,
but
no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
Anna
mária
Babos
46
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Sopro Fabric
n,
ius
Fabríc House
ius,
ház - Sopro
Tájak
n
Korok
Múze
umok
kiskön
yvtára,
Cartog
raphia,
Budap
est,
1980
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
ue Sopro
style.
n
Typi
cal
were
late
Rena
issan
ce
style
build
ings,
resid
ential
build
ings
in
cities
,
mano
r
hous
es
and
cotta
ges
in
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
appro
priate
comfo
rt in
winter
47
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Fabric
ius
House
,
Sopro
n
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
villag
es.
At
the
same
time
in
villag
es the
devel
opme
nt of
the
Hung
arian
verna
cular
archit
ectur
e
bega
n.
Fabric
ius
House
,
Sopro
n
48
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
Mater 1711- In Manor
and 1795 this houses
Late
perio
:
Baroq
d Manor
ue
archit House
ectur
of
e was Edelé
mostl ny,
y
Edelé
defin ny;
ed by Szavol
priva ya
te Manor
const House
ructi
,
ons, Rácke
little ve;
amou Ráday
nt of Manor
resid House
ential
,
build Pécel;
ings Szévh
were eny
estab Manor
lishe House
d,
,
mostl Nagyc
y
enk;
ariso Grassa
cracy lkovic
was
h
build Manor
ing House
their
,
palac Hatva
es,
n;
castle Esterh
s,
ázy
and Manor
mano House
Esterh
ázy
Manor
House
,
Fetrőd
Eszter
háza
(from
1720,
presen
t day
buildi
ng
was
built
from
1762
to
1766)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
3
storie
s;
large
inter
nal
heigh
t;
detac
hed
devel
opme
nt;
Ushape
d
build
ing;
walls
made
out
of
stock
brick
;
build
ing
articu
lation
s and
orna
ment
s
hearth
s and
tile
stoves
in the
living
rooms
and
the
bedro
oms
the
stoves
provid
ed the
highes
t
comfo
rt
(accor
ding
to the
deman
ds of
this
period
)
the
amou
nt of
glaze
d
surfa
ces
gets
highe
r, the
heat
load
grew
in
sum
mer
beca
use
of
this,
but
no
overh
eatin
g in
sum
mer
Anna
mária
Babos
49
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
http://
www.
eszter
haza.h
u/kast
ely/es
zterha
za
Esterh
ázy
Manor
House
,
Fetrőd
Eszter
háza
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
r
hous
es.
At
the
same
time
we
count
the
emer
genc
e of
local
verna
cular
archit
ectur
al
style
in
Hung
ary
from
this
perio
d.
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
,
Fetrőd
Eszter
háza;
Royal
Manor
House
of
Gödöl
lő,
Gödöl
lő;
Civil
dwelli
nghouses
: Bécsi
kapu
square
5;
Orszá
gház
street
44, the
Budap
est
Esterh
ázy
Manor
House
,
Fetrőd
Eszter
háza
50
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Castle
Hill
Esterh
ázy
Manor
House
,
Fetrőd
Eszter
háza
51
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
VII.
1867- Resid tenem House
Architecture 1914 ential ent
s in
of Historism
build houses Weker
and Turn of
ings
in
le
the century
get Budap Housi
bigge est
ng
r, (exam Settle
tene ples: ment,
ment Báthor Budap
hous
y
est
es street (1908
were 20,
typic Bedő archite
al in House ct:
this
,
Kós
perio Honvé Károl
d, at
d
y)
first street
with .3);
3 House
storie s in
s, Weker
later
le
with Housi
eleva ng
tors Settle
4-6 ment,
storie Budap
s.
est;
Typi villas
cal
in
struct Budap
ures: est
iron (exam
weig ple:
ht- Baboc
beari hay
ng Villa )
build
ings
made
out
of
stock
brick,
3
types
of
build
ings:
tene
ment
hous
e,
tene
ment
hous
e
with
bach
elor
flats
and
famil
y
hous
es /
terrac
ed
hous
es
and
semidetac
hed
hous
tile
stoves
; gas
conve
ctor
heatin
g
cerami
c
stoves
provid
ed the
highes
t
comfo
rt
(accor
ding
to the
deman
ds of
this
period
), the
specifi
c of
this
stoves
was
the 810°C
tempe
rature
gradie
nt, and
tempe
rature
fluctu
ation
was
norma
l
usage
of
shadi
ng
struct
ures
on
the
facad
e
provi
ded
prote
ction
from
overh
eatin
g
http:// House
wekerl s in
etelep. Weker
hu/dio
le
hejban Housi
ng
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
House
s in
Weker
le
Housi
ng
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
52
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
struct
ures,
fram
ewor
k
struct
ures
and
reinf
orced
concr
ete
struct
ures.
The
thick
ness
of the
load
beari
ng
walls
are
reduc
ed.
The
facad
es of
the
build
ing
do
not
show
the
struct
ural
syste
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
es
53
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
House
s in
Weker
le
Housi
ng
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
House
s in
Weker
le
Housi
ng
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
ms
behin
d
them.
The
flats
of the
tene
ment
hous
es
had
sever
al
room
s, sun
light,
view
s and
orien
tation
were
not
aspec
ts.
VIII.
1914- Priva OTI OTI
Architecture 1944
te
Tene Tene
Between the
const ment ment
Two World
ructi House House
Wars
ons
s,
s with
turne Budap 203
d
est; flats,
towar Budap Budap
d the est est
mode Georg (archit
rn
ia
ects:
desig House Árkay,
n. (archit Farag
grou
p of
tene
ment
hous
es; 8
storie
s
high
towar
ds
the
squar
distric
t
heatin
g
syste
m,
boiler
house
and a
coal
bunke
r are
in the
spread
of the
central
ized
heatin
g
syste
m was
typical
in this
period
; solid
fuel;,
usage
of
shadi
ng
struct
ures
on
the
facad
e
provi
ded
prote
54
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
http://
www.
urb.b
me.hu/
segedl
et/sza
kmern
oki1/s
zakdol
gozato
k_201
2/201
2_juni
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
House
s in
Weker
le
Housi
ng
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
OTI
Tene
ment
House
s,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
Typi
cal
build
ings
were
the
tene
ment
hous
es,
with
indoo
r
stairc
ases.
Other
types
of
hous
es
were
villas
and
famil
y
hous
es.
ect:
Baráth
Béla,
Novák
Endre)
,
Budae
pest;
Villa
in
Lejtő
street
(archit
ect:
Molná
r
Farkas
),
Budap
est;
Villa
in
Széher
street
(archit
ect:
Kósa
Zoltán
),
Budap
est;
Villa
in
Berke
nye
street
(archit
ect:
ó,
Fische
r,
Heysa,
Ligeti,
Molná
r,
Pogán
y,
Preisic
h,
Vadás
z1934)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
e, 6 basem gravit ction us_26/ OTI
storie ent ational from Ivanyi Tene
s
or overh Gyong ment
high
steam eatin yver2 House
on he
heated g 012.pd s,
other
syste
f
Budap
side,
ms;
est
the
contro
comp
ling
lete
these
srtuct
syste
ures
ms
is
was
supp
hard,
OTI
orted
but it
Tene
by a
provid
ment
slab
ed an
House
foun
appro
s,
datio
priate
Budap
n
tempe
est
made
rature;
out
the
of
tempe
reinf
rature
orced
fluctu
concr
ation
ete
was 2(80
3 °C
centi
meter
s
thick
);
furna
ce
room
and
coal
55
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Anna
mária
Babos
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
Kozm
a
Lajos)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
bunk
er
were
in the
base
ment
OTI
Tene
ment
House
s,
Budap
est
56
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
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e
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
IX.
1945- Short
Architecture 1989 age
of the
of
Socialism
flats
is the
most
impo
rtant
prebl
em in
this
perio
d. To
solve
this
probl
em
preca
ste
build
ing
were
built
large
panel
struct
ures
and
stand
ard
desig
ns.
The
housi
ng
estate
s
Settle
ments:
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est distric
t IX;
Havan
na
Settle
ment,
Budap
est distric
t
XVIII;
Tene
ment
House
s in
Budap
est:
Úri
street
32.
(archit
ect:
Farkas
dy
Zoltán
); Úri
street
26-28.
(archit
ect:
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
(19571967
and
19791981)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
loose distric central the Rados
layou
t
ized prote Jenő t of heatin heatin ction Magy
build
g
g
form
ar
ings, syste syste overh építés
large
m
m, eatin zet
green
usuall g was történ
surfa
y with not
et,
ces;
an provi Műsza
10
inappr ded,
ki
and 4
opriat peopl Tankö
store
e
e did nykiad
y
setup, not
ó,
build
the
use Budap
ings;
tempe outsi est
preca
ratures de
st
of the shadi
large
dwelli ng
panel
ngs struct
struct
was ures
ure
differe
nt, the
syste
m
could
not be
contro
led
from
the
units,
usuall
y the
lower
sories
were
colder,
the
57
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
show
the
conc
eptiu
al
think
ing
of
urban
plann
ing
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Horvá
th
Lajos
KÖZT
I);
Lévay
street
8.
(archit
ect:
Varga
Leven
te)
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
higher
sories
were
warme
r than
requir
ed
58
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
József
Attila
Settle
ment,
Budap
est
Anna
mária
Babos
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
X. Conve 1989- In the Famil Famil foun
Cont ntiona
conte
y
y
datio
empo
l
mpor House House ns:
rary House
ary
,
,
concr
archit
s
archit Piliscs Piliscs ete
ectur
ectru aba - aba - strip
e
re of Pest Pest foun
resid Regio Regio datio
ential
n
n
n and
hous (archit (2009) pad
es the ect:
footi
archit Kolos
ng,
ectur
sa
ascen
al József,
ding
intent Kolos
struct
ion sáné
ures:
and Bartha
POR
the Katali
OTH
funct n);
ERM
ional Guest
30,
desig house,
38 n, are Pécs supp
achie Baran
ortin
ved
ya
g
single,
combi
ned
gas
equip
ment;
heat
transfe
r by
sheet
radiat
or;
netwo
rk
materi
al is
coated
copper
heatin
g pipe;
the
equip
ment
is
indivi
dual,
or
central
radiat
or
heatin
g, the
annual
heatin
g
energy
deman
d is
150
kW/m
2
the
bigge
r
amou
nt of
glaze
d
surfa
ces
and
the
highe
r
comf
ort
dema
nds
cause
a
dema
nd
for
cooli
ng;
Tamás
Bujno
vszky
59
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Famil
y
House
,
Piliscs
aba Pest
Regio
n
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
simul
tanio
usly
and
in
regar
d to
the
inhab
itants
needs
.
Regio
n
(archit
ects:
Ásztai
Bálint
and
Kovác
s
Csaba
);
Famil
y
House
,
Nagyk
ovácsi
, Pest
Regio
n
(archit
ects:
Földes
László
and
Balog
h
Csaba
);
Famil
y
House
,
Budak
eszi,
Pest
Regio
n
(archit
ects:
Bártfa
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
wall,
reinf
orced
concr
ete
circul
ar
pillar
s,
slab:
preca
st
beam
s,
with
weig
ht
secon
dary
block
s,
and
reinf
orced
concr
ete,
insul
ation
mater
ial: in
the
roof
struct
ure 1720
centi
meter
s
rock
wool,
contro
lled by
indoor
therm
ostat;
therm
ostatic
radiat
or
valves
are
used
in the
kitche
n and
the
bathro
oms;
backu
p
heatin
g is
provid
ed by
electri
c
heatin
g
syste
m
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
outsi
de
shadi
ng
struct
ures
are
not
alwa
ys
appli
ed
Tamás
Bujno
vszky
60
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Famil
y
House
,
Piliscs
aba Pest
Regio
n
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
iSzabó
Gábor,
Bártfa
iSzabó
Orsoly
a);
Apert
ment
house,
Budap
est,
distric
t II.
(archit
ect:
Toma
y
Tamás
)
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
in the
wall 6
centi
meter
s
rock
wool
insul
ation,
facad
e is
made
out
of
Wien
erber
ger
VAL
ERI
AN
facin
g
brick
work,
roof
struct
ure:
conv
entio
nal
wood
fram
ewor
k,
Antra
cit
colou
red
cera
mic
tile
cover
ing,
wind
ows
and
Famil
y
House
,
Piliscs
aba Pest
Regio
n
61
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copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Tamás
Bujno
vszky
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Specif
ic
heatin
g (and
coolin
g)
power
deman
d: 14
kWh/
m2
year,
Heat
requir
ed for
heatin
g: 12
W/m2,
Power
deman
d of
coolin
g: 5
W/m2
the
highes
t
indoor
comfo
rt,
regard
ing the
air
qualit
y, the
air
tempe
rature
and
the
tempe
rature
gradie
nt; the
indoor
comfo
rt
colud
low
amou
nt of
the
heat
loss,
a
great
er
need
of
attent
ion
on
outsi
de
shadi
ng
struct
ures;
the
dema
nd of
cooli
Zsolt http://
Batár epites
zforu
m.hu/
minosi
tettpasszi
vhazbudao
rson
doors
: 4-64
thick
insul
ative
glazi
ng
Passiv 2009- low detach
e
energ ed
House
y passiv
s
dema
e
nd family
hous house
es; (concr
the
ete
pleas structu
ent
re,
insid with
e air- insulat
condi ion),
tion Szada
can - Pest
be Regio
provi
n;
ded detach
witho ed
ut an passiv
activ
e
e family
heati house
ng Orosh
Qualif
ied
passiv
e
house,
Budaö
rs Pest
Regio
n
(2011)
struct
ures
are
perfe
ctly
insul
ated,
with
an air
dense
and
heatbridg
e free
build
ing
shell,
30
centi
meter
s
graph
ite
heat
62
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
http://
epites
zforu
m.hu/
minosi
tettpasszi
vhazbudao
rson
Qualif
ied
passiv
e
house,
Budaö
rs Pest
Regio
n
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
and
cooli
ng
syste
m;
the
term
passi
ve
can
be
used;
when
a
build
ing is
quali
fied
by
the
germ
an
Passi
vhau
s
Instit
ute
and
by
the
Passi
vhau
s
Dien
stleis
tung
Gmb
h; the
quail
fied
passi
ve
hous
es
have
to
comp
ly
with
germ
an
stand
ard;
heati
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
áza,
insul Engin not be ng
Békés
ation eering develo gets
Regio
is
syste ped more
n;
moun ms: more impo
semited
heat (regar rtant
detach
on pump, ding
ed
the floor the air
passiv
prem tempe qualit
e
iter ring,
y);
house
wall, low compa
(concr
50 tempe red to
ete
centi rature the
structu
meter ceiling conve
re,
s of heatin ntiona
with
heat g and
l
insulat
insul coolin houses
ion,
ation
g;
, the
Fót on solar heatin
Pest
the panel
g
Regio
upper for energy
n;
closi creatin deman
passiv
ng
g
d is
e
slab, domes less family
27 tic hot 1/10 !
house
centi water (true
(concr
meter (DHW only
ete
s of
)
for
structu
heat supply family
re,
insul with houses
with
ation buffer
)
insulat
under storag
ion),
the
e,
Páty floor; filled
Pest
the up by
Regio
formi heat
n;
ng of pump
terrace
the in sund
build free
house
ing is period
(stock
comp
s;
brick
act, power
structu
its supply
re),
orien conce
Dunak
tation pt of
eszi is
the
Pest
south house
Regio
ern,
is
n;
it has based
detach
a
on
ed
recta geothe
63
passiv Created by
ngle
rmalXSL-FO Converter.
XMLmind
e
shape energy
family
d
(airhouse
plan; to-
Qualif
ied
passiv
e
house,
Budaö
rs Pest
Regio
n
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Zsolt http://
Batár epites
zforu
m.hu/
minosi
tettpasszi
vhazbudao
rson
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Name of
period
Perio Arch Chara The
d of itect cterist analys
time ural
ic
ed
char buildi buildi
acter ngs
ng
istics from
,
the
struc perio
tures
d
uses
The
struc
tures
of
the
anal
ysed
build
ing
Heati
ng
and
coolin
g
syste
m of
the
analys
ed
buildi
ng
Inside
condit
ion of
air in
winte
r
Insid Sourc descri code
e
e of ption of
cond data of the the
ition
pictur pictu
of air
e
re
in
sum
mer
Qualif
ied
passiv
e
house,
Budaö
rs Pest
Regio
n
64
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
copyri sourc
ghts
e of
of the the
pictur pictur
e
e
Zsolt http://
Batár epites
zforu
m.hu/
minosi
tettpasszi
vhazbudao
rson
Historical review of air conditions of
living spaces
Studying the sample buildings from the different time periods, significant differences can be discovered through
time regarding the condition of air in the interior. The research shows, that the interior spaces of the houses
could be temperated more and more precisely throughout the history. For example 70 years ago 2-3 °C
fluctuation in air temperature was considered normal in heating season, however, the temperature fluctuation
nowadays is only 0,3 °C.
The breakdown of eras in the book „Magyar építészettörténet” by Jenő Rados (History of Hungarian
Architecture) was used as a basis for determining the chronological units to be studied. In order to be clear and
complete this book handles the periods of the Hungarian history complete with the periods of the history of
architecture, and demonstrates the most conspicuous characteristics of these periods with sample buildings.
In contrast to the materials in the literatures used, this chapter only concentrates on the built residential
buildings. The original subdivisions from the Rados-book have been changed due to the concentration on the
residential function: the architecture of classicism, romanticism and eclecticism units can be found merged
under the name ’Architecture of Historicism and Turn of the century’ in Table 2., because the sample buildings
from these periods do not shows any differences regarding the condition of interior air. The other 9 periods
stayed unchanged. The table does not contain any data from Islamic architecture, during this period there was no
significant residential building built. The original chronological breakdown ending with the era Architecture of
the Socialism, was complemented with the Period of Contemporary Architecture, which is relevant to the
curriculum.
All of the sub-periods from the table, and their general architectural characteristics, are presented with sample
buildings. At each of the sub-periods, one typical sample building is detailed with information for an analysis.
The structure, the heating system and the condition of air in summer and in winter time are detailed about this
building in the table.
We can follow the technological development in this table, and as a result the improvement of the condition of
interior comfort. It is surprising, that when compared, the centralized heating system used between the Two
World Wars was a much more comfortable solution then the heating system of the pre-fabricated panel
buildings in the period of the Socialism. The configuration of the district heating system coming as a component
with the large pre-fabricated panel system, was often constructed incorrectly. This caused a non-equable interior
condition of air in parts of the building, and as a result of the lack of facade shadings the buildings were
overheated in summer.
An other curiosity is coming from the medieval ages when the members of higher social classes were living in
keeps, where the temperatures were between 0 and 10 °C , at the same time in villages in the farmer’s bunker
houses the condition of interior air was a more comfortable 20 to 22 °C. The table shows clearly: the comfort
demands of the living spaces have changed throughout the history!
In the past people often compensated the unpleasant temperatures in the living spaces with additional methods,
for example with the use of wall carpets, thicker bed linens or layered clothing. Nowadays humans’ willingness
to adapt to extreme values of air conditions is decreasing. In contrast to solutions from the past, people of today
want to reach the comfortable temperature sensation for themselves by adjusting the exact extent of the heating
or cooling, as opposed to for example wearing appropriately layered clothing in lower temperated situations.
The change of habits is worth considering. In an average Hungarian dwelling-house during wintertime keeping
the interior temperatures 1 °C lover than usual can result in a 10% reduction of energy usage for this time
period.
Video 3. - History of Comfort
65
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Chapter 3. Energetics and Climatic
Conditions
Interior areas are protected from the external environmental effects by the building’s outer shell. The external
environmental effects are determined by the climatic conditions of the given areas. These climatic conditions
have an impact on the energies entering a building.
This chapter shows the relations between climatic conditions and their effects on the building’s energy use. The
aim of this chapter is to draw attention to the influence of the climatic conditions on the possible energy gain of
buildings and on the proper construction of the building structures and shells.
Definitions of the meteorological terms are explained based on the book titled ’Éghajlattan’ written by György
Péczely.
1. 3.1. The definition of the climate
Climate is defined as an interactive system of physical properties and events of the atmosphere interacting with
the environment and each other in a given area over a period of time (usually a few decades). Climatology is a
discipline of climatic conditions.
The factors that effect climate are: altitude, the distance from the Equator and the distance from seas. The
incident angle of solar radiation depends on the distance from the equator, the amount of precipitation and the
mitigation effect of large water surfaces depend on the distance from the seas. The altitude expresses the
intensity of the effects of highland climates.
2. 3.2. The classification of the climatic conditions
Even though climate is a complex phenomenon a demand for the systematization of different climates based on
their similarities and the territorial distribution of the climatic types was revealed during the first period of the
organized climatic data collection at the end of the 19th century. It’s obvious that climate classifications are only
stereotyped versions of the reality. These classifications are limited to underline some of the most determinative
factors and create a spatial distinction. The practical usability of the climatic classifications usually depends on
the selected factors used to define the climatic types.
The basis of every climatic classification is the thermal zonality and the climatic events based on this zonality.
Different classifications list the same main climatic zones: 1. tropical, 2. subtropical, 3. temperate, 4. subarctic,
5. polar. Moreover it is reasonable to separate a highland climate zone in the area higher mountains, although
highland climate is not an individual climatic zone, it is a special local version within the main climatic zones.
The listed five main climatic zones can be divided into further climatic types according to the annual course of
temperature, the typical extremes of the annual course of temperature, the annual precipitation amount and its
seasonal distribution. György Péczely modified and improved the Trewartha climatic classification for it to be
more like the real climatic conditions. This modified classification can be seen in the following:
Figure 3.1.
66
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
2.1. 3.2.1. Climatic classification:
A) tropical climates
A1.) tropical rainforest
A2.) savanna
A3) tropical dry savanna
A4.) low latitudes
A4a.) zonal deserts
A4b.) cool coastal deserts near cold ocean currents
B) subtropical climates
B5.) subtropical steppe
B6.) Mediterranean
B6a.) hot-summer Mediterranean
B6b.) cool-summer Mediterranean
B7.) humid subtropical
C) temperate climates
C8.) maritime temperate
C9.) humid continental climate with longer warm season
C10.) humid continental climate with shorter warm season and cold winter
C11.) temperate steppe
C12.) temperate desert
D) subarctic climates
C13.) maritime subarctic
C14.) continental subarctic
E) polar climates
E15.) tundra
E16.) ice cap
F) highland climates
F17.) tropical highland
F18.) temperate highland
Table 3. - Climatic Conditions and their Effects presents – based on the modified Trewartha climatic
classification by György Péczely – the characteristics of the different climatic types and their effects on the
construction of building shells. In this table every climate type is described with representative factors e.g.:
67
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
average yearly precipitation sum, precipitation amount in summer and winter, wind (circulation) in summer and
winter, temperature, mean temperature of the warmest and the coldest month. Moreover this table also reveals
the effects of different climate types on the building energetics.
Table 3.1. Table No 3.
clim climate
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type
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ve the
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cipi
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ter
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cula
tion
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mer
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d
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cula
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per
atur
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valu
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n
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per
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mes
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mo
nth
(°C)
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per
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the
cold
est
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nth
(°C)
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per
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nth
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cts
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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ave
rag
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ter
tem
per
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per
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the
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t
mo
nth
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mo
nth
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/
mea
n
tem
per
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the
cold
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mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
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ene
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in
sum
mer
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cts
of
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ate
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ter
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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zon
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yea
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sum
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win
ter
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mea
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the
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mo
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mea
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mo
nth
(°C)
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mea
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per
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mo
nth
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effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
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ene
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in
sum
mer
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cts
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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per
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mo
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effe
cts
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on
buil
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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type
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Paul Fasi
Oliv l
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Enc ghis
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pedi
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Ver
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ctur
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Wor
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Ca
mbr
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Pres
s,
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Mal
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
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ures pict win
g
ures g by
Nor
bert
Sch
oen
auer
:
600
0
Yea
rs of
Hou
sing
,
Garl
and
STP
M
Pres
s,
198
1
90
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Nor
bert
Sch
oen
auer
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Nav Ariz cirlc
ajo ona, le or
hog US ploy
an A gon
(No (dia
rth met
Am er
eric 3-4
a) met
ers);
latti
ce
wor
k
sup
port
ing
stru
ctur
e
with
parti
al or
91
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
http:
//w
ww.
nor
man
kore
n.co
m
Nor
man
Kor
en
http:
//ha
bitat
io.tu
mbl
r.co
m/p
ost/
415
640
382
65/v
-25bed
uinfeke
tesato
rbed
uinterul
etek
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
total
grou
nd
cov
erin
g
92
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
http:
//lin
ks.
man
athemov
ie.c
om/
hog
an.h
tm
93
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Suz
ann
e
Elts
osie
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Asir Asir squa
hou prov re;
se ince thre
e
Sau stor
di ey;
Ara 10bia 12
(Asi met
a) ers
high
buil
ding
with
quar
ryston
e
fund
atio
n,
ston
e
plint
94
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ww Eric http:
w.fl Laff //ha
ickr. orgu bitat
com e io.tu
mbl
r.co
m/p
ost/
514
174
404
28/v
-28aszi
rhazaszi
rterul
etaszi
rtarto
man
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
h,
ado
be
wall
s
95
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
y
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Paul
Oliv
er:
Enc
yclo
pedi
a of
Ver
nac
ular
Arc
hite
ctur
e of
the
Wor
ld,
Ca
mbr
idge
Uni
vers
ity
Pres
s,
199
7
96
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Jon
F.
Lav
elle
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
97
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
4b.)
clim
ates
of
cool
coas
tal
dese
rts
near
cold
ocea
n
curr
ents
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
aver
age
ann
ual
amo
unt
und
er
50
mm,
pred
omi
nant
ly
fro
m
fog
con
dens
atio
n
no typical
seasonal
distributio
n of rain
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
easterly
wind of
the trade
wind zone
avar
age
ann
ual
fluct
uati
on
bet
wee
n510
°C
bet
wee
n 17
23°
C
bet
wee
n 12
16°
C
no
cool
ing
or
shad
ing
dem
and
due
to a
com
fort
able
tem
pera
ture
in
sum
mer
thin,
nonwat
erthi
ght
peri
met
er
stru
ctur
es
due
to a
war
m
wint
er
and
low
amo
unt
of
prec
ipita
tion
all
the
year
uninhabitad
areas ( e.g.:
Atacama
Desert, Namib
Desert ), at
present there
are a few
settlements on
the coast; sings
of previous life
can be found in
the inner areas
(e.g.: Atacama
Desert/ Pukara
de Quitor/ ruins
of a previous
fortress)uninha
bitad areas (
e.g.: Atacama
Desert, Namib
Desert ), at
present there
are a few
settlements on
the coast; sings
of previous life
can be found in
the inner areas
(e.g.: Atacama
Desert/ Pukara
de Quitor/ ruins
of a previous
fortress)
98
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
-
-
-
-
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
B)
5.)
bet
subt subtropica wee
ropi l steppe
n
cal
200
clim
ates
500
mm
sum
mer
mon
ths
with
out
rain
shor
t, 1
or 2
mon
ths
long
wet
peri
od
dry trade n.a. aver bet
wind zone
age wee
or
abo n 6 subtropica
ve 12°
l high
28° C
pressure
C,
zone most
hot
of the
sum
year, west
mer
wind zone
in winter
peri
met
er
stru
ctur
e
with
goo
d
ther
mal
stor
age
capa
city
and
sma
ll
win
dow
s
due
to a
hot
no
heat
ing
dem
and
due
to a
war
mer
wint
er;
stru
ctur
e
with
goo
d
ther
mal
stor
age
capa
city
Tun
isia
n pit
hou
se
99
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Mat
mat
a
regi
on Tun
isia
(Afr
ica)
artif
icial
pit
hou
se
dug
into
the
smo
oth,
sand
ston
e
mou
ntai
ns;
irre
gula
r
circl
e pit
as a
pati
o/ba
ww
w.fl
ickr.
com
Mal
col
m
Bott
http:
//ha
bitat
io.tu
mbl
r.co
m/p
ost/
508
539
619
14/v
-26mud
hifmoc
sariarab
mad
anterul
etek
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
sum
mer
100
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ck
yard
artif
icial
pit
hou
se
dug
into
the
smo
oth,
sand
ston
e
mou
ntai
ns;
irre
gula
r
circl
e pit
as a
pati
Patr
ick
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
o/ba
ck
yard
101
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
__R
ico_
_
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
ww
w.b
uildi
ngre
enfu
ture
s.or
g
102
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Gui
do
Mor
etti
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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cts
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ate
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ene
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win
ter
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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m
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ses
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diff
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with
simi
lar
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538
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ziaigod
orhaz
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
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ter
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cula
tion
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mer
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ter
tem
per
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
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t
mo
nth
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mea
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tem
per
atur
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cold
est
mo
nth
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mea
n
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per
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cold
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nth
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cts
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cts
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din
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win
ter
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
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cula
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ter
tem
per
atur
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mea
n
tem
per
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the
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mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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est
mo
nth
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mea
n
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per
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the
cold
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mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
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ate
on
buil
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g
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Paul
Oliv
er:
Enc
yclo
pedi
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Ver
nac
ular
Arc
hite
ctur
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the
Wor
ld,
Ca
mbr
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Uni
vers
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Pres
s,
199
7
105
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Ant
hon
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Qui
ney
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
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mer
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per
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6.)
med
iterr
anea
n
aver
age
ann
ual
amo
unt
is
bet
wee
n
500
100
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sum
mer
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least
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ths
the
avar
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imu
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least
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ths
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imu
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pres
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zon
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the
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extr
atro
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l
west
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ann abo abo oute no
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mo
nth
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mea
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nth
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cts
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ene
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din
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ene
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in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
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buil
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din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Bee Iraq wall
hive ;
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m
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tern d or
regi dou
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of ado
Tur be
key bric
(Asi ks;
a) dom
es
stan
d on
the
grou
nd
in
Syri
a;
dom
106
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ww publ http:
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kazt ain io.tu
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mbl
kz
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519
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545
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kasalak
uhazterul
etirak
sziri
a
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
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cipi
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ter
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cula
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ter
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per
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mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
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mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
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ene
rgy
in
sum
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cts
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clim
ate
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buil
din
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ene
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in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
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mm mm
es
stan
d on
verti
cal
wall
s in
the
sout
heas
tern
regi
ons
of
Tur
key
107
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ww FO
w.fl Tra
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com
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
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nth
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cts
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cts
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la: la
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200
0
108
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
6b.)
cool
sum
mer
med
iterr
anea
n
clim
ate
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
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cipi
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unt
win
ter
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ter
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nth
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cts
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cts
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clim
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din
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ene
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in
win
ter
aver
age
ann
ual
amo
unt
is
bet
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freq
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fog
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mati
on
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the
rain
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least
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avar
age
prec
ipita
tion
max
imu
m is
abo
ve
60
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er
the
infl
uen
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ropi
cal
high
pres
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zon
e,
cold
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
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pict the dra link
din
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Pall
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109
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Vill
arell
o,
Xan
tes,
Don
is,
Pior
ned
o,M
orei
ra Spai
n
(Eur
ope)
circl
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ellip
tical
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oval
shap
e; 2
met
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http:
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bitat
io.tu
mbl
r.co
m/p
ost/
442
410
666
20/p
aloz
za
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
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mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
mm
thic
k
wall
s;
woo
den
hip
roof
with
stra
w
roof
ing
110
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
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per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
ww n.a.
w.d
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ncre
te.or
g
111
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
7.) humid bet max
subtropica wee imu
l climate n
m
100 prec
0 - ipita
150 tion
0
in
mm sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
mini west wind
mu
zone,
m monsoon
prec effect
ipita
tion
in
wint
er
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
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cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
ann abo abo shad no
ual ve ve ing nee
mea 22° 6°C stuc d of
n
C
ture thic
tem
s or k
pera
narr heat
ture
ow abo
win insu
ve
dow latin
14
s
g
°C
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the er
stro stru
ng ctur
suns e
hine due
, to a
larg war
e mer
amo wint
unt er
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Gas
shostyl
e
min
ka
112
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Shir
aka
wago
and
Gok
aya
ma
villa
ges
cent
ral
regi
on
of
the
isla
nd
of
Hon
shu,
latti
ce
wor
k
sup
port
ing
stru
ctur
e;
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with
60°
pitc
h,
indo
or
area
divi
ded
into
ww
w.c
om
mon
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kim
edia
.org
Ber
nard
Gag
non
http:
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bitat
io.tu
mbl
r.co
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470
464
788
97/
min
ka
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
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cipi
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ter
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d
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cula
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cts
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cts
of
clim
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buil
din
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ene
rgy
in
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ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
of
perc
ipita
tion
will
infl
uen
ce
the
peri
met
er
stru
ctur
e
113
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Japa a
n soil
(Asi pav
a) ed
area
and
a
rais
ed
woo
den
pav
ed
area
-
Bes
seny
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ztin
a
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
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cipi
tati
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amo
unt
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ter
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d
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cts
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clim
ate
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buil
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win
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heat
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dem
and
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cts
of
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
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ter
win
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cula
tion
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mer
win
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ter
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mea
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mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
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cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
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clim
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cts
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din
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ion the of
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buil
pict the dra link
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ures pict win
g
ures g by
win
d or
perc
ipita
tion
127
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
Mo Mo fold
ngol ngol able
ian ia and
Yurt (Asi tran
a); spor
Car tabl
path e
ian stru
Basi ctur
n es;
(Eur wall
ope) s
mad
e
out
of
strut
s
with
felt
cov
erin
g;
dom
128
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ww Carl http:
w.re os //gal
uter Barr eria.
s.co ia inde
m
x.hu
/kul
fold
/201
3/08
/07/
ulan
bato
rt_u
jra_
elle
pik_
a_ju
rtak/
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
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e
shap
ed
roof
stuc
ture;
cirlc
e
shap
ed
stru
ctur
e;
mon
goli
an
yurt
look
s
like
'jurt
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used
by
129
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
e
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e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
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est
mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
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mer
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cts
of
clim
ate
on
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din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
the
Hun
gari
ans
duri
ng
their
sette
lme
nts
time
130
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)sum
mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
)win
ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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pict the dra link
din
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Fels
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a
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on dwe
lling
hou
se
131
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Fels
őTisz
a
regi
on nort
heas
tern
regi
on
of
Hun
gary
(Eur
ope)
latti
ce
wor
k
wall
stuc
ture
with
clay
poa
che
d
wic
ker;
later
fro
m
ado
be
bric
ks
-
Bab
os
Ann
amá
ria
http:
//sk
anze
n.hu
/?fm
=art
icle
&id
=14
6
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
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mes
t
mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
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mea
n
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per
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the
cold
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nth
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cts
of
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of
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e
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
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132
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
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sum
mer
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cipi
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ter
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cula
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ter
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per
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per
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mo
nth
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per
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cts
of
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pict the dra link
din
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133
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
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cula
tion
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mer
win
d
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cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
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valu
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
war
mes
t
mo
nth
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
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cts
of
clim
ate
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din
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ene
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cts
of
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din
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ter
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
134
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
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cula
tion
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ter
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per
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n
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per
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mo
nth
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per
atur
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mo
nth
(°C)
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mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
cold
est
mo
nth
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effe
cts
of
clim
ate
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din
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rgy
in
sum
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of
clim
ate
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din
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in
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e
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pict the dra link
din
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g
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Bala
ton
Upl
ands
dwe
lling
hou
se
135
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Bak
ony
hills
Bala
ton
Upl
ands
,
Hun
gary
(Eur
ope)
dwe
lling
hou
se
with
3 or
mor
e
roo
ms;
smo
ky
kitc
hen;
stac
ked
ston
e
wall
s
fro
m
yell
ow
or
grey
lime
,
dolo
mit,
red
sand
ston
e or
blac
k
basa
lt;
hard
woo
-
Bab
os
Ann
amá
ria
http:
//sk
anze
n.hu
/?fm
=art
icle
&id
=14
9
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
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cula
tion
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mer
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ter
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atur
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mo
nth
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n
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per
atur
e of
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cold
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mo
nth
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mea
n
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per
atur
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cold
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mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
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ate
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din
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ene
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cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
/
o
buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
136
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
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e
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n
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per
atur
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mo
nth
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n
tem
per
atur
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the
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mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
cold
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mo
nth
(°C)
effe
cts
of
clim
ate
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din
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cts
of
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din
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ene
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ter
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mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
137
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
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cula
tion
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ter
tem
per
atur
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valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
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t
mo
nth
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n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
/
mea
n
tem
per
atur
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the
cold
est
mo
nth
(°C)
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cts
of
clim
ate
on
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din
g
ene
rgy
in
sum
mer
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cts
of
clim
ate
on
buil
din
g
ene
rgy
in
win
ter
exa loca desc cod sou pict hab
mpl tion ript e of rce ure itati
e
ion the of
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buil
pict the dra link
din
ures pict win
g
ures g by
138
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
10.)
humid
continenta
l climate
with
shorter
warm
season
and cold
winter
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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mer
win
d
(cir
cula
tion
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ter
bet
wee
n
400
800
mm
sum
mer
prec
ipita
tion
at
max
imu
m
wint
er
prec
ipita
tion
at
mini
mu
m
extratropi
cal west
wind zone
influence
all of the
year,
periodical
easterly
wind zone
effects in
summer
tem
per
atur
e
valu
e
mea
n
tem
per
atur
e of
the
war
mes
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mo
nth
(°C)
mea
n
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per
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nth
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per
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cts
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din
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met
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din
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Sete Aus hou
sdal t- ses
far Agd built
mst er fro
ead cou m
nty coni
- fero
Nor us
way woo
(Eur d
ope) bea
ms;
pre
mis
es:
hall,
cha
mbe
r
and
livin
g
roo
m; a
139
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ww Gre http:
w.fl g //ha
ickr. Eme bitat
com l io.tu
mbl
r.co
m/p
ost/
476
461
839
72/v
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sdal
tany
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sdal
terul
et
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
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cula
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
fire
plac
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the
mid
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the
livin
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m
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Ann
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
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nth
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pict the dra link
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win
d or
prec
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tion
141
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
ww
w.di
gital
tmu
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m.n
o
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sk
Folk
emu
seu
m
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
win
d
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cula
tion
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mer
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d
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cula
tion
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ter
11.)
bet prec prec extratropi
temperate wee ipita ipita cal west
steppe
n tion tion wind zone
climate 200 max mini influence
- imu mu all of the
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year,
mm sum wint sometime
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s
or
monsoon
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nth
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Pata
goni
a
(So
uth
Am
eric
a)
sim
ple
tent
with
a
sma
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indo
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Uni
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Prof
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bitat
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blog
spot
.hu/
201
1/04
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Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
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pict the dra link
din
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g
ures g by
erin
g;
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side
of
the
tent
is
ope
n
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
12.)
temperate
desert
climate
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
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d
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cula
tion
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mer
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d
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cula
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per
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mo
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to
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
wint
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Tur
kme
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hani
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Paki
stan
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popl
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woo
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belt
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404
355
291
47/v
-29turk
men
jurta
turk
men
terul
etek
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
atic
type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
pre
cipi
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on
amo
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ter
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146
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
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yea
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pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
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m)
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tati
on
amo
unt
win
ter
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mer
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ter
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Paul Paul
Oliv Oliv
er: er
Dw
ellin
gs,
Phai
dron
Pres
s
Lim
ited,
200
3
147
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
ave
rag
e
yea
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pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
m)
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13.)
bet
suba maritime wee
rctic subarctic n
clim climate 600
ates
120
0
mm
pre
cipi
tati
on
amo
unt
sum
mer
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tati
on
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unt
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ter
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cula
tion
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ter
homogene
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pola
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e
extr n.a. bet bet occa thic
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Icel
and
e.g.:
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62/v
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pha
zizla
nditerul
et103000
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
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e
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
on
sum
(m
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
cov
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g
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
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e
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rag
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yea
rly
pre
cipi
tati
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Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
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e
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rag
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yea
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151
Created by XMLmind XSL-FO Converter.
Energetics and Climatic Conditions
clim climate
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type
zon
e
14.)
continenta
l subarctic
climate
ave
rag
e
yea
rly
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The aim of the research was to find and study representative buildings from the different climatic areas. The
contents of this chapter can be illustrated best by the examples of vernacular architecture of different climatic
areas, due to the fact that vernacular architecture responds the most conspicuously to the external effects of the
environment. It is interesting to observe how sensitively the vernacular architecture reacts - opposite to the
contemporary mostly non site-specific, fashionist architecture - to the environment of their buildings. Hopefully
this site-specific knowledge of the vernacular architecture, which could intuitively form a local cultural
environment, can be revitalized by the methods of the site-specific planning.
Based on the listed buildings, it can be defined how the different climatic conditions influence the energy use of
the buildings in summer and winter. Moreover the different cultural backgrounds and local building materials
also have an influence on the architectural characteristics of the presented buildings. During the research it has
become clear that in the various climatic areas fundamental differences can be observed in the constructions of
the buildings and the building’s outer shells.
Video 4. - Climatic Conditions
171
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The listed climatic types were correlated to the Hungarian conditions. The climate of Hungary is temperate,
humid continental climate with a longer warm season, compared to the other climatic types medium temperature
values are characteristic without extreme wind or precipitation conditions.
There is at least one example from the local vernacular architecture to every climatic type. When there were
more examples found, buildings built from different building materials can be studied and compared within a
climatic type.
Besides the location a general description of the main structures and building materials can be found in the table
on the example buildings. It can be seen from the table that for example buildings built out of soil in the areas of
the tropic, temperate or tundra climate differ from the adobe and soil structures used in the Hungarian
vernacular architecture.
From the interior temperature values of the presented buildings listed in the last two columns it can be seen that
climatic conditions have a great effect on the users’ demands on the comfort requirements with the interior
spaces. It is astonishing how many people in the other parts of the world live in extreme conditions compared to
the listed characteristic of interior temperature values in Hungary.
The various outer perimeter structures of the listed buildings demonstrate that climatic conditions not only
influence the energies entering the building, they also have a huge impact on the outer shells and other structures
of the buildings. Moreover, climatic conditions have an effect on the inhabitants’ demands on the requirements
about their living environment.
172
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Chapter 4. Energetics and location
The previous chapter showed, to what measure the climatic conditions of specific climates can effect the
energies entering the building and the configuration of the buildings’ outer shells and other structures. This
chapter deals with climate of smaller places within a climate zone. It gives insight into the different
environmental effects on a building within a climate zone, and into what influence these different effects can
have on a building configuration from the viewpoint of building engineering.
Specifically scaled climatic phenomena can be matched to the extents of regions on Earth’s surface. The
measure of extent counts both in the horizontal and in the vertical direction. There is no understanding amongst
specialists in the determination of the spatial limits of climatic phenomena.
The fundament of the study is the classification of Japanese researcher Masatoshi Yoshino, which shows the
different climatic phenomena’s vertical and horizontal dimensions.
This classification can be observed on Illustration 6. - Spatial dimensions of climatic events.
Figure 4.1.
Matching the climatic categories determined by Yoshino with spatial scales was accomplished by Hungarian
professor György Koppány, on Illustration 7. - Spatial scales of clime categories. Within the global climate of
Earth, three main categories exists related to the climatic phenomena’s spatial dimensions: macro-, meso- and
microclimate. This curricula – because of its small extent – does not address the phenomena of microclimate.
Figure 4.2.
173
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Energetics and location
The zonal climate discussed in the previous chapter belongs to the group of macro climates, which is the zonal
order of climatic components. The characteristic of regional climate, which belongs into the class of macro
climate is, that in addition to climate determining factors, it also takes the major separate surface units and the
effects created by them into consideration.
Showed in the 3. chapter, Péczely’s modified Trewartha climate classification regarding the zonal climate of
Hungary determines two climate areas: most of the area of the country is in ’humid continental climate with
longer warm season’ climate area, and only the north-eastern part of the country and the higher mountain areas
with colder winters belong to ’humid continental climate with shorter warm season and cold winter’. György
Péczely has already shown, if we applied the climate classification created for global systematization to the area
of Hungary, it would be unable to reveal those relatively small, and yet well sensible climatic differences, that
exist in the country.
György Péczely set up a new system of viewpoints for the more precise determination of Hungarian areas’
climatic regions. He studied the different areas water- and heat balance, than made up 16 combinations from
their degrees. In Hungary he observed 12 of them, and based on these, he determined Hungary’s climate areas.
Illustration 8. - György Péczely’s clime classification in Hungary. This climatic classification is already more
particular, takes the regional qualities into account, but then it still remains on the level of macroclimate.
Figure 4.3.
Towards even more site specific and precise data, the chapter discusses local- and topoclimate within
mesoclimate. The local climate is a climate that periodically changes compared to its surroundings due to the
effect of cities, lakes and topography. Topoclimate is a climate with even finer structural differences within the
previous climate.
We can define the notion of topoclimate, on the same spatial dimension as meso- and microclimate.
Topoclimatology is a fast developing discipline of climatology. It denotes climate of small areas where climatic
differences can constantly be revealed between these areas and their environment, therefore they have an
individual climate.
174
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Energetics and location
Table 4. - Topoclimates and their Effects shows to what measure the macroclimatic conditions alter in different
locations. The object of the study is the data related to temperature in different topographical situations –
mountain peak, knoll, southern slope, northern slope, built environment, forest, plain area, waterfront and
valley. It’s visible, how the different mesoclimate - influenced outdoor environmental effects can manipulate the
energies entering the building, the building service engineering configuration and the building’s outer shell.
These statements are supported by a Polish research. In a town near Krakow, they measured the different
temperatures in different topographical situations. The data recorded in the research demonstrates by precise
value the differences caused by mesoclimates.
Table 4.1. Table No 4.
local climate
mountain peak,
plateau, hilltop
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Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
181
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Energetics and location
local climate
built enviroment
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
thermal
surplus
compared
to open
spaces,
warmest
areas are
the densly
built city
environm
ents, a
phase
delay can
be
observed
in the
daily
warm up,
compared
to open
spaces:
usually it
is colder
in them
morning
and
warmer in
the
evening,
the
phenome
na occurs
due to the
thermal
inertia
and the
own wind
systems
of the
built
environm
ents
dense
Gurunsi
layout of
earth
buildings; houses
temperatu
re surplus
due to the
change in
the
Earth's
surface,
no need
for thick
outer
perimeter
structures
due to the
higher
temperatu
res, need
for
structures
with good
thermal
storage
capacity,
and outer
shadings,
due to
warm and
solar
radiation
intense
summers
www.flic
kr.com
182
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Rita
http://goo http://habi
Willaert .gl/maps/ tatio.tumb
DZHWN lr.com/po
st/449316
69487/v18gurunsifoldhazak
-gurunsiteruletburkina
Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
www.flic Norbert
kr.com Schoenau
er
forest
a lower
mean
temperatu
re in
forest
areas,
possible
need for
thicker
structures
with good
heat-
Mayan
house
www.flic
kr.com
183
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Dennis
Jarvis
http://goo http://habi
.gl/maps/ tatio.tumb
3P7Cu lr.com/po
st/422076
17442/ma
ja
Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
then in insulating
open
properties
spaces,
due to the
shading
and the
vegetatio
n itself;
temperatu
re
fluctuatio
n is te
greatest
on the
canopy
level
www.flic
kr.com
Plant
Design
Online
travelpict
uresbyjim
oliver.wo
rdpress.co
m
Jim
Oliver
184
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Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
Paul
Oliver:
Encyclop
edia of
Vernacula
r
Architect
ure of the
World
185
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González
Claverán
Cambridg
e
Universit
y Press,
1997
Energetics and location
local climate
plain area
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
effected
by a great
amount of
solar
radiation,
more then
on
southern
slopes,
but less
than on
northern
ones; due
to the
lack of
natural
shadings
high
temperatu
re values
can be
typical,
lower
temperatu
res in
shadow;
temperatu
res can
vary in
areas
cultivated
by man
due to the
changes
in the
structure
of the soil
surface
wall
structures
with no or
little
openings,
outside
shading
structures
, due to
the high
temperatu
res and
the lack
of natural
shadings
Xingu
maloka
ikpeng.or Christian http://goo http://habi
g
Knepper .gl/maps/ tatio.tumb
xIx9l
lr.com/po
st/413552
62711/v08-xingumalokaxinguteruletbrazilia
ikpeng.or
g
186
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Mari
Corrêa
Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
pib.socioa Eduardo
mbiental.
Biral
org
187
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Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
Paul
Oliver:
Encyclop
edia of
Vernacula
r
Architect
ure of the
World
188
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Hamilton
Botelho
Malhano
Cambridg
e
Universit
y Press
Energetics and location
local climate
waterfront
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
the
waterfron
t wind
phenome
na effects
the
temparatu
re, during
daytime it
cools the
air down,
during
nighttime
it heats
the air up
daytime Wewewa
and
house
nighttime
temperatu
res close
to each
other, no
need for
thick
struckture
s with
great
heatinsulating
properties
;
residentia
l spaces
raised
form the
ground
level, due
to the
often
variing
water
levels
Cambridg
e
Universit
y Press,
1995
http://goo http://habi
.gl/maps/ tatio.tumb
yymVN lr.com/po
st/535147
82811/v35wewewahazwewewateruleteknyugatwww.flic
nao
sumba
kr.com nishimiya
189
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Joanna
Mross
Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
www.flic christoph
kr.com e_cerisier
190
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Energetics and location
local climate
valley
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
due to the
vally
wind
phenome
na, cold
air is
getting
into the
valley
during
daytime,
and hot
air during
nighttime;
tipically
more
percipitati
on
steep Manggara
pitched i Mbaru
roofs due Niang
to the
great
amount of
percipitati
on;
durable,
thick,
multilayered
structures
with good
heatinsulating
properties
due to the
high
speeds of
wind, and
cold
temperatu
res
akdn.org Aga Khan http://goo http://habi
Award .gl/maps/ tatio.tumb
for
0EShv lr.com/po
Architect
st/519685
ure 62236/vCourtesy
33of
manggara
Architect
i-mbaruniangteruletwae-rebo
191
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Energetics and location
local climate
environm building examples code of source of picture/d map link habitatio
ental
energy
of
the
the
rawing
link
effects effects of vernacul pictures pictures
by
local
ar
climates architect
ure on
savannah
climate
apakabard
unia.com
Rumah
Asuh /
Yori
Antar
In vernacular architecture the different cultures reacted to the typical environmental effects that surrounded their
houses according to their own limits of technical development. It’s important to note that compared to the
vernacular architecture’s tools, today’s technologies do not limit the site-specific design. The example buildings
in the table draw attention to the architecture references in different mesoclimates within ’savannah’ climate,
which covers great areas on almost every continent on Earth.
In addition to the basic differences showed in the table before, it’s important to mention the situations within the
city. These situations are related to as topoclimates by climatology. A lot of researchers deal with the climate
evolving within cities, where the temperature shows the most visible change compared to its environment,
primarily temperature is growing, which manifests in city heat islands. The Illustration 9. - Schematic
distribution of excessive temperature in town, its cross-sectional view and its horizontal structure in case of ideal
weather conditions upgraded by János Unger shows the heat island effect.
Figure 4.4.
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Energetics and location
In addition to the temperature factors studied in this chapter, from the viewpoint of building service engineering
wind also can be determinative whose drying and cooling effect can cause temperature decrease. The wind can
notonly appear in greatly dimensioned areas, but on quite small areas as well. These are the so called local
winds. The shore wind appears on sea shores and lake shores, alternating direction within a single day. During
daytime the land warms up quickly and intensively, thus it gets hotter than the surface of the lake or the sea.
Therefore the air close to the surface streams from the high pressured water surface to the hotter, low pressured
continent (lake wind, sea wind). Naturally, aloft the the circle closes, thus the air flows from the land towards
the water. At night the situation is inverted, the sea, ocean cools down slower, therefore at night the water
surface stays warmer and the air flows from the cooler continent to the warmer sea and aloft the circle closes
(shore wind, continental wind). This phenomenon can be observed among others at lake Balaton.
On sloping surfaces, an individual wind system, the so called mountain-valley wind comes about. At daytime on
the better warming upper part of the slope the air pressure is low, thus convection evolves, which makes air
motion upwards from the valley (valley wind). At night on the upper convex part of the slope, due to the high
surface radiation, the air cools quicker. The cold air starts to flow down aside the slope towards the valley
(mountain wind). In the valley a „cold air lake” can appear at this time.
Figure 4.5.
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Energetics and location
Along with the natural makings that determine topoclimate, the intervention of humans can also considerably
effect the climatic conditions of a location. Heat islands typically appear in manmade cities. The lowering of this
extra temperature coming with this phenomenon could be the task of urban designers. In case of Barcelona,
during the design of the street network, the dominance of the cooling effect of the sea wind was an important
feature to keep. In Barcelona urban designers wanted to moderate the expected extreme environmental effects
by the use of the observed natural phenomena. Energy consumption of the cities can be made more efficient by
measuring and using – on the contrary of today’s habit of ignoring or generalizing – site-specific data.
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Chapter 5. The DROID and its history
Recognizing the significance of the presented and studied facts in the various chapters of the curriculum, the
geometrical shape of a building and the building-energetical effects of the local environment, a patented
interdisciplinary invention, a newly designed measuring equipment and software system came to life at the
Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
The system called DROID creates site and building geometry-specific data measured individually on the
construction site and organizes them into a database. Information gathered from the database the individual
building energetic conditions can be used already in the early phases of design. The result: significant energyand cost-savings, plus the local architectural character reappears!
Video 6. – The Droid
1. 5.1. The invented measuring system and its three
components:
Figure 5.1.
1.1. 5.1.1. The measuring device:
designed and built by the research team for measuring and processing building energetically significant
environmental conditions on surfaces angeled typical of our buildings. For designing the shape of the measuring
device the Department of Residential Building Design announced an ideas competition for students of
architecture. The winning group of students became part of the designing team.
1.2. 5.1.2. The evaluating algorithm:
The research team cooperating with building energy and meterology-measuring technology experts created and
is still refining the connection of the data provided by the measuring system with the building energetic
calculations to prepare a possible modification of the standards for future building energetic calculations. More
precise data results in more precise dimensioning, which could lead to an approximate 20% energy-saving according to the prior calculations.
1.3. 5.1.3. The visualization software:
developed by the research team, it performs simulations with data received from the measuring system and the
model of the building’s concept made by the architect. This 3D software presents the future energetic behavior
of the new building. So the architect can design energetically sensitive buildings even in the early concept
making phases: economically optimal buildings come to life while adapting energetically and culturally to the
local specificities.
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Chapter 6. About the project
The first four chapters demonstrated that the inhabitants’ demands and the environmental effects impacting the
building are significantly differing in time and space. In the following, a system of criteria will be presented for
a building’s study, to be used in the future. We hope that based on this system of criteria, the present
dimensioning - based on generalized data - and the result of a complex site-specific dimensioning methodology
will be easy to compare. Besides general data the dimensioning also takes the specific characteristics of the site
into consideration, thus approaching from the a bigger total to a smaller detail.
Video 5. - Location of the Example Building
1. Test Exercise
Make an analysis of an existing building in respect of site-specific planning!
Method of analysis / solution of the excercise:
The first step of the analysis is the evaluation of the data on the building in respect of the community of
inhabitants and their demands regarding comfort levels. After this the energy dimensioning of the building is
done according to the existing regulation, using the general data of the building and projected average
meteorological data from over the country. Energy dimensioning used in this first step is not site-specific, as it is
based only on average rough geometrical resolution weather data. As a result of the previous thoughts, this
dimensioning can be applied only after the building is architecturally designed, it does not give any prior
suggestion about the geometry and lay out of the building.
The second phase of the dimensioning methodology applicable in the future – which shows the study of the
building site – contains data about the local climate, orography and all kinds of data which could effect the more
optimal lay-out, geometry and structural design of the building, the energetic map of the site is created.
Students have to create a data sheet from a selected dwelling-house, considering the presented complex
dimensioning methodology as scheme.
Task sheet 1. – Scheme of the task
The whole curriculum –including the data sheet – wants to draw attention to the lacks and mistakes of the
existing dimensioning system, or rather to the importance and possibilities of the site-specific building design.
The forming of the the site-specific approach and the reform of the building energy dimensioning methodology
is a long process, the current status of this process is summarized in this curriculum. The DROID measuring
system, the evaluation algorithm and the visualization software – keeping up with technology and changing
needs - are under constant development and refinement. As a result, this curriculum is an always changing and
expanding collection of information following the constant developments.
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Chapter 7. Bibliography and
Recommended Literature:
• Bánhidi László – Kajtár László (2000): Komfortelmélet, Budapest: Műegyetemi Kiadó
• Debreceni
Egyetem,
Meteorológiai
Tanszék,
meteor.geo.klte.hu/old/oktatas/kornyklim/terepklima01mm.rtf
kiadott
előadásanyag:
• Debreceni
Egyetem,
Meteorológiai
Tanszék,
http://meteor.geo.klte.hu/meteorologia/index/hu/doc/terepklima01.pdf
kiadott
előadásanyag:
• Glenn Thomas Trewartha (1968): An Introduction to Climate, New York: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company
• Joanna Kopcińska, Barbara Skowera, Jakub Wojkowski (2011): The impact of relief and land use on the
diversity oflocal climate. http://www.cbks.cz/SbornikSMlyn11/Skowera.pdf
• Masatoshi Yoshino (1975) Climate in a Small Area: An Introduction to Local Meteorology, Columbia
University Press
• Unger
János
(2010):
A
városi
d.mtak.hu/274/4/UngerJanos_5_Mu.pdf
hősziget
jelenség
néhány
aspektusa.
http://real-
• Péczely György (1979): Éghajlattan, Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó
• Péczely György (1984): A Föld éghajlata, Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó
• Rados Jenő (1961): Magyar építészettörténet, Budapest: Műszaki Könyvkiadó
• Dora Wiebenson and József Sisa (2002): The Architecture of Historic Hungary, MIT / Massachussets
Institute of Technology
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Chapter 8. Appendix
• Table 1. - The needs on accommodations [1]
• Table 2. - Change of the Air Conditions in Historical Living Spaces [25]
• Table 3. - Climatic Conditions and their Effects [68]
• Table 4. - Topoclimates and their Effects [175]
• Video 1.- The Research
• Video 2. - Contemporary Comfort
• Video 3. - History of Comfort
• Video 4. - Climatic Conditions
• Video 5. - Location of the Example Building
• Video 6. – The Droid
• Illustration 1. - Predicted Mean Vote graph
• Illustration 2. - Permissible airflow speed values based on environmental temperature
• Illustration 3. - Sources of the interior air quality contaminations
• Illustration 4. - „Sick Building Syndrome” distribution of complains by typical illnesses
• Illustration 5. – Interactive map of the György Péczely modified Trewartha climatic classification
• Illustration 6. - Spatial dimensions of climatic events
• Illustration 7. - Spatial scales of clime categories
• Illustration 8. - György Péczely’s clime classification in Hungary
• Illustration 9. - Schematic distribution of excessive temperature in town, its cross-sectional view and its
horizontal structure in case of ideal weather conditions
• Illustration 10. - Shore and mountain-valley winds
• Illustration 11. – The DROID - Infographics on the operation of the invention
• Task sheet 1. – Scheme of the task
• Audio No. 1. - Introduction [vi]
• Audio No. 2. - Energetics and function [1]
• Audio No. 3. - Historical review of air conditions of living spaces [25]
• Audio No. 4. - Energetics and climatic conditions [66]
• Audio No. 5. - Energetics and location [173]
• Audio No. 6. - The DROID and its history [195]
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Chapter 9. Test Questions on the
curricula
9.1. Chapter 1.:
Define comfort!
Write down the current temerature in your room at home!
What is the main medical complaint referring on the Sick Building Syndrome?
9.2. Chapter 2.:
Select an architectural subperiod, and write down the typical heating methods of the example building!
Select 2 architectural subperiods, and compare the comfort demands of the periods!
How did people adapt to the unfavorable indoor temperature values in the past?
9.3. Chapter 3.:
What are the factors effecting climate?
Name the main climatic zones!
What effects do climatic conditions have on buildings and their inhabitants?
9.4. Chapter 4.:
Write down the three spatial dimensions of the climatic events!
What is the definition of topoclimatology?
How does wind effect the incoming building energies?
9.5. Chapter 5.:
What is the DROID?
What is the aim of the DROID measuring system?
What are the parts of the DROID?
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