///// July 24, 2013 02.10 Module Project "In what ways did religion and economics influence the development of medieval Europe and Japan?" 1. Document Questions and Analysis) Document A: Magna Carta 1. How did religion influence the Magna Carta? Religion influenced the Magna Carta by means of the church. The church had ultimate power and whatever the church said was applied. The purpose of the Magna Carta was to give everyone equal rights. When the document was signed by King John, everyone could practice any religion they wanted and not what King John wanted them to practice. 2. How did the Magna Carta limit the power of King John? The Magna Carta limited the power of King John by no longer making him the peoples’ dictator and allowing everyone to practice any religion they wanted and not what King John insisted. The people wanted to limit King John’s power over them. 3. How did the Magna Carta lay the foundation for democracy? The Magna Carta laid the foundation for democracy by limiting the power of the Monarch. The Magna Cart also is known for the establishment of a council. Document D: Trade Routes during the Late Middle Ages, Map 1. How do you think Pope Urban II and the Crusades influenced the trade routes shown on this map? The Crusades opened the pilgrimage routes, increasing trade and the use of coin currency and, brought more power to the church. 2. Which cities shown on the map do you think were most affected by ideas from foreign lands? Which cities were least affected by ideas from foreign lands? Cities near the oceans were more affected by ideas from foreign lands. This is because sailors were common foreign influences. The cities in the middle were least affected. 3. What cities seemed to benefit the most from trade routes by sea? Explain. The coastal cities (and more of the bottom section of the map) seemed to benefit the most from trade routes by sea because most trade occurred near coastal areas and ocean trade routes were more used and they were the ones who made a large profit. Document E: Feudalism in Europe 1. Do you think the social standing of merchants during the Middle Ages helped or hurt the economy? Explain. The social standing of merchants during the Middle Ages helped the economy to flourish because the merchants’ had a main role in the supply and demand market and this attracted people to buy their goods. 2. Do you think church officials had a large amount of influence in the feudal system? Explain. Yes, church officials did have a big amount of influence in the feudal system because the church was extremely wealthy and had no separation from politics and, the pope had more power than king. The church did not have to pay taxes and received ten percent of Christians’ annual income. 3. In the feudal system, do you think knights ever felt conflicting loyalties? Explain. Yes, knights in the feudal system felt may have felt conflicting loyalties with the king because they may have felt that they were not good enough for the king. Document H: Excerpt for Secondary Source and Topographical Map of Japan 1. Based on this excerpt, do you think trade was instrumental in the spread of Buddhism to Japan? Explain. No, I believe that Europeans compelled them or convinced them to trade. 2. Summarize the trade relations described in this excerpt. Do you think the geographic locations of Japan, China, and Korea contributed to this trade? Explain. The geographic locations of Japan, China, and Korea did indeed, positively affect trade but, if they weren’t in good geographic locations, they could find other sources of trade. 3. Based on the geography of Japan, do you think trade from one area of Japan to another could be difficult? Explain. Yes, because Japan is separated over a large amount of land and, restrictions in some areas can hinder trade from one area of Japan to another. "In what ways did religion and economics influence the development of medieval Europe and Japan?" Religion and economics have affected the progress of Medieval Europe and Japan in various positive ways. Religion and economics have had a huge influence of the development of medieval Europe through Christianity and the feudal system and, Shintoism and Buddhism and a similar structure to the feudal system influenced the development of medieval Japan. The exchange of goods and services and the economic structure of both empires came to be the main portions of their success and development and became extremely vital in both Medieval Europe and Japan. In medieval Europe, religion and economics were especially in connection with each other. Religion was the main cause of war during this time, including the Crusades, which was started by Pope Urban the Second. These wars were primarily over Jerusalem, the Holy Land, and lasted over 200 years. They brought more power to the church and opened the pilgrimage routes, increasing trade and the use of coin currency. This led to the urbanization of medieval Europe, which drastically changed the economy and would eventually lead to five centuries of Europe’s economic and cultural dominance. Before these wars and military expeditions, the church was extremely wealthy and had no separation from politics and, the pope had more power than king. The church did not have to pay taxes and received ten percent of Christians’ annual income from both the upper and lower class. At the time there was no middle class. The peasants and serfs would live on the nobles land grow crops and goods for them, and there was basically no way for a person in the lower class to move up in the social hierarchy. With the increase of trade however, merchants and guilds started becoming more popular. Guild towns, taverns, and city markets were created. The idea of banks and loans were formed with the new coin currency, and the barter system was soon abandoned. All of these things contributed to a new hierarchy and the development of the middle class, which created new opportunities and advancements. This shaped modern Europe and paved the way for the commercial and industrial revolution. On another note, religion did not have as much of an impact on daily life and the overall development of Japan as it did in Europe. For example most of the wars were fought for wealth or power, not religion, but it did influence certain aspects of religion. The people in Japan clung to their original Shinto religion when Buddhism was forced on them, but later they discovered Zen Buddhism, a practice that was more focused on a personal experience and enlightenment. This new kind of religion created an overall concentrated awareness in Japan, but also influenced culture and the arts, such as Noh Theater, which was known for its precise and restricted movements. After the Mongol invasions, Japan began to reject anything Chinese, which was odd because of how big an influence China had on Japan. This strong influence must have built up frustration among the Japanese. After this, Japan isolated itself, but during the second half of the Ashikaga period, Japan flourished. There was an increase of production of goods and trade with China. The Japanese learned to make European style muskets when a Portuguese ship arrived at one of their ports and this transformed Japanese warfare. Many people converted to Christianity to increase trade, but this was soon suppressed, and again Japan went into isolationism that lasted 200 years. There was however, limited external trade and the arts once again flourished. The government of Japan then became interested in land reclamation projects, and would limit taxes of people who supported it. This ended up creating semi-independent states, which led to the development of feudalism in Japan. Religion and Economics both make up a huge portion in the development of Medieval Europe and Japan. These two things considerably affected the development of Europe and Japan because faith, religion, and tradition was extremely vital to both locations, and trade and economy was a huge portion of success. Faith, belief, and religion was the main cause of conflict across this period of time, encompassing the Crusades, a series of wars that was commenced by Pope Urban the second and involved other important leaders such as Louis IX of France. Before these fights, the church was tremendously affluent and had no separation from politics. In addition, the pope had extra manipulation and power than the king. Religion didn't have as far of a result on daily existence and general progress of Japan as it did for Europe. Later the Japanese discovered Zen, which was an exercise that was especially concentrated on a confidential experience for enlightenment. Additionally, the Japanese learned to make European style muskets after a Portuguese boat appeared at one of their ports which transformed Japanese warfare. Countless people modified their beliefs to Christianity and there was an increase in trade. The Japanese government soon then came to be interested in land. The development of Medieval Europe Feudalism also became present during this time. In the European feudal system, kings had the highest spot in society. With European feudalism, knights and vassals were conceded land from their noble and they would reciprocate by pledging to assist and protect him. Furthermore, this method created the vassal and noble partnership and connection. This relationship could be comparable to the relationship of the shogun and daimyo. In conclusion, there are countless contrasts and similarities amid the progress, success, and development of Medieval Europe and Japan. Faith and Economy, both important to both empires, would be considered the final line and affected the sophistication, combat, and outcome of Medieval Europe and Japan. This has helped the transformation of Medieval Europe and Japan to the modern day Europe and Japan that we understand today.