Two files are available: 1) R code to run simulation: 2) R workspace containing individual level and population level wolf data from Yellowstone, and results from simulation models: The R code runs the IPM and returns data a baseline simulation and simulations where intercept means are perturbed. The R workspace contains simulation results and wolf data in the following objects A list of simulation results where means of intercept distributions are perturbed (perturb.mean), a list of simulation results where variances of intercept distributions are perturbed (perturb.var), a dataframe of individual-level wolf data (wolf.lifehistory.data) and a dataframe of population level wolf data (wolf.population.data). The structure of perturb.mean and perturb.var lists: perturb.mean[[1]] – results from baseline model perturb.mean[[2]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[3]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[4]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.mean[[5]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[6]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[7]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.mean[[8]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[9]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[10]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.mean[[11]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[12]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[13]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.mean[[14]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[15]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[16]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.mean[[17]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.mean[[18]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.mean[[19]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.var[[1]] – results from baseline model perturb.var [[2]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.var[[3]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 10% perturb.var[[4]] – results from simulation where survival intercept distribution mean increased by 20% perturb.var[[5]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution mean increased by 5% perturb.var[[6]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution variance increased by 10% perturb.var[[7]] – results from simulation where fertility intercept distribution variance increased by 20% perturb.var[[8]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution variance increased by 5% perturb.var[[9]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution variance increased by 10% perturb.var[[10]] – results from simulation where offspring number intercept distribution variance increased by 20% perturb.var[[11]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 5% perturb.var[[12]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 10% perturb.var[[13]] – results from simulation where growth < 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 20% perturb.var[[14]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 5% perturb.var[[15]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 10% perturb.var[[16]] – results from simulation where growth > 41.7kg intercept distribution variance increased by 20% perturb.var[[17]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution variance increased by 5% perturb.var[[18]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution variance increased by 10% perturb.var[[19]] – results from simulation where inheritance intercept distribution variance increased by 20% Simulated time series of cohort level population biology parameters perturb.mean[[x]][[1]][1:4,1,] – time series of mean LRS for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[1]][1:4,2,] – time series of variance in LRS for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[1]][1:4,3,] – time series of generation length for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[1]][1:4,4,] – time series of variance in generation length for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[1]][1:4,5,] – time series of heritability of body weight for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[1]][1:4,6,] – time series of additive genetic variance for body weight for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. Simulated time series of per year population biology parameters perturb.mean[[x]][[2]][1,1,] – time series of population size …[[x]][[2]]2:4,1,] – time series of genotype frequencies for 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[2]][1:4,2,] – time series of mean survival rates for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[2]][1:4,3,] – time series of mean reproductive success rates for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[2]][1:4,4,] – time series of mean body weight for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[2]][1:4,5,] – time series of variance in body weight for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. Simulated time series of terms in the age-structured Price equation …[[x]][[3]]1,1:4,] – time series of viability selection differentials for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[3]]2,1:4,] – time series of fertility selection differentials for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[3]]3,1:4,] – time series of growth contributions to delta z bar for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[3]]4,1:4,] – time series of offspring-mother difference contributions selection differentials for 1) all individuals, 2) AA genotypes, 3) AB genotypes and 4) BB genotypes. …[[x]][[3]]5:8,1:4,] – Price equation terms for delta sigma2 z (not reported in paper). Structure of dataframes containing wolf data wolf.lifehistory.data - Individual level wolf data. Dataframe: each row is a wolf identity, columns for id, year, age, sex, body weight, genotype. wolf.population.data – population level wolf data. Dataframe: each row is a year, columns are year, survival rate, reproductive success data, population size, mean body weight, number of AA genotypes, number of AB genotypes, number of BB genotypes.

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