Mr. Mendoza APWH Name: ________________________________________ Date: _________________ Prd: __________________ Test: Ch. 15 & 17 The Maritime Revolution & The American Colonial System F. Facts (2 pts.) 1. ____________________________________ Ships used by the Spanish & Portuguese in the exploration of the Atlantic 2. ____________________________________ Military religious order that promoted Christianity in all the Americas 3. ____________________________________ Term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World 4. ____________________________________ Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers in colonial Spanish America 5. ____________________________________ A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies; provided cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians 6. ____________________________________ Institution responsible for supervising Spain’s colonies in the Americas from 1524-18th century 7. ____________________________________ Term used to describe someone of mixed Amerindian & European descent 8. ____________________________________ Term used to describe someone of mixed African & European descent 9. ____________________________________ Exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas & the rest of the world following Columbus’ voyages 10. ___________________________________ A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from 4-7 years. 11. ___________________________________ Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in order to seek religious freedom 12. ___________________________________ English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. Multiple Choice (2 pts.) 13. _________ Which European country first began a sustained campaign of exploration? A. France B. Portugal C. England D. Spain 14. __________ Vasco da Gama A. Discovered Brazil B. Developed the square-rigged sea ships C. Rounded the Cape of Good Hope & eventually sailed to India D. Invented the astrolabe 15. __________ Which region is INCORRECTLlY paired with a primary trade good? A. Silver & Peru B. Fur & Canada C. Sugar & Brazil D. Spices & Japan 16. _________ The Treaty of Tordesillas A. Is an example of the diplomatic tactics Europeans used in negotiating with Amerindians B. Brought about a peaceful conclusion to the Spanish takeover of the Inca C. Provided ground rules for the slave trade between Africa & the Americas D. Established territorial borders for Spanish and Portuguese colonization of the Americas 17. ____________ Social structure in Latin America A. Was based on the social structure of the Amerindians, with the Europeans simply imposing themselves at the top B. Quickly obliterated all aspects of native culture C. Enforced rigid taboos against cultural blending D. Evolved into a complex, yet hierarchical, mixture of European, Amerindian, and African cultures 18. ___________ What is a key difference between the British and French colonial settlements in the W. Indies and those of the Spanish & Portuguese elsewhere in the Americas A. Spanish & Portuguese settlements developed a more complex social structure than that of the British & French settlements in the W. Indies B. British & French settlements relied far more on government involvement in the economy C. The Spanish & Portuguese settlements depended on slave labor, while those of Britain and France allowed only indentured servitude D. Spanish & Portuguese settlements caused much more physical damage than the environmentally friendly sugar plantations of the Caribbean 19. ___________ The Columbian Exchange I. Brought epidemics to the Americas II. Brought new plants & animals to the Americas III. Brought new plants & animals to AfroEurasia A. B. C. D. One of the above All of the above I & II only II & III only 20. ___________ How did the Columbian Exchange affect Africa during this period? A. New World crops such as maize, potatoes, and cassava brought a new source of food to famine-stricken areas of Africa B. The demographics of Africa included significant numbers of Europeans and Americans by the end of the period C. Large numbers of Africans succumbed to New World diseases to which they had never before been exposed D. Livestock from the Americas such as cattle and horses transformed African pastoral practices 21. ____________ The encomienda system instituted by the Spanish in their Latin American holdings was most like earlier serfdom in that A. Both systems compelled laborers to work for the landowners, but also, in theory, they required the landowner to provide for their health and safety needs B. Both systems used Christianity as a justification to force participants to convert to the Catholic or Protestant faiths C. Both systems allowed laborers to retain their own small plots of land and then share the bounty of that land with the landowner D. Both systems required men to serve as militia in service to the landowner, if other landowners attacked him 22. ____________ Chinese sea trade reached its peak during the A. B. C. D. Yuan Dynasty Song Dynasty Ming Dynasty Silla Dynasty 23. ____________ Using the image to the left, Chinese ships reached as far as Africa under the command of: A. B. C. D. Wu Di Zheng He Pa Chen Huang Dao Po 24. _____________ Portuguese & Spanish success in exploring the Atlantic Ocean in the New World 28. ____________ In Mexico, the most devastating effect of the Columbian Exchange was A. The increase in famine & water shortages B. Smallpox, which may have killed off 50% or more of the Amerindian population in Mexico & Central America C. The influx (rise/or increase) of European coins into the economy of the region D. The introduction of African slavery A. Led to immediate and prolonged warfare among the European nations B. Made Portugal & Spain the wealthiest nations in Europe in the 1500’s C. Encouraged the Italian states to begin to explore the Atlantic Ocean D. Encouraged the Muslim states to begin to explore the Atlantic Ocean 25. ____________ In an effort to head off conflict, the pope divided the world between Spain & Portugal in A. B. C. D. 29. _____________ In the Spanish colonies, the colonizers adopted A. The native language of the Amerindians as the official language B. Forced labor of the Amerindians C. The Amerindian custom of mixed-race marriages, which created a mestizo society D. Laws and trade devised by the Amerindians The Great Schism A papal bull (Declaration/Law of the pope) The Treaty of Tordesillas A treatise of nonintervention 26. ____________ Despite the fact that disease greatly helped Cortes in conquering the Aztecs A. The Aztecs nearly defeated him in battle B. He also had reinforcements from other Amerindians hostile to the Aztecs C. He never fought the Aztecs without having overwhelming numbers on his side D. He used siege warfare and starved the Aztecs into surrender 27. ____________ In the Indian Ocean during the 1500’s, Portugal was able to control A. B. C. D. The spice trade All of southern Africa All trade with India All Indian Ocean trade 30. ____________ Unlike the Portuguese & Spanish settlements, the English settlements in N. America A. Encouraged the use of indentured servants as their initial forced labor system B. Brought slaves from Africa but did not use them in their colonies C. Encouraged all settlers to enslave Amerindians as a labor force D. Never adopted a forced labor system 31. ____________The most influential defender of the Amerindians in the Spanish colonies was A. B. C. D. The Council of the Indies Bartolome de las Casas Vasco Nunez de Balboa Hernan Cortez 32. ____________ Unlike in the Spanish & Portuguese colonies, in the English colonies 33. ____________ Unlike the English colonies, the French colonies in the Americas A. Women had political and civil rights B. Taxation was local, and no taxes were assessed on exports C. Trade with the Amerindians was not lucrative D. Merchants survived by discovering smaller but more sustainable profits in diversified trade across the Atlantic A. Resembled the settlement patterns of the Spanish & Portuguese colonies B. Existed without much direct aid from the French government C. Avoided the use of slavery, which they viewed as a sin D. Were limited to coastal settlements for fishing and hunting Matching (2 pts.) 34. _________ Antonio de Mendoza A. Conquered the Inca in 1533 35. _________ William Penn B. Conquered the Aztecs in 1521 36. _________ Tupac Amaru II C. Chinese muslim eunuch; Sea commander of Chinese navy 37. _________ Hernan Cortes D. Assisted Cortes in the conquest of the Aztecs 38. _________ Francisco Pizarro E. Founder of N. American colony of New France at Quebec 39. _________ Ferdinand Magellan F. Explorer; 1st to circumnavigate the world/globe 40. _________ Zheng He G. Led an Amerindian rebellion vs. the Spanish 41. _________ Henry the Navigator H. Established a Viking settlement in Newfoundland 42. _________ Leif Ericsson I. African king who dealt with Portuguese; Christianized 43. _________ King Afonso I J. Promoted the study of navigation & directed voyages for Portugal 44. _________ Bartolomeo Dias K. King of the Aztec Empire at its fall 45. _________ Moctezuma L. 1st viceroy of Mexico 46. _________ La Malinche M. Established the N. American colony of Pennsylvania 47. _________ Vasco da Gama N. 1st explorer from Europe to sail to India 48. _________ Samuel de Champlain O. 1st explorer to sail around the southern tip of Africa Short Answer (2 pts.) Questions 49-50 NO PARTIAL CREDIT 49. Using the space below, re-create the hierarchy model of the Spanish Colonial system/society. LOOK IN YOUR NOTES!!!! 50. Using the space below, re-create the “Cycle of Conquest & Colonization.” LOOK IN YOUR NOTES!!!!