CGC1D0 UNIT 2 GEOLOGY – THE ROCK CYCLE – ONLINE LAB INSTRUCTIONS: Use the following website to investigate the different types of rocks and how they change in the rock cycle. http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/index.html 1. 2. 3. Complete the worksheet by going through the website. You will need to read through the different sections and to fill in the blanks. Look for this icon to complete activities using what you learn. When all sections are complete – do the “Test Your Skills” section. Print your results, attach to this handout, and hand it in. CHAPTER #1 - Read through the lesson on “Types of Rocks” and fill in the blanks. Types of Rocks Rocks are not all the same! The three main types, or classes, of rock are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous and the differences among them have to do with how they are formed. Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are formed from particles of ________, __________, ______________ and other fragments of material. Together, all these particles are called ____________________. Gradually, the sediment _________________________________ and over a long period of time hardens into rock. CHARACTERISTICS: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Examples of this rock type include __________________ and ___________________ Metamorphic Metamorphic rocks are formed ______________________ of the earth from the metamorphosis (change) that occurs due to intense heat and pressure (squeezing). CHARACTERISTICS: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Examples of this rock type include ____________________ and _________________ Igneous Igneous rocks are formed when magma (molten rock deep within the earth) __________________________. CGC1D0 UNIT 2 Sometimes the magma cools slowly _____________ the earth, and other times it erupts onto the surface from volcanoes (in this case, it is called lava) and cools very quickly. CHARACTERISTICS: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Examples of this rock type include ____________________ and __________________. READ THE DESCRIPTIONS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS & THE PICTURES AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE. PROCEED TO ‘Start Your Rock Collection” – Click on the different rocks in the picture and read the descriptions and fill in the chart below. ROCK COLLECTION CHART – fill in the missing information Characteristics MARBLE Crystals, white Formed from Limestone Gneiss Basalt Obsidian Conglomerate Sediment Process Heat & pressure Location Lava cools really quick Ocean floor River or beach Once you have your rock collection & the chart is complete - Proceed to activity Identify Rock Types See if you can recognize rock characteristics and types. What was your score? ______ / 10 CHAPTER #2 – Read through the lesson on “How Rocks Change” and fill in the blanks below. Click on the animations. How Rocks Change Introduction All rocks, in fact, change slowly from one type to another, again and again. The changes form a cycle, called _________________________________ The way rocks change depends on various processes that are always taking place __________________ the earth's surface. Heat & Pressure Between ______________________ km below the earth's surface, temperatures are hot enough to _____________________. CGC1D0 UNIT 2 However, before the melting point is reached, a rock can undergo fundamental changes while in a solid state — ______________________from one type to another without melting. An additional factor that can transform rocks is the pressure caused by tons of other rocks __________________ on it from above This kind of change, which results from both rising temperature and pressure, is called__________________, and the resulting rock is a ________________________rock. Melting It takes temperatures between _____________________ degrees Celsius to melt a rock, turning it into a substance called _______________________. Cooling Any rock that forms from the cooling of magma is _____________________. When magma rises from deep within the earth and explodes out of a volcano, it is called _______, and it cools _____________ ON the surface. Rock formed in this way is called __________________ igneous rock. Magma that cools slowly beneath the surface is called ______________ igneous rock. Weathering & Erosion All objects on the earth's surface are exposed to __________________________________________________ Over time, these factors wear objects down and break them apart. The resulting bits and pieces of material are called sediment. Sediment is then __________________ by wind and water, often ending up far from where it started. These processes of breakdown and transport due to exposure to the environment are called ________________________________________________ and affect all rocks on the earth's surface. Compacting & Cementing Over time, sediment accumulates in ___________________________________, eventually building up in ___________ and weighing down the material underneath. This weight presses the sediment particles together, __________________ them. Water passing through the spaces in between the particles helps to _______________ them together even more. CGC1D0 UNIT 2 This process of compacting and cementing sediment forms __________________________. Transform the Rock See if you can identify the processes that can change rocks from type to another. What was your score = ______ / 18 CHAPTER #3 – Read through the lesson on “The Rock Cycle” and fill in the blanks below. The Rock Cycle Diagram The concept of the rock cycle is attributed to _____________________________ (1726—1797), the 18th-century founder of modern geology. The main idea is that rocks are __________________________________ from one type to another and back again, as forces inside the earth bring them closer to the surface (where they are weathered, eroded, and compacted) and forces on the earth sink them back down (where they are heated, pressed, and melted) So the elements that make up rocks are never created or destroyed — instead, they are constantly being ____________________. Explore the diagram by rolling your mouse over the names of the rock types and clicking on the images to view animations of the different processes. Study the diagram. Write the definitions for the following words using the diagram. SEDIMENT – _______________________________________________________________________________________ SEDIMENTARY ROCK – ______________________________________________________________________________ IGNEOUS ROCK - ___________________________________________________________________________________ METAMORPHIC ROCK – ______________________________________________________________________________ MAGMA – __________________________________________________________________________________________ Complete the Cycle See if you can name the different parts of the rock cycle. What was your score? _________ / 10 FINAL CHAPTER – TEST YOUR SKILLS!! 1. 2. 3. 4. Click on the Test Your Skills button Enter your full name. Complete the quiz using your new knowledge. When you are finished the quiz PRINT your results – attach your printout to this handout and submit it to the teacher.