Study design and PM monitoring
Summary: Ambient particulate matter
and lead levels as well as SO2, NO2, O3 and
CO measured between 1998 and 2007 at
numerous Greater Cairo locations in the
context of two monitoring networks
established by the Egyptian
environmental affairs agency (EEAA) with
American and Danish support: (1) The
USAID - funded Cairo air improvement
project (CAIP) that monitors PM and lead
levels and (2) the Egyptian information
and monitoring program (EIMP) funded by
DANIDA monitors the rest of the
PM Analytical methods: Gravimetric
(MiniVol 4.2 AIRmetrics samplers and one
EPA-certified PM10 BGI air sampler for
quality control)
Pollutants measured,
period and location
PM10 and PM2.5, Pb,
SO2, NO2, CO, and O
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Period: October 1998–
December 2007
Other Findings
- Annual average
concentrations of PM10
between 1998 and 2007
varied from approximately
150 to 200 µg/m3 (data
presented on chart only);
declined over time
- Consistently high background PM
levels with substantial spatial and
temporal variations
- Ambient air quality limit of 70 µg/m3
for PM10 may not be a feasible target
- Average PM2.5/PM10 ratio of 0.51;
average Pb2.5/Pb10 ratio of 0.77
- High lead pollution in two industrial
areas in the beginning of the monitoring
activities decreased dramatically as a
result of closing down lead smelters;
decrease attributed to EEAA initiatives
supported with USAID funding
Zakey et al.
Summary: 2 years of PM2.5 and PM10 and
Pb monitoring at industrial, urban
residential and background sites in the
Greater Cairo area to determine seasonal
and spatial variation.
PM Analytical methods: Gravimetric
(AIRmetrics samplers)
PM10 and PM2.5, Pb
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Period: 24 months,
January 2001December 2002
-PM10 (yearly average)
170±25 µg/m3
-PM2.5 (yearly average)
85±12 µg/m3
-Pb10 and Pb2.5 (monthly
average) between 0.4 and
1.8 µg/m3 at non-industrial
sites and up to 16 µg/m3 at
industrial sites.
- PM2.5 /PM10 ratio between 0.3 and 0.7
with a mean of 0.5
- High Pb concentrations due to
industrial activities
- PM levels lower during the summer
compared to winter season at
industrial, urban residential and
background sites due to better
dispersion and absence of dust episodes
and waste burning activities
- Daily PM air quality limit values
exceeded consistently on multiple
Abu-Allaban et
al. 2007
Summary: Source attribution study using
the chemical mass balance (CMB)
Pollutants: PM10,
PM2.5 , polycyclic
-PM means across all sites
not reported
- PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations
were highest in the fall of 1999
Safar and Labib,
receptor model to assess the
contributions of several pollutant sources
to PM levels in the greater Cairo Area.
During three monitoring campaigns 24-hr
samples were collected at six sampling
sites representing mobile source,
industrial, residential and background
PM Analytical methods: Gravimetric
(Teflon-membrane and quartz-fiber filters)
hydrocarbons (PAHs)
and elemental
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Period: FebruaryMarch 1999, October–
November 1999, and
June 2002
PM10 range, µg/m3 :
- 93.0±4.8 to 100.0±5.3
- 136.4±7.1 to 251.6±13.5
- 88.1±4.6 to 248.5±13.4
- 153.7±8.0 to 360.3±19.2
PM2.5 range, µg/m3:
- 34.7±1.9 to 49.7±2.7
- 59.3±3.1 to 135.1±7.3
- 29.4±1.7 to 131.8±7.2
- 60.7±3.2 to 216.1±11.0
- Hourly PM10 range:
approximately 38-127
μg/m3 (data presented on
Aoudia and
Summary: Data from an automated air
quality monitoring network in established
in 2002. Network consisting of four
stations connected to a central post.
Analytical method: Beta gauge particulate
CO, NOx, HCT, PM10,
SO2, O3
Location: Algiers,
Duration: Jan 2002August 2003
Laid et al. 2006
Summary: Air monitoring conducted at a
monitoring station on the ground at
Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Mustapha
at Sidi-M’hamed as a part of health impact
assessment study.
Method: Beta gauge sampler
Pollutants: PM10
Location: Algiers,
Duration: October
2001 to September
- Average PM10: 61 μg/m3
- Winter: 74 μg/m3
- Summer:48 μg/m3
Ali-Khodja et al.
Summary: Investigation of total
suspended particulate matter and
deposition fluxes of particles. 24-hr
Pollutants: TSP, heavy
- TSP mean 300 μg/m3; 117
μg/m3 without sand storms
- TSP range: 11 to 9591
- PM2.5/PM10 ratio varied from 0.3 to 0.8
- Major PM10 sources: geological
material, mobile source emissions, and
open burning
- Major PM2.5 sources: mobile source
emissions, open burning, and secondary
- SO2, NOx below , PM exceeding EU
- Emissions sources: car traffic, lack of
vegetation, urban and Saharan dust,
particularly during spring and fall
- Substantial contribution
anthropogenic sources
- Lowest TSP value (11 μg/m3)
samples of TSP collected every 3 days at a
site located in the town center, 3 km away
from a cement plant.
Analytical Method: A portable tripod
high volume air sampler, Model GT 22001
Didouche Mourad,
Duration: November
2002 - April 2003
Summary: Study of the health impact of
daily variations in urban air pollution in
Sfax, which has an air monitoring station
since 1996.
Analytical Method: Data from the
monitoring station recorded automatically
and reported in this paper
CO, SO2, NO2, O3 and
Location: Sfax, Tunisia.
October 1996 to June
24-hr mean PM10:
- 66 μg/m3 (across wet and
dry seasons)
- 69.8 μg/m3 (dry season)
- 59.7 μg/m3 (wet season)
Zghaid et al.
Summary: Monitoring of PM and heavy
metal pollution at a traffic site using three
different techniques.
Analytical Methods: Partisol PM10
sampler, dichotomous sampler with
PM2.5 and PM2.5 to PM10 fractions and a
Gent stacked filter unit.
Baumbach 1995
Summary: Air monitoring as a part of a
collaborative project between Nigeria,
Germany and Great Britain, with funding
from the EU. One monitoring station at a
representative urban site and additional
samples taken from sites across the city.
Pollutants: PM2.5,
PM10, heavy metals
Location: Kenitra,
Duration: June 2007
to September 2007;
June 2007 to May
Pollutants:TSP, NOx,
hydrocarbons, CO
Duration: April 1993,
December 1993January 1994
Adeleke et al.
Summary: Air monitoring of selected air
pollutants and health impact assessment
in exposed traffic officials.
Analytical method: Airmetric minivol
Gargouri et al.
Pollutants: TSP, PM10,
PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO
Location: Lagos,
Duration: 2007,2008;
total of 5 months
- PM10 range across dry and
wet seasons: 10.0 to 214.8
- PM10 mean (Partisol
sampler): 81 μg/m3
- Range: 43 to 127 μg/m3
measured in the absence of
south/south westerly winds likely to
carry TSP from the nearby industrial
- Highest TSP value (9591 μg/m3)
measured at the end of a Northern
Algeria sand storm
- PM levels far greater than those
measured at similar European sites
- Major sources of particulate pollution:
traffic, soil dust and resuspended
- TSP (from chart):
approximately 80-800
- Most severe pollution in high traffic
- PM levels particularly high during
Harmattan periods
- Suggested measures to improve safety
and lower emissions
- TSP: 130.6 ± 44.5 to
1171.7 ± 355.1 μg/m3
- PM10: 85.84 ± 28.3 to
617.4 ±327.9 μg/m3
- PM2.5: 26.68 ± 15.3 to
272.8 ± 105.5 μg/m3
- Air pollution attributable to emissions
from vehicles varied across the
locations studied and often exceeded
permissible limits
- Study suggested that individuals
exposed to pollution in such locations
should be required to wear protective
Efe and Efe 2008
Summary: A study in the Warri metropolis
and surrounding rural areas to examine
the spatial distribution of air pollution.
Analytical Method: Gravimetric (air
samplers, type not specified)
Pollutant: PM10
Warri, Nigeria
Duration: 1 year;
January 2003December 2003
- Annual mean PM10: 126.5
- Urban areas: 139 μg/m3
- Rural areas: 54.2 μg/m3
-Measured values exceed WHO limits
-Highest PM levels on Mondays due to
increased traffic and industrial and
commercial activities; lowest levels on
-PM levels highest in November and
Pollutants: TSP
Location: Benin city,
Duration: October and
November 2005
TSP mean levels:
- Gravimetric method:
123.5±34.9 to 555.6±62.8
- Light scattering method:
240± 91.3 to 600±149.3
- National and international permissible
levels exceeded at four of the sites.
- Correlation (R2) value of 0.6 between
the two samplers
- Major PM sources: vehicle and
industrial emissions, solid waste
combustion, road and Harmattan dust
Pollutants: PM1, PM2.5,
PM10, CO, NOx, O3,
toluene and benzene
Ouagadougou, Burkina
Duration: November –
December, 2007 and
April–May, 2010
- Urban (extremely stable
atmosphere): 13.9±16.9
- Urban (moderately stable
atmosphere): 3.5±1.4
- Suburban (moderately
stable atmosphere): 5.1±3.7
- Large spatial and temporal variations
- Levels of PM10 often exceeded WHO
air quality guidelines
- Pollution levels higher with increased
atmospheric stability (stable
atmospheric conditions common during
the dry season)
- Pollution sources: transported dust,
re-suspension of dust from unpaved
roads, traffic emissions and biomass
Ukpebor et al.
Lindén et al.
Summary: To provide a preliminary
assessment of spatial distribution of
airborne particles in Benin City using two
different TSP samplers at several
monitoring sites.
Analytical Methods: Portable SKC 506673
high volume Gravimetric Sampler and
Haz–Dust™ 10 μm particulate monitor
(light-scattering method )
Summary: Two field studies carried out to
analyze the spatial and temporal
variability of air pollution and climate in
selected locations with various land cover,
land use and traffic density.
PM Analytical methods: Laser aerosol
spectrometers (Dustmonitor 1.108
(GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co. KG,
Ainring, Germany) and Aerocet-531 Mass
Particle Counter (Met One Instruments
Inc., Oregon, USA)
PM10 :
- Urban (extremely stable
atmosphere): 161.7±144.3
- Urban (moderately stable
atmosphere): 69.0±46.6
- Suburban (moderately
stable atmosphere):
85.4±93.5 μg/m3
Boman et al.
Summary: Measurements of air pollution
and meteorological parameters at one
urban and one suburban station.
Analytical Method: Gravimetric (a small
cyclone (Casella Ltd., UK) with
polycarbonate filters was used)
Pollutants: PM2.5, BC
and elemental
concentrations; CO,
NOx, VOC and O3
Ouagadougou, Burkina
Duration: November
and December 2007
- Average PM2.5: 86±42
- Traffic a major factor for air pollution
in Ouagadougou but little trace of
emissions from the combustion of
leaded in PM2.5 particles
- Studies suggested to investigate the
effect of atmospheric stability on air
Dionisio et al.
Summary: A particulate matter
monitoring campaign carried out to
examine within-neighborhood spatial
variability of PM concentrations in
neighborhoods of varying socioeconomic
status and the impact of nearby air
pollution sources. Morning and afternoon
mobile and stationary measurements in
four neighborhoods.
PM Analytical methods: Optical (DustTrak
8520 monitors TSI Inc., MN, USA) for
continuous measurement of PM2.5 and
PM10; gravimetric data also collected and
used to correct the continuous
Summary: The spatial and temporal
variation of air pollution was examined in
four neighborhoods of varying
socioeconomic status and biomass fuel
PM Analytical Methods: Integrated and
continuous monitoring; PM2.5 and PM10
continuously measured with DustTrak
8520 monitors (TSI Inc., MN, USA);
PM2.5 and PM10
Accra, Ghana
Duration: 1 week,
April 2007, July–
August 2007
- Neighborhood with
highest SES (geometric
PM2.5: 21 μg/m3
PM10: 49 μg/m3
- Significant spatial variability in PM
concentrations across the four
neighborhoods studied
- Biomass fuels, traffic and unpaved
roads identified as key determinants in
PM variability
- Findings suggest that policies
regulating traffic and biomass fuels may
be necessary
PM2.5 and PM10, CO
Accra, Ghana
Duration: 22+ months;
November 2006 August 2008
Mean annual PM2.5:
- Roadside: range 39 to 53
- Residential: range 30 to 70
Dionisio et al.
- Neighborhood with lowest
SES (geometric means):
PM2.5: 39 μg/m3
PM10: 96 μg/m3
Mean annual PM10:
- Roadside: range 80 to 108
-Greater variability across
neighborhoods than across traffic sites;
PM levels highest in low SES highly
populated neighborhood
- PM2.5:PM10 ratios between 0.4 and
- Higher annual means if Harmattan
periods are included: 21-23 and 11-14
μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 for the first and
integrated gravimetric measurements
used to correct continuous data.
Gatebe et al.
Odhiambo et al.
Kinney et al.
Etyemezian et
al. 2005
- Residential: range 57 to
106 μg/m3
second year, respectively; 33-36 μg/m3
and 20-26 μg/m3 increase in PM10 for
the first and second year, respectively).
- PM levels exceeded, often
substantially, WHO Air Quality
- Comparison with previous studies
suggested increasing TSP concentration
with higher wind speed and lower TSP
concentration with lower relative
humidity; not confirmed in this study.
- TSP sources: tree cutting, constriction,
industry, dust from unpaved reads
- PM levels greatly exceeded WHO
- Strong correlation between fine
particulates (not reported) and motor
vehicle density suggesting that vehicular
exhaust was the major PM source
Summary: Air monitoring at the
Meteorological Department Headquarters
located in a suburban area 5 km north of
the city center. A total of 400 samples
Analytical Methods: Gent stacked filter
Unit (SFU)
Summary: PM monitoring at a sampling
site at the cross point of two busy
highways. Sampling took place once per
week for 8 hours during the study period.
Sampling representative of street level
Analytical Methods: Gent stacked filter
unit sampler
Summary: Daytime traffic-related PM
monitoring carried out at five sites ranging
from high traffic roadways to a
background site.
Analytical methods: Gravimetric (portable
filter-based air samplers)
Pollutants: TSP
Location: Nairobi,
Duration: December
1993 and October
- TSP range: 30 and 80
Pollutants: PM10, NOx,
O3, trace elements
Location: Nairobi,
February to April 2003
- PM10 mean: 239±126
- PM10 range: 66.7-444.4
Pollutant: PM2.5
Location: Nairobi,
Duration: Two weeks;
July 2009
- PM2.5 mean daytime
concentrations: 10.7 μg/m3
(background site);
50.7 - 128.7 μg/m3
(roadway sites)
- Roadside levels higher than those at
urban sites away from roads
- Results from horizontal and vertical
dispersion sites demonstrated rapidly
declining concentrations with increasing
distance from roadway sources
- Considered together with other
existing evidence, presented results
raise public health concerns
Summary: A pilot air pollution monitoring
study during the dry season at 12 sites in
in Addis Ababa to obtain a snapshot of
local air quality.
PM Analytical Method: Gravimetric
PM10 and elemental
composition, Pb, CO
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Duration: January–
February 2004
- PM10 concentration range:
35 - 97 μg/m3
- Ambient air quality conditions in Addis
Ababa appear to be better compared to
Cairo, Egypt based on data from AbuAllaban et al. 2002 but annual PM
concentrations may exceed the
Ethiopian EPA’s ambient standards
- 35–65% of the PM10 of geologic origin,
possibly from road dust
Jackson 2005
Summary: The study aimed to assess the
traffic contribution to air pollution in Dar
es Salaam City. 1-hr samples were
collected using manual air samplers at six
sites in 2002 and eight sites in 2003.
Analytical Methods: Gravimetric
Pollutants: suspended
particulate matter
Dar es Salaam City,
Duration: 2002, 2003
- TSP hourly average levels:
98 to 1161 μg/m3
- Recommended value of 230 μg/m3 by
WHO at 87% of the sampling sites
- Location with highest PM levels had
highest traffic flow rate
Jonsson et al.
Two field campaigns carried out during
the rainy season in May and the dry
season in October in to determine
seasonal influence on the relationship
between urban climate and air pollution.
Analytical Methods: Particles collected
with a dichotomous impactor (Sierra
Instruments Model 244);filters analyzed
with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence
Summary: Ambient daily PM10 aerosol
samples collected at an urban (Dar es
Salaam) and rural (Morogoro) site in
Tanzania during the 2005 wet season.
Chemical characteristics of the samples
also studied
Analytical Methods Gent PM10 stacked
filter unit sampler
Pollutants: suspended
particles and
Dar es Salaam,
Duration: May 2001;
October 2001
12-hr mean levels of
suspended particles:
- Urban: 40 μg/m3
- Rural: 20 μg/m3
- Concentrations vary between wet and
dry season
- Greater urban/rural differences in May
compared to October regarding soil and
biomass indicators; relatively low
difference in the indicator of sea spray
Pollutants: PM10,
Location: Dar es
Salaam and Morogoro,
Duration: May and
June 2005
Average PM10 :
- Morogoro: 27±11 mg/m3
- Dar es Salaam: 51±21
Summary: Ambient daytime and
nighttime PM10 and PM2.5 sampling during
the dry season in 2005 and wet season in
Analytical Methods Gent PM10 stacked
Pollutants: PM10,
PM2.5, chemical
Location: Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
Average PM10
-2005 dry season : 76±32
-2006 wet season: 52±27
Mkoma et al.
Mkoma et al.
-On average, 70% of the PM10 OC was
attributed to traffic and 30% to charcoal
burning in both campaigns
filter unit sampler
Duration: August and
September 2005, April
and May 2006
Kuvarega and
Taru 2008
Summary: PM amples collected at Loius
Mountbatten School for 6 months for 3 to
13 hours once or more per month.
Analytical Method: Airmetrics MiniVol
portable air samplers with membrane
Engelbrecht et
al. 2001
Summary: 30-day particulate matter
ambient monitoring campaign at four
ambient monitoring sites (three urban and
one gradient site in an adjacent
community) to evaluate air quality
improvement as a result of replacing Dgrade domestic coal with low-smoke fuels.
PM Analytical Methods: Gravimetric
(Teflon-membrane and quartz-fiber
filters), integrated and continuous
Pollutants: TSP, PM10
and PM2.5 and
Location: Harare,
Duration: July to
December 2002
Pollutants: PM2.5 and
PM10 and elemental
Location: Qalabotjha,
South Africa
Period: 1 month, 1997
Worobiec et al.
Summary: To investigate PM pollution in a
community of low socioeconomic status
where burning of biomass fuels is
prevalent and air pollution is further
exacerbated by meteorological and
topographical characteristics.
Analytical Method: Optical (Grim
Dustcheck 1.108 portable dust monitor)
TSP (PM20), PM10,
PM2.5, PM1, carbon
Location: Bethlehem,
South Africa
Duration: July 2011
Average PM2.5 :
-2005 dry season: 26±7
-2006 wet season): 19±10
- TSP: 106.1±21.4 μg/m3
- PM10:59.7 ±13.5 μg/m3
- PM2.5: 40.5±11.4 μg/m3
- 30-day average PM2.5:
71 to 93 μg/m3 (urban)
36 μg/m3 (gradient site)
- 30-day average PM10:
77 to 112 μg/m3 (urban)
49 μg/m3 (gradient site)
- 24-hr average PM2.5: 65
- TSP range: 20-420 μg/m3
- PM10 range: 15-380 μg/m3
- Article suggested further PM
monitoring and placing monitors at preexisting SO2 and NO2 monitoring
- USEPA 24-hr PM2.5 and PM10
NAAQS (National Ambient
Air Quality Standards) exceeded on
several occasions
- Average PM concentrations highest
when D-grade domestic coal was used
- PM2.5 : PM10 > 85% at three Qalabotjha
sites, >70% at the gradient site
- 24-hr PM2.5 mass concentration
exceeds US EPA guidelines
- PM1 fraction main contributor to
TSP(PM20) during evening biomass
burning events

Reference Study design and PM monitoring methods Pollutants