Ch.34 the biosphere - Notes
Honors Biology
The “control of nature” is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of
the Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when it was
supposed that nature exists for the convenience of man.
from Silent Spring by Rachel Carson.
Rachel Carson wrote “Silent Spring” and is considered the mother of
environmental protection.
The Biosphere
Ch.34.3 Describe the abiotic factors that influence life in the biosphere.
Abiotic factors: the environments non-living component
energy source
aquatic only: dissolved oxygen
terrestrial only: wind
o create opening for colonization
o increases evaporation rate
o evaporative cooling during hot spells may be advantageous
o wind chill may be dangerous.
34.5’’ Explain how landforms affect local climate.
Help create ocean currents
Affect local climate: example: high elevations
Affect rainfall:
leeward side of Mt. gets rain shadow (arid)
windward side of Mt. gets rain (high rainfall)
Mrs. Loyd 
[email protected]
Page 1 of 4
Ch.34 Biomes Notes
34.5’’’ Explain why the seasons of the year, prevailing
winds, and ocean currents exist.
Seasons due to:
 Tilt of Earth on its axis
 Direct vs. indirect rays of the sun
Prevailing winds due to: (Major global air movements)
 rising and falling of hot/cold air masses
 Earth’s rotation
Ocean Currents due to:
 Prevailing winds
 Earth’s rotation
 unequal heating of surface waters
 locations and shapes of the continents
Aquatic Biomes (salinity)
Mrs. Loyd 
[email protected]
Page 2 of 4
34.6 Describe the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the different ocean
zones and adjacent aquatic biomes.
pelagic realm:
 open water
benthic zone
 seafloor
photic zone:
 depth of light penetration
 pelagic photic
o zooplankton, fish, marine mammals
 benthic photic
o phytoplankton photosynthesize “producers”
o sponges, burrowing worms, clams, sea anemones, crabs
 coral reefs (tropical waters)
o coral, invertebrates, fishes
continental shelves:
 shallow, submerged parts
 photic zone includes pelagic and benthic zones.
aphotic zone:
 below photic
 very little to no light
 no photosynthesis
o small fish, crustaceans, sea anemones, sea cucumbers, sea
stars, , sea urchins.
intertidal zone: ocean meets land
 pounded by waves at high tide
 exposed to sun and drying winds during low tide
 plants and animals attach to rocks or burrow in sand
 freshwater river merges with ocean
 salinity varies from nearly fresh to nearly marine
 nutrients from river make it very productive
 oysters, crab, many fish, waterfowl.
 transitional between aquatic (freshwater or marine) and terrestrial
 covered in water permanently or periodically
 aquatic plants
 mud flats and salt marshes often border estuaries
Ch.34 Biomes Notes
Mrs. Loyd 
[email protected]
Page 3 of 4
34.7’ Describe the different types of freshwater biomes.
 lakes, ponds: standing water
 rivers, streams: running water
 abiotic factors:
o current
o sunlight
o nutrients
o temperature
Terrestrial Biomes (Temp, Rainfall)
34.8’’ Explain why storms and fire are crucial factors
in some biomes.
disturbances create openings where more species can
34.8-34.16 Describe the types of characteristics
used to define terrestrial biomes. Then use these
characteristics to define the major terrestrial
biomes: tropical forests, savannas, deserts,
chaparral, temperate grasslands, temperate forests,
coniferous forests, and tundra.
Eight major types of biomes
distinguished by vegetation, the foundation
depends on climate (temp and rainfall)
Tropical forest
Temperate grassland
Temperate broadleaf forest
Coniferous forest
Hot, Cold
Dry, rainy season
Low, unpredictable
Heavy tree canopy,
Grassland, scattered trees
Live in trees
24.17 Explain how all parts of the biosphere are linked by the global water
Mrs. Loyd 
[email protected]
Page 4 of 4

File - Mrs. Loyd`s Biology