Imperialism and WWI
Chapter 23 FQ 1
What was the Second Industrial Revolution, and what effects did it have on European economic and
social life? What roles did socialist parties and trade unions play in improving conditions for the working
classes?
Second Industrial Revolution
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The stage of the IR taking place in the mid-1800s in which steel, chemicals, electricity and
petroleum play a major role
Economic Effects
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Steel substituted for iron making it possible to create things that were smaller, lighter and faster
Germany became a major industrial power and challenged Britain’s supremacy, esp in chemicals
The use of electricity led to new inventions such as the light bulb, the telephone, conveyor belts
etc
The internal combustion engine also led to new inventions and led to the rise of the importance
of petroleum (oil) and inventions such as the car and airplane
Increases in production in Britain and Germany led to huge increases in real wages and living
standards
Intense competition between industrialized countries led to the introduction of protective
tariffs, or taxes which make imported goods more expensive than domestic goods
Cartels formed in countries in which companies in the same industry worked together to control
prices (ex: if airlines got together to decide how much to charge for tickets)
Factories became more mechanized in order to save money
Better transportation led to a greater amount of trade between countries
The expansion of government services and larger industrial plants meant more white-color jobs
for women as clerks, secretaries etc
With low wages and unstable employment, working-class women ended up working as
prostitutes
Social Effects
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Socialist political parties
o Germanys Social Democratic Party (SDP) espoused Marxist theory but ran for office in
Germany’s Reichstag (Parliament)
o Evolutionary socialists, or revisionists, argued that Marx was wrong in that revolution
was unnecessary and that socialist changes could be brought about through the election
of socialists as members of parliament
Trade unions
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Unions used strikes and threats of strikes to gain concessions from employers and bring
about many of the changes Marx talked about without revolution
Anarchists believed that because people were inherently good, they needed no government or
social institutions. Some advocated revolutionary means to achieve anarchy, for instance
assassinating the Tsar of Russia, the President of the US etc
Chapter 23 FQ 2
What is a mass society, and what were its main characteristics? What role were women expected to
play in society and family life in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and how closely did patterns of
family life correspond to this ideal?
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Mass society is one in which there were new patterns of industrial production, mass
consumption, working-class organization, a vastly improved environment, new patterns of social
structure, gender issues, mass education, and mass leisure
Women were expected to be dependent, domestic, family-centered
They married because of economic necessity, couldn’t control their own property, could not
divorce (this changes in late 1800s)
In reality, working class women worked and their kids often worked
Upper middle class women generally conformed to the ideal but many middle class women
could not afford the number of servants needed to reach this ideal and worked extremely hard
in their own homes
Birthrates declined due to condoms, abortion, infanticide and abandonment
Wealthier families had fewer children
Higher paying jobs for men allowed more women to stay home
Working class girls worked until marriage
Chapter 24 FQ 2
What gains did women make in their movement for women’s rights? How did a new right wing political
affect the Jews in different parts of Europe? What political problems did Great Britain, Italy, France,
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia face between 1894 and 1914, and how did they solve them?
Women
o
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Throughout the 1800s, women advocated for more rights. They gained the right to divorce their
husbands and own their own property
They also entered new professions such as nursing and teaching
Suffragists pushed for the right to vote, in some cases using hunger strikes and other militant
means. They gained the right to vote after WWI
Jews
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Extreme right-wing political movements were extremely nationalistic and anti-Semitic which led
to pogroms (mass killing of Jews)
Theodor Herzl started the Zionist movement (Jewish nationalism) – aim of which was to
establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine (now called Israel)
Great Britain
Politically, liberals were forced to make concessions to the working class because of pressure from
unions and socialist parties. Fabian Socialists argued for the need to use the vote to capture the House
of Commons (Parliament) and get social reforms without revolution. Reforms such as the National
Insurance Act of 1911 provided workers with benefits in case of sickness or unemployment. Workers
over 70 got small pensions. Prime Minister David Lloyd George weakened the power of the House of
Lords (in favor of the House of Commons. HOL members were all aristocracy who inherited their
position. They have almost no power now).
Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm (Emperor William) was unstable and aggressive and ran Germany as an authoritarian and
conservative state. At the same time, industrialization led to a strengthening of the Social Democratic
Party (SDP). There was tension between large landowners who wanted to hang onto tradition and
others who wanted Germany to modernize and become more democratic.
Austria-Hungary
Numerous nationalities pressured the government for independence. This produced an extreme form
of German nationalism in response. The Magyars (Hungarian ethnic group) wanted complete
separation.
Liberals had greater problems than Great Britain.
Chapter 24 FQ 2 & 3
What were the causes of the new imperialism that took police after 1880, and what effects did European
imperialism have on Africa and Asia?
Motives:
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Social Darwinism and Racism: Social Darwinism is the believe that in the same way that
organisms have evolved, so have cultures and the idea of “survival of the fittest” also applies
and European culture has shown itself to be the “fittest”.
Religious Motives: Christians believe that non-Christians are going to hell and therefore they
have an obligation to try to convert them
Economics: Industrialization meant that there was a need for more resources and new markets.
Effects:
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Chapter 25 FQ 1
What were the long-range and immediate causes of World War I?
Long Range
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Nationalism led to rivalries over colonial and commercial interests which intensified due to
imperialism. In addition, some ethnic minorities were frustrated that they still were not
independent
Militarism – armies had grown huge, meaning that when war came it would be huge. At the
same time, military leaders had more influence over political leaders.
Fearing war, everyone made alliances with other countries. This also ensured that a war would
be huge
Immediate
o
Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by members of the Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist
organization. Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum which was rejected by Serbia. Both sides were
emboldened by promises from their allies (Germany and Russia respectively) to support them in
a war. Because of other alliances, France, Britain and the Ottoman Empire also became
involved, as did the US eventually.
Chapter 25 FQ 2
What did the belligerents expect at the beginning of World War I, and why did the course of the war turn
out to be so different from their expectations? How did World War I affect the belligerents’
governmental and political institutions, economic affairs, and social life?
Belligerents expected that since armies were huge and weapons were fierce, the war would be decided
in months, if not weeks. Consequently, both sides were very enthusiastic. Socialists saw the war as
“imperialist” and against the interest of working people. However, nationalist sentiment overrode this
feeling and tended to unite countries behind the war effort.
o
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The war became a stalemate because both sides were equally matched. Germany looked to the
Schlieffen Plan to defeat first France and then Russia but this did not work out because they
spent too much time defeating the French and the Russians mobilized more quickly than
expected. In addition, because of the machine gun, trench warfare was used which made
defense easy, but offense extremely difficult. Both sides waited for the other to tire and quit.
At the eastern front, trench warfare did not play a role. However, there was still a stalemate.
Russia had the advantage of huge numbers and while they lost the most soldiers, they had many
to replace them. Germany had technological superiority. Both sides were therefore well
matched. Russia’s exit from the war after the revolution of 1917 tipped the balance in
Germany’s favor since they were now able to fight a one front war (instead of 2 which was
another reason why Germany was unable to break the stalemate). However, the US’s entrance
in the war tipped the balance back in the favor of the allies and the war ended with an Allied
victory.
Governmental and political institutions, economic affairs and social life:
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Total war, or war in which all of a countries resources are devoted to the war, had a great
impact on governments, economies and societies
Government power was extended in order to create a draft
Governments took greater control of the economies including controlling prices, wages, rents,
imports and exports. In addition, food was rationed. Some industries were nationalized,
meaning the government took control (for instance, in the US, the government controls Amtrak)
Propaganda was used to mold public opinion in favor of the war. However, there were periods
of labor protests. As the war dragged on, opposition increased
Trade unions became more accepted
Women got many more opportunities and were rewarded with the right to vote in Britain
War deaths hit the aristocracy and the working classes hardest. The junior officers who led the
attempts to break through no man’s land came from the aristocracy.
Economically, owners of heavy industry benefitted from the wartime economy while many
others suffered because of high inflation
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Imperialism and WWI Chapter 23 FQ 1 What was the Second