Printable Resources
Fish-y Gardening
Appendix A: Pre/Post Test and Pre/Post Test KEY
Appendix B: Team Code of Cooperation
Appendix C: Team Career Roles
Appendix D: Ecosystem/Aquaculture Article
Appendix E: Window Gardens Video/Aquaculture Article Assessment
Appendix F: Engineering Design Challenge and Rubric
Appendix G: Engineering Design Process Graphic
Appendix H: Engineering Design Challenge Presentation Checklist and Rubric
Appendix I: Research Guidelines
Appendix J: “The Nitrogen Cycle” Article: Anticipation Guide
Appendix K: “The Nitrogen Cycle” Article
Appendix L: Design/Data Requirements and Fish Safety
Appendix M: Turbidity Guidelines
Appendix N: Troubleshooting Plan
Appendix O: Problem Statement, Objectives, and Constraints
Appendix P: Decision Analysis Matrix Instructions
Appendix Q: Water Pump Inquiry
Fish-y Gardening
Appendix A: Pre/Post Test
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
1. The practice of raising fish and other water-dwelling organisms for food is called:
A. overfishing.
B. aquaculture.
C. sustainable yielding.
D. selective cutting.
2. The largest population that an environment can support is called its
A. carrying capacity.
B. limiting factor.
C. birth rate.
D. death rate.
3. A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species is
called
A. natural selection.
B. symbiosis.
C. adaptation.
D. competition.
4. To carry out photosynthesis, algae and plants use the abiotic factors sunlight, carbon
dioxide, and
A. soil.
B. salt.
C. water.
D. bacteria.
5. Organisms that live under similar environmental conditions and location, and interact
directly or indirectly are part of the same:
A. ecosystem.
B. biosystem.
C. abiotic habitat.
D. biotic habitat.
6. An example of abiotic factors influencing freshwater organisms is:
A. predation.
B. competition for food.
C. parasitism.
D. concentration of nitrogen compounds.
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7. In the graph above, what does the line of best fit through the data points tell you?
Describe the meaning of its direction, the points on the graph, etc. Cite specific
evidence from the graph to support your description. (2 pts)
8. Refer to the diagram above to describe and provide evidence for three roles bacteria
play in the nitrogen cycle. (2 points)
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9. Below is a graphic of the Engineering Design Process. Explain its importance and
give 3 detailed example of how it can be used in the real world. (4 points)
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Appendix A: Pre/Post Test KEY
1. C: sustainable yielding.
2. A: carrying capacity.
3. B: symbiosis.
4. C: water.
5. A: ecosystem.
6. D: concentration of nitrogen compounds.
7.
(2 Points)
1 Point:
The points on the scatterplot increase as they go left to right, which tells me there is a
positive correlation between the variables.
1 Point:
As one variable increases in a positive direction, so do the other. There does not appear
to be change in the direction of the relationship.
8.
(3 Points)
Answers will vary.
3 Points: one point per each role provided, such as: decomposition, nitrogen-fixing
bacteria make nitrogen useable for other living things (without usable nitrogen, all other
living things would die).
1 Point: cites evidence for each response.
9.
(4 Points)
Answers will vary. Except all reasonable responses.
1 Point: explaining importance of the engineering design process
3 Points: one for each example
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Appendix B: Team Code of Cooperation
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________ Period: _____
Your team’s first task is to decide how your team will cooperate throughout the design
challenge. As a team, decide on your anticipated goals, or expectations, for each other
and yourself. Also, decide what actions, or consequences, will occur should a team
member fail to follow the team code of cooperation.
Decide on a team name.
List all members of the team and their career position for this challenge.
List 4-5 anticipated goals.
All team members agree to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
When a team member lets their team down by ignoring the anticipated goals listed above, the
following actions will be taken based on number of offenses.
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:

Teacher Approved: ___________
(Teacher’s initials)
Team Member Signatures:
By signing this document on one of the lines below, I am stating that I agree to meet the
anticipated goals and I understand the consequences if I fail to do so.
______________________________
_____________________________
______________________________
_____________________________
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Appendix C: Team Career Roles
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Decide which career position each team member will take in order to effectively
complete the engineering design challenge.
Materials Engineer
Evaluates material and leads
team to develop a process for
using material.
Environmental
Scientist/Engineer
Researches the freshwater
habitats, what is needed to
keep animals and plants
healthy and thriving.
Mathematician
Keeps a log of the data, and
leads team members in
appropriate analysis of the
data.
Industrial Designer
Project Manager
Responsible for drawing
sketches, keeping them
organized, and leading the
discussion around the
decision matrix.
Leads team in completion of
work requirements and
timelines. Manages the
project and keeps everyone
on task.
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Appendix D: Ecosystem/Aquaculture Article
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
An ecosystem is a geographic area where biotic factors such as plants, animals and
other organisms, as well as abiotic factors such as weather (temperature and humidity)
and landscape (rocks) work together to form a symbiotic bubble of life.
Ecosystems can be very large or very small. Tide pools, the ponds left by the ocean as
the tide goes out, are an example of tiny ecosystems. Tide pools contain seaweed, a
kind of algae, which uses photosynthesis to create food. Herbivores such as abalone eat
the seaweed. Carnivores such as sea stars eat other animals in the tide pool, such as
clams or mussels. Tide pools depend on the changing level of ocean water. Some
organisms, such as seaweed, thrive in an aquatic environment, when the tide is in and
the pool is full. Other organisms, such as hermit crabs, cannot live underwater and
depend on the shallow pools left by low tides. In this way, the biotic parts of the
ecosystem depend on abiotic factors. (Rutledge, 1993)
Ecosystems can be natural or can be man-made. Aquacultures are man-made
ecosystems that involve the active cultivation (maintenance or production) of a wide
variety of marine and freshwater aquatic organisms (plants and animals) under a wide
variety of controlled conditions. Aquaculture operations across the U.S. produce more
than 100 species of aquatic organisms at different life stages such as catfish, shrimp,
salmon, scallops, oysters, and trout. (US Environmental Protection Agency)
A common attribute of all aquaculture systems is the use of water as the medium for
cultivation. Aquaculture systems must provide a constant supply of clean or clear water.
Turbidity measures how clear the water is — or isn’t. Turbid water means there is a lot
of debris, silt or other stuff floating around. That makes the water dark and murky, which
makes it difficult for plants to grow and animals to breathe. Aquaculture systems must
also provide sufficiently oxygenated water to support the cultivated organisms, and must
carry away deoxygenated water and wastes. Systems that hold organisms within open,
natural water bodies (suspended cages, net pens, or racks) rely on natural water
circulation or dispersion to accomplish this water "turnover." Wastes released from these
systems are not collected or managed. Closed systems employing ponds and tanks, on
the other hand, must manage the supply and condition of water in the system, and must
remove and manage wastes, largely consisting of wastewater. (Herd 2013)
Compilation of the following resources:
http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/ecosystem/?ar_a=1
http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/anaquidx.html
http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/education/kids/glossary/turbidity/
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Appendix E: Window Gardens Video/Aquaculture Article Assessment
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Directions: Before the video, read the extended response questions below. During the video take notes on
a separate sheet of paper to help you answer the questions. When you finish watching the video, use the
article to continue taking notes to help answer the questions. After watching the video and reading the
article, answer the following questions. Make sure you site evidence from the video/article and use domain
specific vocabulary when supporting your answer.
1.
Where is the Windowfarm Project located? For what reasons have they located this
particular project here?
2.
Describe how window gardens are similar to an ecosystem. Support you response with
evidence from both your prior knowledge and the video and/or article.
3.
Compare conventional gardening to hydroponic gardening. Using scientific, domain-specific
vocabulary, describe the role of clay pebbles in window gardens.
4.
What quantities and qualities are used to determine the safety/efficiency when rearing
aquatic animals? Cite evidence from information provided in the video and/or article.
5.
What are the advantages and disadvantages in hydroponic gardening? Support you
response with evidence from both your prior knowledge and the video and/or article.
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Appendix F: Engineering Design Challenge and Rubric
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Engineering Design Challenge:
The mayor of Caguas, Puerto Rico and his Strategic Planning staff have developed a plan to
address unemployment, food quality and production, and poverty within the city. He is
searching for participants to participate in the "Sustainable Food Initiative" that will promote
local food production. Your company, Agronomics, is asked to create a viable farming method
consisting of a self-sustaining system that would provide both fish and vegetables for families
to eat. Because there is little viable soil and water availability may be scarce, the goal is to
combine a hydroponic planting method with a fresh water system that promotes a symbiotic
relationship beneficial to both the plants and fish. The fish waste (nitrogen) provides
nourishment to plants and the plants in turn are able to filter the water.
Your system must be created using readily-available, inexpensive materials and be able to
produce nutrient-rich, safe food. You must submit a small-scale, functioning model of your
idea along with a presentation to the mayor and his strategic planning staff.
Engineering Design Challenge Rubric
Problem
Identification /
research
Design Process
Data Collection
Constraints /
Criteria
4
3
2
Problem is clearly
defined with stated
objectives and
constraints. Includes
an in-depth revised
problem statement.
Evidence of at least
2 carefully thoughtout individual
sketches; one
scored on team
decision matrix.
Problem is clearly
defined with stated
objectives and
constraints. Includes
a revised problem
statement.
Evidence of at least
2 individual
sketches, but only
one carefully
thought-out; one
scored on team
decision matrix.
Includes nearly
complete set of
required, easily
understood data
displays. Tables and
graphs clearly
labeled.
Problem is loosely
defined with stated
objectives and
constraints. Includes
a revised problem
statement.
Evidence of only 1
carefully thought-out
individual sketch;
scored on team
decision matrix.
Problem is loosely
defined with stated
objectives and
constraints. Fails to
include a revised
problem statement.
Evidence of only 1
quickly thought-out
individual sketch;
scored on team
decision matrix.
Includes incomplete
set of required,
easily understood
data displays.
Tables and graphs
clearly labeled.
Includes incomplete
set of required, data
displays. Tables and
graphs are not
clearly labeled.
Design contains
required criteria and
meets defined
constraints.
Design contains
required criteria, but
not within defined
constraints.
Design does not
contain all required
criteria, and is not
within defined
constraints.
Includes complete
set of required,
easily understood
data displays.
Tables and graphs
clearly labeled.
Design exceeds
required criteria and
meets defined
constraints.
1
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Fish-y Gardening
Appendix G: Engineering Design Process Chart
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
1. State the Problem:
 Explain the problem
 Explain the guidelines
 Set goals or desired results (teacher explanation)
2. Generate Ideas:
 Brainstorm with others
 Read books
 Search the Internet
3. Select a Solution:
 Sketches
 Trial and error
4. Build the Item:
 Use resources
5. Evaluate:
 Test, revise; test, revise
 Make adjustments/changes
 Improve
6. Present Results:
 Verbal explanations
 Share models
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Appendix H: Engineering Design Challenge Presentation Checklist and Rubric
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Engineering design challenge results presentation to the Mayor of Caguas, Puerto Rico requirements
Engineering Design Challenge Presentation Checklist

Presentation and justification of the problem

Analysis of Research

Design concept generation (at least 3 individual sketches)

Analysis and justification of final design, including Decision Analysis Matrix and Sketch of
Final Design

Construction of a testable prototype

Testing and data collection plan

Testing, data collection and analysis

Reflection on the design project

Presentation of designer’s recommendations
4
Organization
Subject
Knowledge
Graphics
Mechanics
Eye Contact
Engineering Design Challenge Rubric
3
2
Team presents
information in logical,
interesting sequence that
fully engages audience.
Team demonstrates full
knowledge of subject by
using domain-specific
vocabulary that audience
is able to understand.
Able to provide
explanations and
elaboration for questions.
Team presents
information in logical
sequence that audience
can easily follow.
Team demonstrates full
knowledge of subject by
using domain-specific
vocabulary that audience
is able to understand.
Able to provide
explanations for
questions.
Team’s in-depth
graphical display of
sketches, and data
collection and analysis
clearly explain and
reinforce understanding
of subject. Audience
gains deeper
understanding of subject
from viewing team’s
graphics.
No spelling or
grammatical errors.
Team’s graphical display
of sketches, and data
collection and analysis
clearly explain and
reinforce understanding
of subject. Audience
gains some additional
understanding of subject
from viewing team’s
graphics.
Team members maintain
eye contact with
audience, seldom
returning to notes.
No more than two
spelling and/or
grammatical errors.
Team members maintain
eye contact most of the
time, but occasionally
return to notes.
1
Team presents
information in a
sequence that audience
have difficulty following.
Team demonstrates
some knowledge of
subject by using 3-4
domain-specific
vocabulary terms that
audience is able to
understand. Able to
provide explanations for
some questions.
Team’s graphical display
of sketches, and data
collection and analysis
clearly explain and
reinforce understanding
of subject.
Team presents
information in illogical
sequence which
audience cannot follow.
Team demonstrates
some knowledge of
subject by using 1-2
domain-specific
vocabulary terms. unable
to provide explanations
for some questions.
Three spellings and/or
grammatical errors.
Four or more spelling
errors and/or
grammatical errors.
Team members do not
maintain eye contact, but
read all of report from the
screen or notes.
Team members
occasionally use eye
contact, but read most of
report.
Team’s graphical display
of sketches, and data
collection and analysis
do not show evidence of
understanding of subject.
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Appendix I: Research Guidelines
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Directions: Your team is to research the following areas in order to help you create the
design for your farming method. Divide these tasks among your team members. All
research must be referenced.
1. Research one type of fish used in aquaculture (i.e. perch, tilapia) and the type of fish
you will be able to use for your model- both danios and tetras. For each fish record
data on optimal temperature, amount of space and pH required for the fish to thrive
or grow well. Also research the cost, the amount of waste, and any behavior the fish
exhibit (feeding habits, habitats and any other miscellaneous information that may be
useful).
2. Research the types of plants that could be planted in the garden. Leafy vegetable
and herbs are best. Select two and record the following information: common name,
scientific name, sun exposure, root depth, soil pH, plant height, temperature
requirements, nutrient requirements, time of seed germination, time to harvest, pest,
and cost.
3. Research different hydroponic systems. Provide sketches or pictures. Make sure to
research the different types of rocks (growing media) used in hydroponics (i.e clay,
granite, sand, river rock, and shale). Particles need to be between 8mm and 16mm
and cannot have limestone or other particle that have high pH
4. Research aquarium assembly. Write out step-by-step instructions on how to set up
an aquarium. Include safety precautions.
All members are required to log information from each member in there journals. Your
team can create a recording sheet if it chooses. All research must include references
from appropriate sources. Below is a list of Internet sources that may useful. You may
also use resources from the library or pet stores.








http://www.almanac.com/plants/type/vegetable
http://ohioline.osu.edu/lines/vegie.html
http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/aitc/presentations/Session%204/Hydroponics%20i
n%20the%20Classroom/Hydroponics%20in%20the%20Classroom%20PowerPoint%
20Presentation.pdf
http://www.kidsgardening.org/
http://www.japan-aquaponics.com/growbed-media-guide.html
http://www.petsmart.com/
http://www.agfc.com/fishing/documents/are_classroom_aquarium_curr.pdf
http://www.troutintheclassroom.org/setup
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Appendix J: “The Nitrogen Cycle” Article: Anticipation Guide
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Directions: Before reading the article, read each statement and mark agree or disagree in the column
labeled “before.” These will serve as your predictions. After reading the article with your team, check the
corresponding box on the right side of the table. In the middle underneath the question quote evidence from
the article to justify why you agree or disagree.
Before
Agree
Disagree
Statement and Evidence
Agree
After
Disagree
1. Nitrogen is an essential element for life on earth
Evidence:
2. Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the air and is readily
usable by animals and plants
Evidence:
3. Bacterial is the most important participant in the nitrogen
cycle
Evidence:
4. Bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with plants
Evidence:
5. Using nitrogen rich fertilizer is always good.
Evidence:
6. Too much nitrogen can kill fish in a water system
Evidence:
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Fish-y Gardening
Appendix K: “The Nitrogen Cycle” Article
Source: cK-12 http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Earth-Science-For-High-School/r2/section/18.2/
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Nitrogen (N2) is also vital for life on Earth as an essential component of organic materials, such
as amino acids, nucleic acids, and chlorophyll.
(a):
Nitrogen is found in all amino acids, proteins, and
nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
(b):
Chlorophyll molecules, essential for photosynthesis,
contain nitrogen.
Although nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, it is not in a form that plants can
use. To be useful, nitrogen must be “fixed,” or converted into a more useful form. Although some
nitrogen is fixed by lightning or blue-green algae, much is modified by bacteria in the soil. These
bacteria combine the nitrogen with oxygen or hydrogen to create nitrates or ammonia. See the
following Nitrogen Cycle diagram.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
either live free or in a
symbiotic relationship with
leguminous plants (peas,
beans, peanuts). The
symbiotic bacteria use
carbohydrates from the plant
to produce ammonia that is
useful to the plant. Plants
use this fixed nitrogen to
build amino acids, nucleic
acids (DNA, RNA), and
chlorophyll. When these
legumes die, the fixed
nitrogen they contain
fertilizes the soil.
Animals eat plant tissue and create animal tissue. After a plant or animal dies or an animal
excretes waste, bacteria and some fungi in the soil fix the organic nitrogen and return it to the soil
as ammonia. Nitrifying bacteria oxidize the ammonia to nitrites, other bacteria oxide the nitrites to
nitrates, which can be used by the next generation of plants. In this way, nitrogen does not need
to return to a gas. Under conditions when there is no oxygen, some bacteria can reduce nitrates
to molecular nitrogen.
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Usable nitrogen is sometimes the factor that limits how many organisms can grow in an
ecosystem. Modern agricultural practices increase plant productivity by adding nitrogen fertilizers
to the soil. This can have unintended consequences:

Nitrogen from fertilizers may return to the atmosphere as nitrous oxide or ammonia, both of
which have deleterious effects. Nitrous oxide contributes to the breakdown of the ozone
layer, and ammonia contributes to smog and acid rain.

Excess fertilizers run off the land, end up in water, and then cause nitrification of ponds,
lakes, and nearshore oceanic areas. The nitrogen “fertilizes” the pond, causing bacteria to
grow. When these enormous amounts of bacteria die, their decomposition uses up all the
available oxygen (Figure below). Without oxygen, fish and other larger organisms die. This is
called a dead zone when it happens on a large scale.
(a):
Nitrogen runoff into
Lake Atitlán,
Guatemala, caused an
algae bloom in the
normally clear blue
mountain lake.
(b):
Fish killed by a lack of
oxygen in the water.
Source : http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Earth-Science-For-High-School/r2/section/18.2/
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Appendix L: Engineering Design Challenge: Data Requirements and
Fish Safety
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Design Constraints:
 Must use leafy plants or herbs
 Must use danio or tetra fish
 Growing bed depth must be at least 6in
 Growing bed particles must be between 8mm-16mm
 Must be safe for both plants and fish
Include in your final design:
 A detail sketch including dimensions
 # of plants
 Type of plants
 # of fish
 Type of fish
 Type of growing bed
Data Record requirements (Team must create their own data sheet):
 Day and time
 Ammonia, nitrate and nitrite levels
 pH
 temperature
 presence of algae growth
 fish and plant observations
 turbidity
Fish Safety!
When working with live animals in experiments, it is very important to ensure that all the proper
safety measures are followed. Please make sure to follow these guidelines closely in order to
keep your fish happy, healthy, and thriving! 
Water:
 Water quality is VERY important for fish!
 You must maintain a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5 in order to make sure your fish are
healthy! Check this EVERY DAY using the pH strips provided.
 The water temperature needs to remain at around 75 degrees Fahrenheit.
 Ammonia and nitrate levels must be as close to zero as possible! Make sure to use gravel
and other filtering devices to keep your water safe for your fishy friends.
 Make sure that you have air circulation within your tank! Your fish need oxygen in the water in
order to breathe. Add an air bubbler to ensure fish do not run out of oxygen in the water.
Feeding:
 Make sure to keep your fish alive and well by feeding them!
 Feed them once a day, but remember: they have very small stomachs. Don’t feed them more
than they can eat in about 3 minutes!
 Your fish will be alright without eating on the weekends. Fish need those “fast days” in order
to stay healthy and not become overweight.
 Overfeeding is one of the biggest causes of high ammonia and nitrate levels, so be careful!
 If your fish do not eat for more than one day, let your teacher know right away! Your fish may
be sick.
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Appendix M: Turbidity Guidelines
(print in color)
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Use this chart to help you analyze the turbidity of your water.
Use this chart to help you analyze the turbidity of your water.
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Appendix N: Troubleshooting Plan
Ammonia Levels
[normal: 0.0-0.25 mg/L]
Nitrate Levels
[normal: 0-40 mg/L]
Nitrite Levels
[normal: 0-40 mg/L]
pH Level
[normal: 6.5-8.2]
If the ammonia levels are too high, the biggest issue is probably the overfeeding. Remind the
students that the fish only need a pinch of food a day, and monitor the feeding more closely.
Fish can handle missing a few meals, so if the ammonia levels are very high, have the students
skip feeding. You can also partially replace the water if necessary, or use an ammonia remover
(Prime from SeaChem labs for example). If there is a lot of uneaten food in the bottom of the
tank, remove this! This can increase ammonia levels as well. Make sure not to try to increase
the pH of the tank while reducing ammonia levels. This can be deadly for the fish.
If your nitrate levels are too high, overfeeding is one of the biggest contributors. Make sure the
fish are not eating too much. Overcrowding can also be an issue, consider removing a fish from
the tank if necessary. Remove any sources of decomposition, such as dead fish, plants, old
uneaten food, etc.
If your nitrite levels are too high, do a 30% water change as soon as possible. Reduce the
amount of food you are feeding your fish. (A fish’s stomach is only as big as his eye! They don’t
need much to eat.)
If pH is too low:
 Change the water in the aquarium. Tap water has a higher pH, and this will increase your
pH.
 Remove uneaten food. This will help keep the pH levels from dropping over time.
 Add rocks or driftwood. This will raise the pH.
 Increase the aeration by adding an air bubbler.
 Add baking soda to the tank. This will raise the pH, but only if you do it over time. Make
sure to dissolve the baking soda in water first, and DO NOT add too much. A rapid spike in
pH can hurt the fish. A good rule of thumb is 1 teaspoon of baking soda per five gallons of
water.
 Add shells
If pH is too high:
 Adding acids to the water in order to lower pH is always an option: use an acid buffer.
 Add carbon dioxide
 Add driftwood pieces
 Filter using peat moss
Temperature
[normal: 74-82 degrees F]
Algae
If the temperature is too high:
 Placing a plastic tank in front of a window can absorb the sunlight and heat your water. Try
adding a sheet of paper in front of the tank to reflect that light and heat away.
 Increase water circulation
If the temperature is too low:
 Install a heater if necessary
 Place the tank near a window to absorb the sunlight heat.
If you have too much algae in your fish tank, control the overfeeding. Control the lights in your
aquarium, as extended light time can increase algae levels. Use scrapers to remove algae if
necessary. Remember: some algae is okay! As long as it is not coating the walls of your tank,
or excessive on the bottom of the tank, it is healthy for the fish.
Source: Jack’s Pets Freshwater Fish Pamphlet
Sources for more Information:
http://www.beverlyspet.com/fishtalk/Handling%20High%20Ammonia%20Levels.htm
http://www.wikihow.com/Lower-Your-Nitrate/Nitrite-Levels-in-Your-Fish-Tank
http://pets.petsmart.com/guides/fish/aquarium-water-care.shtml
http://www.tfhmagazine.com/saltwater-reef/feature-articles/keeping-up-with-nitrate.htm
http://www.myaquariumclub.com/how-to-adjust-ph-level-of-your-aquarium-498.html
http://www.ratemyfishtank.com/articles/107
http://www.tfhmagazine.com/aquarium-basics/temperature-control.htm
http://www.drsfostersmith.com/pic/article.cfm?aid=714
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Appendix O: Problem Statement, Objectives, and Constraints
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Problem Statement:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Objective: A goal you want to meet
“SHOULD be”
Ex. lightweight, aesthetically pleasing
Objectives
Constraints
Constraint: A goal you have to meet
“MUST be”
Ex. under $10, waterproof
Revised Problem Statement:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
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Fish-y Gardening
Appendix P: Decision Matrix Instructions
Decision Analysis Techniques in Engineering Design
Method of Weighted Factors
Margaret Pinnell, PhD
This method of decision analysis can be used whenever a difficult choice must be made
such as choosing a college or a certain product, etc. Step-by-step instructions for using
this method as a tool for assessing design plan ideas are provided below.
Identifying the objectives and constraints for a particular topic can assist in make a final
decision. Safety should always be on the list, but some other items might include
aesthetics, cost, ease of maintenance, performance (ability to function as intended),
recyclability, etc.
Instructions for Using the Matrix:
1. Determine the relative importance of each of these objectives and constraints, and rank
them from 1 – 10 with 10 being the most important and 1 being of little importance (may
be nice to have, but doesn’t really matter). All constraints will be rated a 10.
2. As a team, discuss each conceptual design, and rank the designs from 1-n in its ability to
meet the identified objectives or constraints. For example, if you are analyzing three
different designs, you will rank those designs from 1-3, with 3 being the best and 1 being
the least. In some cases, the designs may have equal performance and they might get
the same rating, an example of this is shown below.
3. For each design, multiply the attributed (objective or constraint) weighting factor by the
rank, and add up a total score.
4. The design that has the highest score may be considered the “best.” Keep in mind
though, that there is a significant amount of subjectivity to this approach, so if two
designs have very close values, you may want to consider these designs a little more
deeply.
An example is provided below for purchasing a car. This was done through the eyes of a college
student who is looking for a new car to transport her from home to school. The ranking was done
without any research, but certainly actual values could be obtained from reliable resources
regarding relative safety, cost, gas mileage etc. If this information is available, this research
should be done, but this is just a quick example. The college student, with input from her parents,
identified the following factors that would help her decide which car to purchase. They decided
that safety was, by far, the most important factor.
Since this was for a college student, cost-related issues including price of the car, cost of
upkeep/maintenance and gas mileage were all very important as well. The student didn’t really
have more than a suitcase that she would need to carry, so cargo room was not that important,
but would be nice to have in case she did have some larger things to bring home. Also, since she
only needed the car to last her through her 4 (or 5) years in college, the “life span” of the car was
only marginally important. The college student protested regarding aesthetics, after all, she
wanted a cool ride, so aesthetics were pretty important to the student. The student considered
three cars available at a dealer close to her home.
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Fish-y Gardening
(Decision Analysis Matrix Instructions Continued)
Resultant Sheet:
Decision Analysis Matrix
1. Fill in your design objectives. After all group members have presented their design ideas, use the numerical system below to score
each design against the constraints and objectives.
3 = totally meets the goal
2 = somewhat meets the goal
1 = does not meet the goal
2. Add the values for each design to determine a total score. The design with the highest score may be considered the “best.” Keep in
mind though, that some of the scoring is based on opinion, so if two designs have close values, you may want to consider these
designs a little more deeply, or combine their best attributes.
Car 1
Goals
(Constraints and Objectives)
Car 2
Value
Value
Score
safety
10
3
30
1
10
2
20
Gas mileage
9
2
18
1
9
3
27
cargo room
2
2
4
2
4
1
3
seating
5
3
15
2
10
1
5
aesthetics
7
3
21
2
14
1
7
cost
9
2
18
3
27
1
9
“life-span”
5
2
10
1
5
3
15
maintenance
6
3
18
2
12
3
18
Sum of values:
TOTAL VALUE
(weight x score)
Sum of values:
Score
Value
Weight
(weight x score)
Score
Car 3
(weight x score)
Sum of values:
134
91
103
_______
_______
_______
Score
Value
(weight x score)
Sum of values:
_______
Results of this decision analysis suggest that car 1 is the best choice for the student.
However, had these factors been weighted differently, the results might have changed.
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Fish-y Gardening
1. After all group members have presented their design ideas, use the numerical system below to score each design against the constraints and
objectives.
3 = totally meets the goal
2 = somewhat meets the goal
1 = does not meet the goal
2. Add the values for each design to determine a total score. The design with the highest score may be considered the “best.” Keep in mind
though, that some of the scoring is based on opinion, so if two designs have close values, you may want to consider these designs a little
more deeply, or combine their best attributes.
Design 1
__________________
Name
Goals
(Constraints and Objectives)
TOTAL VALUE
Weight
Score
Design 2
Design 3
__________________
Name
Value
(weight x score)
Score
__________________
Name
Value
(weight x score)
Score
Design 4
__________________
Name
Value
Score
(weight x score)
Sum of
values:
Sum of
values:
Sum of
values:
Sum of
values:
_______
_______
_______
_______
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Value
(weight x score)
Fish-y Gardening
Appendix Q: Water Pump Inquiry
Name: ___________________________
Date: _____________
Period: _____
Objective: Determine design ideas that will be compatible with the flow rate of the pump. Identify
variables that will affect flow rate. Test each variable one at a time and measure flow rates of
each. Determine relationships between the results using a line graph.
Directions: Using the materials below, construct 2 different models to test flow rate of your pump.
Record the sketch of your model below or in your journal and measure the rate of flow of the
water in your system.
Flow rate=volume/time (ml/sec)
Materials:
Bucket of water
Stopwatch
Graduated cylinder
Funnel
Beaker
½ in plastic tubing
Water pump
Sketch #1
Variable Tested
Quantitative Data
Draft: 2/6/2016
Qualitative Observations
Conclusions / Notes
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Fish-y Gardening
Sketch #2
Variable Tested
Quantitative Data
Qualitative Observations
Conclusions / Notes
1. Choose two variables tested, and create one line graph to compare them.
2. Final Conclusions
Draft: 2/6/2016
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