Chapter 2: An Overview of Communication Development Chapter Summary Communicative competence refers to the understandings and abilities that speakers of a language must possess and use in order to communicate effectively in that language. Children acquire communicative competence at two main levels--linguistics and pragmatic. Linguistic aspects include phonological competence, grammatical competence, and discourse competence and are related directly to the nature and structure of language. Pragmatic aspects of communicative competence include functional competence, sociolinguistic competence, interactional competence, and cultural competence and relate to the social contexts in which we use language. Communicative competence develops along a fairly predictable trajectory across the life span, with children reaching major milestones in roughly the same order and at roughly the same ages across cultures. Communicative competence is constructed on some innately given abilities and early foundations and continues to develop throughout toddlerhood, the preschool years, the school-age years, and into adulthood. Chapter Focus Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. What is communicative competence? What is the foundation for communicative competence? What are the major communicative milestones in infancy and toddlerhood? What are major communicative milestones in preschool and school-age children? Chapter Key Terms Alphabet knowledge, p. 70 Communicative performance, p. 37 Jargon, p. 51 Lexicon, p. 52 Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), p. 56 Overextension, p. 58 Phonological processes, p. 41 Print awareness, p. 68 Underextension, p. 58 Communicative competence, p. 37 Intentional communication, p. 46 Joint attention, p. 45 Literate language, p. 74 Oral language, p. 68 Phonological awareness, p. 68 Phonotactics, p. 47 Register, p. 44 Vocabulary spurt, p. 58 Chapter Overview/Presentation Outline I. INTRODUCTION Present Slide 2.2 and discuss the four focus questions. Present slide 2.3 and explain that before we discuss various types of communication disorders, it is important to understand how language develops in typical populations. Discuss what we mean by “typical” as it relates to people around the world’s communities. Present the cases and questions from the text and eText on slides 2.4-2.5, allowing class to provide answers to questions about each case. Also, refer back to these cases as needed for examples throughout the remainder of the chapter’s lecture. II. WHAT IS A COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE? A. Definition Present slide 2.6 and analyze the quoted definition piece by piece for important elements. Present slide 2.7 and review the four processes involved in communication. Present the two main aspects of communicative competence, without providing detail about each of the subgroups. B. Aspects of Communicative Competence a. Linguistic Aspects of Communicative Competence Present slide 2.8 to introduce the linguistic aspects of communicative competence- to be covered on the following slides. i. Phonological Competence Present slides 2.9 and 2.10 and discuss the following: the definition of phonological competence, the definition of phoneme, any innate aspects of phonological competence, the idea of comprehension preceding production, and phonological processes. ii. Grammatical Competence Present slide 2.11 and give definitions of grammatical competence. Then, using the example “Jim is hitting Bob,” discuss the ages of comprehension for syntax (the actor and recipient of the action) and morphology (/ing/ morpheme). iii. Lexical Competence Present slide 2.12 and give definition of lexical competence as well as the important ages associated with this aspect. iv. Discourse Competence Present slide 2.13 and give the definition of discourse competence, a common example of a lack of this aspect of communicative competence, and explain why the unit of analysis is different. b. Pragmatic Aspects of Communicative Competence Present slide 2.14 to introduce the pragmatic aspects of communicative competence—to be covered on the following slides. i. Functional Competence Present slide 2.15 and give the definition of functional competence. Review the three basic purposes for communication from Chapter 1. ii. Sociolinguistic Competence Present slide 2.16 and give the definitions for both sociolinguistic competence and speech register. Discuss some possible situations in which one would use informal and formal speech registers. iii. Interactional Competence Present slide 2.17 and give the definition for interactional competence. Discuss how the standards for this aspect vary between cultures using the example about Japan from the textbook. iv. Cultural Competence Present slide 2.18 and give the definition for cultural competence. Discuss the complex understandings of one’s own culture one must have in order to display competence in this aspect. III. WHAT IS THE FOUNDATION FOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE? Present slide 2.19 and discuss that the following foundations are very important for the development of communicative competence and then outline the four foundations without detail. A. Joint Reference and Attention Present slide 2.20 and discuss the development of joint attention (giving a definition) across the three phases. Also discuss how joint attention leads to intentional communication. a. Phase One: Birth To 6 Months b. Phase Two: 6 Months To 1 Year c. Phase Three: 1 Year And Beyond B. Rituals of Infancy Present slide 2.21 and discuss an infant’s daily routines and how they provide opportunities for joint attention, citing examples. Define and explain “phonotactics”. C. Caregiver Responsiveness Present slide 2.22 and define. Describe the aspects of caregiver responsiveness listed, clarifying each one. i. Waiting And Listening ii. Following The Child’s Lead iii. Joining In And Playing iv. Being Face-To-Face IV. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR COMMUNICATIVE MILESTONES IN INFANCY AND TODDLERHOOD? Present slide 2.23 and discuss the concepts of milestones and how they do not vary significantly across the world—also list the five main developmental periods as an introduction to the following slides. A. Infancy B. Stages of Vocal Development Present slide 2.24 and explain in detail each of the five stages of vocal development as well as the approximate ages at which they occur. i. Reflexive Stage ii. Control of Phonation iii. Expansion iv. Basic Canonical Syllables v. Advanced Forms a. Emergence of Intentionality Present slide 2.25 and discuss preintentional versus intentional communication and the indicators of intentional communication. b. Transition to Symbolic Representations Present slide 2.26 and discuss the arbitrariness of words, the components of “lexical entries,” and the transition to different kinds of symbols. Present slide 2.27 and give the approximate age of the first word as well as the three components that make a word a “true” word. C. Toddlerhood a. Achievements in Form Present slide 2.28 and discuss the listed achievements in form as well as the definition of MLU and what it is used for b. Achievements in Content Present slide 2.29 and discuss the listed achievements in content. Discuss the importance and timing of the vocabulary spurt, and define both underextension and overextension. c. Achievements in Use Present slide 2.30 and explain the toddler’s achievements in the use of a variety of language functions, but lack of skills in conversation. d. Achievements in Speech Present slide 2.31 and define expressive phonology and phonological representation and discuss the attainment of specific phonemes (and the order of acquisition) and phonological processes (giving examples of each of those listed). i. Attainment of Specific Phonemes ii. Phonological Processes a. Final Consonant Deletion b. Reduplication c. Consonant Harmony d. Weak Syllable Deletion e. Diminutization f. Cluster Reduction g. Liquid Gliding V. WHAT ARE MAJOR COMMUNICATIVE MILESTONES IN PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOLAGE CHILDREN? Present slide 2.32 to introduce this section. A. Preschool Accomplishments a. Achievements in Form Present slide 2.33 and discuss the listed achievements in form i. Uncontractible Copula ii. Contractible Copula iii. Uncontractible Auxiliary iv. Contractible Auxiliary b. Achievements in Content Present slide 2.34 and discuss lexical development (with a definition of fast mapping) and decontextualized language (a definition and its importance). i. The Lexicon ii. Decontextualized Language Skills c. Achievements in Use Present slide 2.35 and discuss the new additional functions of language-- the child’s increased conversation skills, and the narrative as it relates to decontextualized language. d. Achievements in Speech Present slide 2.36 and discuss both phoneme mastery and phonological process suppression, as well as some factors that can impact speech development. e. Achievements in Emergent Literacy Present slide 2.37 and 2.38 and give a definition of emergent literacy. Discuss oral language, phonological awareness, print awareness and alphabet knowledge. i. Oral Language ii. Phonological Awareness iii. Print Awareness iv. Alphabet Knowledge B. School-Age Accomplishments a. Functional Flexibility Present slide 2.39 and discuss the even larger variety of language functions school-age children use and how each is important for success in the classroom. b. Reading and Writing Present slide 2.40 and discuss the alphabetic principle and Chall’s five stages of learning to read. i. Initial Reading, or Decoding, Stage ii. Confirmation, Fluency, and Ungluing From Print iii. Reading to Learn the New – A First Step iv. Multiple Viewpoints – High School v. Construction and Reconstruction – A World View c. Literate Language Present slide 2.41 and discuss the general characteristic of literate language as well as the specific features. i. Elaborated Noun Phrases ii. Adverbs iii. Conjunctions iv. Metacognitive And Metalinguistic Verbs d. Form and Content Refinements Present slide 2.42 and discuss the listed refinements. Provide detail about development in content. i. Form Refinements ii. Content Refinements Chapter Discussion Questions 1. Think about the infant-directed speech that you have heard others use. How does infant-directed speech differ from the speech you use with your friends? 2. Consider the case of La’Kori in the video in eText. What evidence suggests that he is having difficulty in the area of lexical competence? 3. Explain why it is so difficult to learn to speak a new language without an accent in light of what you now know about phonological competence. 4. Consider the case of Delilah in Case Study 2.1. Shat evidence suggests that she is having difficulty in the area of lexical competence? 5. Throughout this chapter, you have read that comprehension precedes production in several areas of communicative competence. What are some ways to test whether a child comprehends a word that he or she is not yet producing? 6. What are some rituals from infancy that you think would be particularly important to support early language and communication development? 7. As you watch these two videos in eText of infants at different stages of vocal development, identify and compare where each child is in relation to his or her vocal development: Video 1 depicts a 3-month-old boy and video 2 depicts a 12-month-old girl. Are these stages appropriate and typical give the ages of the children? Why or why not? 8. In these two videos in eText, you will see toddlers at different stages of development and expressive phonology: video 1 depicts and 18-month-old boy and video 2 depicts a 24-month-old girl. Identify which phonological process each child is using. Are these processes exhibited developmentally appropriate give their ages? Why or why not? 9. What are some factors that contribute to a sound being acquired earlier than other sounds? For instance, children master /b/ long before they master /r/ in English. What are some possible explanations for this? 10. In theses two videos in eText, you will see two preschool-aged children at different stages of development: video 1 depicts a three-year-old boy and video 2 depicts a four-year-old girl. As you watch the videos, try to identify their respective achievements in form, content, and use. 11. Children of lower socioeconomic status generally have a more difficult time producing decontextualized language. What do you think this is? 12. How good are your phoneme segmentation skills? Say the following words aloud and identify how many sounds (not letters!) are in each: nothing, wheat, elephant, ostrich, fantastic. (Answers: 5, 3, 7, 6, 9) 13. Using what you know about Delilah in Case Study 2.1, do you predict that she would also exhibit difficulties with reading comprehension? Why or why not? 14. In these two videos in eText, you will see two school-aged children: video 1 depicts a five-yearold girl and video 2 depicts a seven-year-old boy. As you watch the videos, identify specific features of literate language that the children use in discourse. 15. Describe in writing what you did last night. Document the use of literate language features in this written sample. Which features occur most frequently? Least frequently?