World History 9
Chapter 22 Section 1 “The Scientific Revolution”
Read the section and follow the questions or fill in the charts.
1. What was the geocentric theory? Who came up with it? Why did the Church support it?
 Belief that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe and
that planets, moon, and the sun all moved in perfect circular paths around the earth
 Aristotle
 Belief that God placed Earth in the center of the universe, and that earth was special
2. What was the Scientific Revolution? When did it begin?
 A new way of thinking about the natural world based upon careful observation and a
willingness to question accepted beliefs
 Mid-1500s
3. How did the following help pave the way for the Scientific Revolution?
The Renaissance
European exploration opened Europeans to the possibility that there were new
truths to be found
Invention of printing press spread challenging ideas
Renaissasnce scholars began to question church ideas about God and
salvation
The Age of European
Exploration
Fueled scientific research, especially in astronomy and math
New instruments for better navigation
Began looking more closely at the world and made observations that did not
match ancient beliefs
4. What is the heliocentric theory?
Idea that the earth, the stars, the other planets revolve around the sun (sun-centered)
5. What did each scientist discover about the universe?
Heliocentric theory
Nicolaus Copernicus
Johannes Kepler
Mathematical laws govern planetary motion
Planetary motion – planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits
Proved Copernicus was right
Galileo Galilei
Studied the heavens
Observed that Jupiter had 4 moons, the surface of the moon
was uneven, and the sun had dark spots
Disproved Aristotle’s theory that moon and stars were made of a pure,
perfect substance
Observations and laws of motion supported Copernicus
Isaac Newton
Same force rules motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space
Law of universal gravitation
6. How did Copernicus think the Church would react to his idea and why?
They would reject it because it contradicted Church views
7. What happened to Galileo after the publication of his book Starry Messenger?
Tried by the Inquisition. Forced to recant, saying Copernicus was wrong.
8. What is the scientific method? What are the steps?
Logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Problem or question – hypothesis – test with experiment – analyze and interpret data – draw a
conclusion
9. What were the ideas of the following?
Francis Bacon
Idea of empiricism (experimental method)
Believed by better understanding world, scientists could improve life
Shouldn’t rely on conclusions of ancient thinkers
Instead should experiment and draw conclusions
René Descartes
Scientists need to reject old assumptions and teachings
Rely on math and logic
Everything should be doubted until proved by reason
Only think we know for certain is that we exist
I think, therefore I am
10. What important developments took place in the following areas?
Scientific instruments
Development of microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek used microscope to observe bacteria
Mercury barometer for measuring barometric pressure and predicting weather
Fahrenheit and Celcius created thermometers
Medicine
Andreas Vesalius dissected human corpses and published book with
detailed drawings of organs, bones, muscle
Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine (used germs from cowpox)
Chemistry
Robert Boyle – use of scientific method in chemistry – founder of modern
Chemistry; said matter is made up of smaller primary particles that joined together
in different ways.
Boyle’s Law – explains how volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each
other
11. How did the ideas of reason and order affect ideas in politics?
People began to rethink old ideas about the rights and liberties of ordinary citizens. Helped
bring in ideas that challenged old relationship of government and people.
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World History 9 Chapter 22 Section 1 “The Scientific Revolution