Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 2 to the text that you want to appear here. -> Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 5 to the text that you want to
appear here.
Linguistics
Comparative and Historical Linguistics
FRIEDRICH SCHLEGEL
 a German who introduced the concept of comparative grammar
 On the Language and the Learning of the Indians
RASMUS RASK
 a Danish who wrote the first grammar of old English and studied the
IE family
JACOB GRIMM
 a German who came with the Grimm’s law - explains shifts of IndoEuropean sounds to Germanic language (sound shift) – also known as
Rask-Grimm´s law

Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic
Languages
Neogrammarians
HERMAN OSTHOFF + KARL BRUGMANN + AUGUST LESKIEN
 German neo-grammarians concerned with sound changes, they
allowed no exceptions
KARL VERNER
 a Danish phonetician, the author of the Verner´s law by which he
explained exceptions to Humboldt/Grimm´s law (there must be a
rule for exceptions from the law)
HERMAN PAUL
 a German
 Principles of History of Speech
FRANZ BOPP
 a German grammarian who was a founder of historical linguistics
and restructured the original Indo-European structure
Structuralism
WILHELM VON HUMBOLDT
 a German interested in semantics, modern linguistics, hermeneutics,
language philosophy
 Innere Sprachform
FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE
 a Swiss, author of signified and signifier etc.
AUGUST SCHLEICHER
 a German linguist, the author of the Stammbaumtheorie
 he was interested in comparative linguistics and Darvinism
The Geneva School
Prague School of Linguistics
VILÉM MATHESIUS
 a Czech and the founder of the Prague School
 he was a structuralist, functionalist and phonologist
JAN FIRBAS
page 1 of 5
Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 2 to the text that you want to appear here. -> Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 5 to the text that you want to
appear here.
NIKOLAI TRUBECKOI
 a Russian with contributions to phonology and phonetics, founded
morphology
 Grundzüge der Phonologie (Principles of Phonology)
BOHUSLAV HAVRÁNEK
 a Czech interested in language registers, dialects, he paid attention
to what the utterance is
JAN MUKAŘOVSKÝ
 a Czech interested in didactics (textbooks, dictionaries), he was
preserving purism
BOHUSLAV TRNKA
 Great Vowel Shift in Middle English
JOSEF VACHEK
 a Czech interested in the attitude to spoken and written language,
he came with the functional approach, claiming that language has
two norms, which have different functions (written for preservation,
which is clear and easy to understand and spoken, which is dynamic
ROMAN JAKOBSON
 a Russian linguist interested in structural analysis of language
(applied to other ling. branches – syntax, morphology)
 he started the discipline of phonology
 On the structure of Russian verbs
The Copenhagen School of Structuralism
LOUIS HJELMSLEV
 a Danish interested in phonology (Plane of expression), semantics
(Plane of content), comparative linguistics, semiotics and the
founder of glossematics
RASMUS RASK
American Structuralism and Descriptivism
FRANZ BOAS
 a German-American who was interested in descriptive studies of
Native American languages, anthropological linguistics
EDWARD SAPIR
 a German-American interested in sociolinguistics (link between
culture and language), anthropological linguistics (what role the
language plays in the rituals of the native Indians) and synchronic
studies of languages
LEONARD BLOOMFIELD
 an American who was interested in phonetics and phonology =
Bloomfieldian era (he saw no sense in studying syntax or semantics)
 Language – a key book for American linguistics
BENJAMIN LEE WHORF
 an American linguist, descriptivist, interested in how the structure of
a language affects the perception of the world (Hopi)
page 2 of 5
Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 2 to the text that you want to appear here. -> Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 5 to the text that you want to
appear here.

author of the (Sapir-)Whorf hypothesis
CLAUDE LEVY STRAUSS
 a French interested in ethnology and grammar, he also applied
Saussure’s the structural linguistics to anthropology
Formalist School (generative)
NOAM CHOMSKY
 an American, who still unfortunately is interested in syntax,
semantics, transformational and generative grammar
 Syntactic structures
British Structuralism
J. R. FIRTH
 prosody
 Neo-Firthian linguistics/scale and category grammar/systemic
grammar/linguistics
M.A.K. HALLIDAY
 professor of general linguistics
 An Introduction to a Functional Grammar
BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI
 a Polish interested in context of situation from anthropology to
linguistics and structural linguistics
Sociolingustics
RICHARD HUDSON
 a British who claims that creoles are languages just like all others
CHARLES ALBERT FERGUSON
JOHN LYONS
 British
WILLIAM LABOV
 an American interested in sociolinguistics, dialectology and language
change
DELL HATHAWAY HYMES
 American
DWIGHT BOLLINGER
 an American interested in semantics, intonation and phonesthesia
(sound symbolism)
JOHN J. GUMPERZ
 an American interested in code-switching, discourse analysis,
linguistic anthropology and urban antropology
LESLEY MILROY
 a British sociolinguist interested in rural and urban dialectology,
language ideology, language standardization
JENNY CHESHIRE
 a British interested in sociolinguist, language variation and change
(esp. grammatical and discourse variation) and spoken English
syntax
PETER TRUDGILL
page 3 of 5
Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 2 to the text that you want to appear here. -> Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 5 to the text that you want to
appear here.

a British interested in sociolinguist and dialectology
LAMBERT AND TUCKER
JOHN L. FISHER
BATES AND BENIGNI
VINCENT MACAULAY
 a Scottish
BROWN AND FORD
FAND AND HENG
GILLIAN SANKOFF
 from Montreal
Phonetics and Phonology
HENRIETTE CEDERGREN
JOHN PALSGRAVE
 lived in 16th century and wrote a book on French grammar
WALT WOLFRAM
 an American
CHARLES JAMES BAILEY
BICKERTON
JOSHUA FISHERMAN
 an American
JOHN L. AUSTIN
 a British interested in speech acts
JOHN SEARLE
 an American also interested in speech acts
FRAKE
BURLING
BROWN AND GILMAN
WILLIAM SALESBURY
 he made Dictionary of Eng. and Scot. and described English sounds
JOHN HART, ALEXANDER GIL
 both British living in the 16th century and dealt with increasing
inconsistency in relation English - Latin sounds
JOHN WALLIS
 a British who lived in the 17th century
 Grammatica linguae anglicanae (history of English, description of the
organs of speech, classification of vowels and consonants)
JOHN WILKINS
 a British, wrote Essay towards a real character and a philosophical
language (Creates system of marks for expressing sounds)
CHRISTOPHER COOPER
 a British who wrote Grammatica linguae anglicanae (pronunciation
for ordinary people, deals with contemporal English)
page 4 of 5
Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 2 to the text that you want to appear here. -> Error! Use the Home tab to apply Nadpis 5 to the text that you want to
appear here.
JOHN WALKER
 Dictionary of national biography - influential orthoepic work,
analyses of intonation
JOSHUA STEELE
 Prosodia rationalis (system of notation capable of expressing pitch
changes, stress and rate of delivery)
ISAAC PITMAN
 a British who created a system of shorthands (kind of transcription)
which is still used
ALEXANDER ELLIS
 a British who created an alphabet called Phonotype (based on
phonetic analysis, based upon Latin characters), Developed other
alphabets as well: Glossic, Palaeotype
HENRY SWEET
 a British, wrote Transcriptions Broad and Narrow romic, inspiration
for a character of Mr. Higgins in Shaw’s Pigmallion
ALEXANDER M. BELL
 a Scottish-American interested in visible speech (classification of all
sounds that can be produced by human organs of speech; later
helped learning Eng. to the deaf)
GEOFFREY LEECH
 a British interested in grammar, semantics (context and sound),
stylistics, pragmatics,...
HAROLD DWIGHT LASSWELL
 an American politician and linguist, author of the formula – model of
communication
KARL BÜHLER
 a German linguist, the author of functions of communication
DANIEL JONES
 a British phonetician who founded RP
 Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary
MORRIS HALLE
 Latvian-American
ALFRED C. GIMSON
 updated and extended Jones’s description of standard British
English pronunciation
JOHN CHRISTOPHER WELLS
 he still unfortunately is a British phonetician and Esperanto teacher
and a professor emeritus at University College London
 wrote the first (1990) Longman’s dictionary
ALAN CRUTTENDEN
 Emeritus Professor of Phonetics, University of Manchester; Fellow of
the Phonetics Laboratory, University of Oxford
 interested in comparative intonation, child language and phonetics
of English
page 5 of 5
Download

Chyba! V dokumentu není žádný text v zadaném stylu.