Supplemental Material for Publication
1. Additional experimental details
1.1. Flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) characterization
Sheet resistance measurements were taken by Four-probe method (RTS-8). Optical
transparency was measured by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (Lambda 35). A Veeco
NanoScope MultiMode Scanning Probe Microscope was used in tapping mode for
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) topography characterization. Field emission
Scanning Electron Microscope (FSEM) images were obtained by a Field emission
Scanning Electron Microscope (Sirion 200) and optical microscope images were
obtained by an Optical Microscopy (Axiovert 200MAT).
1.2. Detailed bending condition
The detailed bending condition was shown in Fig. S1.
1.3. Flexible transparent heaters fabrication
Such heaters were fabricated by printing silver pads (length: 4 cm, width: 0.5 cm)
onto our TCF’s surface to define a patterned specific shape, and a polycarbonate (PC)
film were covered onto both heater H-1 and heater H-2 (as shown in Fig. S2).
1.4. Flexible transparent heaters characterization
The working voltage was provided by an adjustable regulated power supply. The
resistance was measured using a multimeter, and the heating temperature was
measured using an infrared thermometer.
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FIG. S1. Bending condition.
FIG. S2. (a) Heater H-1. (b) Heater H-2.
2. The surface stability of films fabricated by wiping-rubbing method (under
different surface destructive treatments)
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TABLE SІ. The change rates of TCF properties after different surface treatments
Treatments
Change rate of
Change rate of
resistivity
transparency
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
< 1.0%
< 1.0%
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
After gently friction test: paper
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
After gently friction test: cloth
< 0.1%
< 0.1%
Bending for 100 cycles
Storage without protective layer for 2 weeks
Ultrasonic cleaning for 60 mins
After tape test
After gently friction test: finger
3. Additional comparative experiment results of surface stability
For comparison of surface stability of films fabricated by wiping-rubbing method
and other methods, we had prepared flexible TCFs on PC matrix by spray coating,
inject printing, dip coating and filtration transferring of solution dispersed graphene.
The ultrasonic cleaning, adhering-tearing, and gently wiping treatments were also
tested. However, the functional layers of these films were easily destroyed due to the
poor surface adhesion. Therefore, the flexible TCFs fabricated by wiping-rubbing
method are far more resilient to mechanical deformation than other existing methods
concerning the much stronger surface stability of the samples.
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4. Comparison results of surface roughness of PC films before and after
graphene nanosheets transferred
In order to compare the surface roughness of raw PC films before and after
graphene nanosheets transferred, we have removed off the graphene nanosheets on
one sample by severely surface friction treatments: scrubbed the graphene nanosheets
by close at excessively friction pressure (100 KPa). The comparison results were
given in Fig. S3. It could be clearly seen that the surface roughness of them were
similar (Both were within 3 nm).
Fig. S3. Surface roughness of raw PC films before and after graphene nanosheets
transferred. (a) AFM image of a 5 μm × 5 μm area of raw PC film before graphene
nanosheets transferred. (b) AFM image of a 5 μm × 5 μm area of PC film after
graphene nanosheets transferred and removed off.
5. The morphology of graphite powders layer generated by wiping and the
morphology of graphite block after wiping
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FIG. S4. (a) FSEM image of graphite powders layer generated by wiping (5000 times
magnification). (b) FSEM image of graphite block after wiping step and sucking away
the graphite powders layer by vacuum cleaner (5000 times magnification).
6. Heating results of heater H-2
FIG. S5. Heating results of heater H-2 at three conditions.
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Supplemental Material for Publication