Online Supplementary Appendices
Appendix S1: Dental measurements
Dental measurements (in mm) of Choerolophodon from various late Miocene localities of
Greece. Abbreviations: L, length; W, width; NS, number of specimens; V, variation
(minimum-maximum value); M, mean value; SD, standard deviation.
dp3
Locality Collection
PNT
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
XIR
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
RPl
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
RZ1
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
RZO
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
PXM
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
DIT
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
DKO
LGPUT NS
V
R.X
MNHN NS
V
m
SD
NIK
LGPUT NS
V
m
SD
PIK
MNHN NS
V
m
SD
SAM
NHMW NS
MGL
V
HGI
M
SD
L
dp4
W
L
m1
W
L
m2
W
L
1
46.7
m3
W
2
28.3
4
(43)-58.2 26.7-30.4
49.9
29.3
6.8
1.7
6
(46)-52.7 (26)-(33)
48.3
29.8
2.6
2.6
1
39.2
(25.5)
3
51.0-61.5 30.3-(34)
55.2
32.4
5.6
1.9
1
51.7
33.5
(104)-109.0
106.5
3.5
3
(61)-(68)
65.3
3.8
1
(37)-45.1
39.9
4.5
92.5
3
68.2-82.0 (39.2)-45.4
103.6
76.4
42.0
7.3
3.2
2
69.3-71.6 39.6-41.6
70.5
40.6
1.6
1.4
1
(66)
(46)
(85)-91.8
88.4
4.8
3
73.8-76.7 42.5-44
(85)-95.1
75.5
43.2
90.1
1.5
0.8
7.1
2
53.1-54.5 33.0-35.2
53.8
34.1
1
1.6
1
52.5
29.8
2
77.6-78.3
78.0
0.5
61.8
62.0
0.1
(41)-(42)
41.5
0.7
8
51.0-59.8 31.0-35.7
56.1
33.6
3.4
1.7
1
51.8
32.0
3
(68)-76.5 (41.9)-44.7
73.4
43.6
4.7
1.5
2
77.9-79.1 43.0-45.8
78.5
44.4
0.8
2
5
5
54.6-62.0 30.2-38.5 (67.4)-82.0 (40.5)-47.0
57.6
34.1
75.0
44.6
3.0
3.0
5.8
2.8
1
55.8
1
2
57.8
136.0-142.0
139
4.2
53.4-53.6
53.5
0.1
(130)
2
64.0
64.0
0
1
2
(51.4)-55.0
53.2
2.5
(61)
L
W
3
(148)-174.0 63.8-81.8
163.0
74.9
13.5
9.7
1
187.0
74.6
L
26.6-27.3
27.0
0.3
26.4-28.7
27.6
1.6
29.0-30.8
29.8
0.9
(25)-27.0
26.0
1.4
29.0-34.5
32.0
2.3
33.0
32.0
W
4
19.5-22.9
21.3
1.8
2
(19.8)-23.2
21.5
2.4
3
20.6-23
21.8
1.2
2
20.7-21.6
21.2
0.6
4
24.1-27.0
25.3
1.3
1
23.0
1
24.4
7
33.0-36.0 22.2-27.8
24.0
34.3
2.0
1.1
1
26.5
34.5
7
30.6-35.3 22.0-27.0
24.6
33.2
1.9
1.6
1
23.2
34.6
L
W
L
M2
M1
DP4
DP3
DP2
Locality Collection
LGPUT NS
PNT
V
M
SD
LGPUT NS
XIR
V
M
SD
LGPUT NS
RPl
V
M
SD
LGPUT NS
RZ1
V
M
SD
LGPUT NS
RZO
V
M
SD
LGPUT NS
VTK
V
LGPUT NS
DIT
V
MNHN NS
R.X
V
LGPUT NS
NIK
V
M
SD
MNHN NS
PIK
V
M
SD
NHMW NS
SAM
V
MGL
M
HGI
SD
MTLB ΝΗΜΑ NS
V
W
3
41.2-46.7 33.0-38.2 (65.4)-70.0 (47.3)-50.5
48.4
67.4
35.5
44.1
1.8
2.4
2.0
1.9
5
7
46.5-50.4 (37.1)-42.8 67.6-78.5 (37)-53.7
47.1
71.4
41
48
6.8
4.2
2.4
1.5
1
(51)
73.6
W
L
W
L
7
1
81.7
(78.2)
56.3
2
(53.2)-(54.4)
53.8
0.8
1
(45)
2
2
80.0
41.5-42.7
61.5
(40)-40.3 35.0-(35.8)
42.1
35.4
40.2
0.8
0.6
0.2
2
6
46.5-53.1 40.6-46.6 72.5-78.7 (53.7)-55.2
54.5
75.6
43.9
49.3
1.1
4.4
2.2
2.2
1
1
51.5
(76)
46.7
57.2
1
1
(39)
76.6
42.5
52.6
1
48.6
72.5
1
8
(47)
(67)
(45)-56.5 41.5-45.0
43.3
51.5
1.5
3.4
2
2
49.5-52.7 44.9-45.0 75.3-77.0 (48)-50.2
49.1
76.2
45
51.1
1.6
1.2
0.1
2.3
2
6
6
60.1-60.4
47.6-54.0 39.0-45.5 (65)-73.0 (47)-53.0 89.4-94.1
60.3
91.8
50.1
69
42.8
51.1
0.2
3.3
2.3
3.0
2.8
2.7
1
(68)
(87)
2
1
69.0
107.0
1
(126)
(62)
Appendix S2: Specimens used in this study
Choerolophodon anatolicus
Pentalophos-1 (PNT, Axios Valley, early Vallesian, LGPUT): Maxillary fragment with DP2DP3 dex, PNT-159; 2 maxillary fragments with DP2-DP4 sin, PNT-94, 157; DP2 dex, PNT45; DP3 dex, PNT-46; 3 DP3 sin, PNT-16a, 47, 93; DP4 sin, PNT-16b; dp3 sin, PNT-158;
right mandibular fragment with m2 and erupting m3, PNT-154; left mandibular fragment with
m2 and mesial part of erupting m3, PNT-153; m3 dex, PNT-155; left hemimandible with m3,
PNT-156.
Choerolophodon pentelici
Xirochori-1 (XIR, Axios Valley, late Vallesian, LGPUT): I2 of juvenile individual, XIR-18;
DP2 dex, XIR-10; 2 DP3 dex, XIR-12, 13; DP3 sin, XIR-11; DP4 dex, XIR-14; maxillary
fragment with DP4 sin, XIR-7; maxilla with DP2 dex and DP3-DP4 dex and sin, XIR-21;
cranium with I2, DP3-DP4 dex and sin, XIR-23; M1 dex, XIR-15; right mandibular fragment
with dp3, XIR-16; left mandibular fragment with dp3, XIR-17; mandible with dp3-dp4 dex
and sin, XIR-20; left mandibular fragment with partial dp4 and m1 in alveolus, XIR-22; left
mandibular fragment with dp4-m1 and m2 in alveolus, XIR-9; m3 sin, XIR-6.
Ravin de la Pluie (RPl, Axios Valley, late Vallesian, LGPUT): 2 DP2 dex, RPl-65, 253; DP2
sin, RPl-254; part of DP3 sin, RPl-265; DP4 dex, RPl-21; M1 sin, RPl-24; M1-M2 dex, RPl23; 4 dp3 dex, RPl-22, 259, 260, 266; left mandibular fragment with dp3, RPl-258; 2 left
mandibular fragment with dp3-dp4, RPl-256,257; left mandible with dp3-m1, RPl-255; left
mandibular fragment with m2 in alveolus, RPl-275.
3
Ravin des Zouaves-1 (RZ1, Axios Valley, late Vallesian, LGPUT): cranium with I2, DP2DP4 and Μ1 in alveolus dex and sin, and associated mandible with dp3-dp4 and m1 in
alveolus dex and sin, RZ1-9.
Ravin des Zouaves-5 (RZO, Axios Valley, early Turolian, LGPUT): 3 I2 of juvenile
individuals, RZO-220, 221, 238; DP2 dex, RZO-219; DP2 sin, RZO-218; cranium with I2,
DP2-DP4 dex and sin, and associated mandible with dp3 and dp4 in alveolus dex and sin,
RZO-208; 2 DP3 dex, RZO-12, 207; DP3 sin, RZO-13; cranium fragment with DP3-DP4 dex,
RZO-11; dp3 sin, RZO-192; mandible with dp4 sin, m1 dex and sin, m2 dex in alveolus,
RZO-206.
Vathylakkos-2 (VTK, Axios Valley, middle Turolian, LGPUT): left maxillary fragment with
DP2-DP3 (broken), VTK-90; left maxillary fragment with DP3-DP4, VTK-41.
Prochoma-1 (PXM, Axios Valley, middle Turolian, LGPUT): DP3, PXM-173; dp3 dex,
PXM-262; dp4 dex, PXM-261; right and left mandibular frag. with dp4-m1, PXM-176.
Dytiko-2 (DIT, Axios Valley, late Turolian, LGPUT): 2 I2 of juvenile individuals, DIT-30,
31; right cranium fragment with I2 and the juvenile dentition inside the bone, DIT-26; partial
cranium with I2 sin, DP2 dex and sin and DP3-DP4 in alveolus dex and sin, DIT-32; right
mandibular fragment with dp3, DIT-28; left mandibular fragment with dp3, DIT-29; right
mandibular fragment with dp3 and dp4 in alveolus, DIT-27.
Dytiko-3 (DKO, Axios Valley, late Turolian, LGPUT): left mandible with dp3, DKO-42.
Ravin X (R.X, Axios Valley, Turolian): DP4 sin, MNHN-SLQ-3; mandible with dp4 dex and
sin, MNHN-SLQ-2.
Nikiti-2 (ΝΙΚ, Chalkidiki, early Turolian, LGPUT): I2 dex of adult individual, ΝΙΚ-1776; 4
I2 of juvenile individuals, NIK-1016, 1606, 1607, 1614; 3 DP2 dex, NIK-1591; 5 DP2 sin,
NIK-184, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1628; 2 DP3 dex, NIK-849, 1605; 2 DP3 sin, NIK-261, 1611;
left maxillary fragment with DP2-DP3, NIK-1589; maxilla with DP3-DP4 dex and DP2-DP4
sin, ΝΙΚ-1615; maxillary fragment with DP3 and DP4 sin in alveolus, NIK-1613; 2 dp3 dex,
4
NIK-1586, 1590; dp4 dex, NIK-1612; dp4 sin, NIK-262; right and left hemimandibles with
dp3, NIK-1592; dp3 dex and left hemimandible with dp3, NIK-1604; 2 left mandibular
fragments with dp3 in alveolus, ΝΙΚ-1585, 1588; left mandibular fragment with dp4 in
alveolus, ΝΙΚ-1587; mandible with dp3-dp4 and m1 in alveolus dex και sin, NIK-1593.
Samos (SAM, Samos Island, Turolian): cranium with DP2-DP3 and DP4 in alveolus dex and
sin, and associated mandible with dp3 dex and sin, NHMW 2014/0129/0002; cranium with I2,
DP2-DP4 dex and sin, and associated mandible with dp3 and erupting dp4 dex and sin,
NHMW 2014/0129/0001; cranium with I2, DP2-DP4 dex and sin, and associated left
mandible with dp3-dp4 and m1 in alveolus, HGI-Ok-548, 549; cranium with I2, DP4-M1 dex
and sin, NHMW 1913/0001/0017; DP2 dex, MGL-S 614; right and left mandibular fragment
with dp3, MGL-S 340; right mandibular fragment with dp4 and left mandibular fragment with
dp4 and partial m1, MGL-S 333.
Mytilinii-1B (MTLB, Samos Island, middle Turolian, NHMA): cranium fragment with M1M2 dex and M2 sin, MTLB-126; DP2 sin, MTLB-11.
Pikermi (Attica, middle Turolian, MN 12): juvenile cranium with DP2-DP4 dex, I2 sin and
DP4 sin, and associated mandible with dp3-dp4 dex and dp4 sin, MNHN-PIK-3665; DP3 sin,
MNHN-PIK-1705.
5
Appendix S3: Character-taxon matrix used for the phylogenetic analyses
hypothetical ancestor
C. kisumuensis
C. palaeindicus
C. zaltaniensis
C. ngorora- 1
C. guangheensis
C. chioticus
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
C. corrugatus
C. ngorora- 2
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
2
2
2
3
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
2
2
2
4
0
0
?
1
1
0
0
2
2
2
2
5a
0
1
?
?
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
0
0
0
0
1
?
?
1
1
1
?
7b
0
0
0
0
0
?
?
0
1
1
?
8
0
0
?
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
0
?
?
0
0
?
?
0
1
1
?
10
0
?
?
?
0
?
?
0
1
1
?
6
11
0
?
?
?
0
?
?
0
1
0
?
12
0
?
?
?
?
?
?
0
1
1
?
c
d
e
f
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
?
?
?
?
?
0
0
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
0
?
?
?
?
1
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
1
0
?
1
?
0
?
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
20
0
0
?
?
?
0
0
1
1
1
?
21
0
0
?
?
?
0
0
1
2
1
?
22
0
0
?
?
?
0
0
0
1
0
?
1. Intermediate molars without chevroning (0) or with chevroning (1)
2. Teeth with absent/weak ptychodonty (0), intermediate (1) or strong ptychodonty (2)
3. Teeth with absent/weak choerodonty (0), intermediate (1) or strong choerodonty (2)
4. Teeth with absent/weak cementodonty (0), intermediate (1) or strong cementodonty (2)
5. Upper tusks with enamel band (0) or without (1)
6. m3 with four lophids (0) or may have five lophids (1)
7. In tetralophodont m3 the distal cingulum may be connected with the fourth lophid (0) or
not (1)
8. M3 with three lophs (0) or more (1)
9. The size of DP2/dp3/DP3 is small (0) or large (1)
10. The development of the distal cingulum in dp3 is small (0) or large (1)
11. The distal cingulum in dp3 is connected with the second lophid (0) or isolated (1)
12. The development of the distal cingulum in DP3 is small (0) or large (1)
13. In DP3 the metacone is connected with the posttrite conelet of the distal cingulum (0) or
separated (1)
14. The mandibular symphysis in adult individuals is ventrally not deflected (0) or deflected
(1)
15. The mandibular symphysis in juvenile individuals is ventrally not deflected (0) or
deflected (1)
16. Corpus and ramus are almost vertical (0) or form obtuse angle (1)
7
17. Retromolar gap is not present (0) or present (1)
18. Steeply inclined facial region/upper tusk emerge downwards (0) or moderately inclined
facial region/upper tusk emerge sub-horizontally (1)
19. Narrow parietal region (0) or wide parietal region (1)
20. Orbit set low (0) or at the top of the cranium (1)
21. Orbit located above the last molar in function (0), just behind (1) or remote (2)
22. The anterior zygomatic process is located at the level of the last molar in function (0) or
behind (1)
a
Palaeomastodon and Phiomia from the Oligocene of Africa, as well as the primitive
elephantoids from the early Miocene (e.g. Eozygodon morotoensis, Gomphotherium
sylvaticum, Archaeobelodon filholi) presented a lateral enamel band (Tassy 1977, 1986, 1996;
Pickford & Tassy 1980; Sanders et al. 2010), whereas more advanced elephantoids, such as
Mammut and Tetralophodon, lack enamel band (Göhlich 1999).
b
In the primitive gomphotheres of the Gomphotherium “annectens group” (G. annectens, G.
cooperi, G. sylvaticum, G. sp.) from the early Miocene of the Old World, the m3 has four
lophids without isolated distal cingulum (Tassy 1977, 1985, 1996). Therefore the connection
between fourth lophid and distal cingulum is a plesiomorphic character, which in
choerolophodonts in present until C. anatolicus.
c
Tassy (1985, 1986) mentioned that the symphysis in Gomphotherium annectens and
Archaeobelodon filholi is located at the extension of the corpus and considered the absence of
deflection a plesiomorphic character.
8
d
In G. angustidens and G. subtapiroideum the symphysis in juvenile mandibles is straight
(Tassy 1985, 1994; Göhlich 2010).
e
Phiomia, Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, G. steinheimense and G. angustidens form almost
vertical angle, whereas in the more primitive Numidotherium and Moeritherium the angle is
acute (Tassy 1985; Göhlich 1998, 2010; Sanders et al. 2010).
f
In the primitive elephantoids from the early Miocene of Africa, such as Archaeobelodon, the
facial region is inclined and the tusks emerge downwards (Tassy 1986: pl. 3).
9
Appendix S4: Methodology used for dental microwear analysis
According to Kay & Hiiemae (1974) the masticatory process of the food is divided into the
shearing phase with parallel movements of the jaw to the occlusal surfaces, and the grinding
phase with additional vertical movements. Upper and lower teeth were not separated (Teaford
& Walker 1984).
For the mold acquisition we followed the protocol of Merceron et al. (2012). The
appropriate specimens were selected and cleaned with acetone in order all traces of glue from
the preparation to be removed. For each selected surface, casts were produced using polyvinyl
siloxane (Regular Body Microsystem, Coltene President). Each cast was placed horizontally
in a framework (Putty soft, Coltene President), which was subsequently poured with
transparent polyurethane resin (Ebalta MG709/20) and placed in an autoclave with
temperature of about 50° C and pressure of 2 × 105 Pa for 5 hours. With this procedure the
casts are without bubbles either on their surface or inside.
For the image analysis we followed the protocol of Merceron et al. (2004, 2005, 2012).
The tooth surfaces were digitized (1μm = 1 pixel) to 256 Gy level with magnification ×30,
using a CCD camera (with lenses ×0.5 Leica ICD, Leica Microsystems) connected to a light
stereomicroscope (×60, Leica MZ 125, Leica Microsystems). Each photo was enlarged to
×120 for use on the computer screen. Analysis of images was conducted by ImageJ
(Abràmoff et al. 2004) and the plug-in ObjectJ (Vischer et al. 1994). Then a 0.09mm2 square
was defined, where the counting of all the microwear scars took place. Counted were all the
scars that were inside this square or passed through it.
The microwear scars that were recognized on the enamel were divided into the long scars
(scratches) and the small round scars (pits). The distinction between scratches and pits was
based on the ratio width/length. For scratches the ratio is less than 1/4, wheares for pits is
10
greater. Apart from this, a classification in small and large sizes was conducted, respectively.
The length of the wide scratches and the length of the major axis of the large pits is greater
than 15μm. Moreover the percentage of pits (Pp) according to the type Pp = 100 × Np / (Np +
Ns) was calculated.
The data obtained from image analysis were statistically processed using the software
PAST version 2.14 (Hammer et al. 2001). Because the values of the variables do not follow a
normal distribution, thus they do not fulfill the conditions for parametric tests, they were rank
transformed before analysis. Two sets of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were
performed, one for comparison among juvenile and adult specimens of Choerolophodon and a
second for comparison among adult specimens of C. anatolicus, C. pentelici, D. giganteum,
G. subtapiroideum and G. steinheimense. The analysis of variance examines the null
hypothesis (Ho - the specimens have a similar microwear pattern) at significance a = 0.05.
When the hypothesis is rejected some of the species differ significantly. To identify precisely
the pairs of species, post hoc pair-wise comparison was applied, using the Tukey’s Honestly
Significant Difference (HSD), the most conservative one in investigating differences,
providing the greatest safety for errors.
The herbivorous animals can be divided into three main dietary categories depending on
their dietary habits: grazers, whose main dietary source are graminoids (grasses, sedges,
rushes) and exhibit higher density of scratches than pits; browsers, whose diet contain more
soft food, such as leaves and fruits and exhibit fewer scratches; and, mixed feeders, which
represent an intermediate category and the type of food intake depends on the environmental
conditions of the time of death of the animal (Hofmann & Stewart 1972; Merceron et al.
2007). The three main variables used for the distinction are the number of scratches (Ns), the
number of pits (Np) and the percentage of pits (Pp), the latter being the most important in
distinguishing grazers from browsers. Low Pp (<40%) indicates that the predominant diet are
11
graminoids, whereas high Pp (>60%) indicates a relatively soft diet. Percentage ranging from
40% to 60% characterizes a mixed diet (Merceron et al. 2012).
12
Appendix S5: List of specimens used for dental microwear analysis
Species
Ontogenetic stage
C. anatolicus
adult
C. pentelici
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
juvenile
Locality
Pentalophos-1
Biozone Specimen
ΜΝ 9 PNT-153
PNT-154
PNT-155
PNT-156
Xirochori-1
ΜΝ 10
XIR-6
XIR-9
Ravin de la Pluie
ΜΝ 10
RPl-23
RPl-24
Ravin des Zouaves-5 ΜΝ 11 RZO-206
Pentalophos-1
ΜΝ 9
PNT-94
Xirochori-1
ΜΝ 10
XIR-7
XIR-11
XIR-12
XIR-17
XIR-20
XIR-21
XIR-22
XIR-23
Ravin de la Pluie
ΜΝ 10 RPl-256
RPl-257
RPl-259
Ravin des Zouaves-1 ΜΝ 10
RZ1-9
Ravin des Zouaves-5 ΜΝ 11 RZO-12
RZO-13
RZO-208
RZO-208
Prochoma-1
ΜΝ 12 PXM-176
PXM-261
Vathylakkos-2
ΜΝ 12 VTK-41
Dytiko-3
ΜΝ 13 DKO-42
Nikiti-2
ΜΝ 11 NIK-1592
NIK-1604b
13
Tooth Shearing facet Grinding facet
m2
+
m2
+
+
m3
+
+
m3
+
+
m3
+
+
m1
+
+
M1
+
M1
+
m1
+
+
DP3
+
DP4
+
DP3
+
DP3
+
dp3
+
dp4
+
DP3
+
dp4
+
DP3
+
dp4
+
dp4
+
+
dp3
+
dp4
+
DP3
+
+
DP3
+
dp3
+
dp4
+
dp4
+
+
dp4
+
+
DP3
+
+
dp3
+
+
dp3
+
dp3
+
Appendix S6: Summary statistics of dental microwear variables
A, juvenile and adult specimens of Choerolophodon; B, adult specimens of Choerolophodon,
Deinotherium and Gomphotherium. Data of Deinotherium and Gomphotherium from
Calandra et al. (2008). Abbreviations: N, number of individuals; Μ, mean value; SΕΜ,
standard error of the mean; Ns, number of scratches; Ls, length of scratches; Np, number of
pits; Nws, number of wide scratches; Nlp, number of large pits; Pp, percentage of pits.
Facet
N
A
adult
adult
juvenile
juvenile
B
Choerolophodon anatolicus
Choerolophodon pentelici
Deinotherium giganteum
Gomphotherium steinheimense
Gonphotherium subtapiroideum
shearing
grinding
shearing
grinding
9
6
22
7
M
18,0
17,5
21,7
21,9
shearing
grinding
shearing
grinding
shearing
grinding
shearing
grinding
shearing
grinding
4
3
5
3
17
17
13
11
6
5
19,7
15,7
16,6
19,3
16,3
22,7
26,6
19,4
30,2
31,2
Ns
SEM
± 0,9
± 2,0
± 0,8
± 2,7
M
308,3
318,3
213,9
205,4
Ls
SEM
± 38,5
± 27,6
± 16,3
± 54,2
M
4,8
6,5
5,3
6,2
Np
SEM
± 0,6
± 1,5
± 0,3
± 1,0
M
1,6
1,3
1,3
1,5
Nws
SEM
± 0,3
± 0,4
± 0,1
± 0,4
M
0,8
0,4
0,9
1,1
Nlp
SEM
± 0,2
± 0,2
± 0,1
± 0,3
M
20,7
27,4
19,7
22,2
Pp
SEM
± 2,1
± 6,3
± 0,8
± 2,6
± 1,2
± 2,5
± 0,9
± 3,2
± 1,1
± 2,5
± 2,7
± 2,6
± 2,2
± 3,0
302,0
358,9
313,4
277,7
319,4
358,6
299,6
252,5
300,0
191,9
± 60
± 36,3
± 56,2
± 29,0
± 34,9
± 30,5
± 23,5
± 24,4
± 46,6
± 23,8
4,9 ± 0,4
8,3 ± 2,7
4,7 ± 1,1
4,7 ± 0,9
73,6 ± 5,8
51,2 ± 5,0
69,8 ± 9,2
63,9 ± 11,5
69,9 ± 7,0
72,5 ± 10,1
2,1
1,0
1,3
1,5
0,4
0,6
0,4
0,7
1,3
0,6
± 0,4
± 0,3
± 0,3
± 0,8
± 0,1
± 0,1
± 0,1
± 0,2
± 0,5
± 0,2
0,8
0,8
0,7
0,0
7,1
5,3
3,9
3,2
3,0
3,5
± 0,3
± 0,2
± 0,3
0
± 0,7
± 0,7
± 0,8
± 0,4
± 0,9
± 1,2
20,0
34,4
21,4
20,5
79,8
66,9
68,9
72,9
69,0
68,3
± 0,9
± 10,7
± 3,9
± 5,8
± 3,0
± 4,8
± 4,7
± 4,4
± 3,6
± 5,7
14
Appendix S7: Anova summary for juvenile and adult specimens of
Choerolophodon
The bold values indicate p values lower than 0.05. Abbreviations: f, degrees of freedom; SS,
sums of squares; MS, mean square; F, F-value; p, probability.
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
29
30
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
29
30
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
29
30
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
11
12
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
11
12
Ontogenetic stage
Residuals
Total
df
1
11
12
SHEARING
Ns (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
524,93 524,93 8,25 0,008
1845,84 63,65
2370,77
Np (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
59,63
59,63 0,73 0,401
2379,72 82,06
2439,35
Nlp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
13,33
13,33 0,17 0,686
2318,22 79,94
2331,55
GRINDING
Ns (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
15,17
15,17 1,00 0,339
166,83 15,17
182,00
Np (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
0,05
0,05 0,00 0,958
172,26 15,66
172,31
Nlp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
21,76
21,76 2,09 0,176
114,55 10,41
136,31
15
Ls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
391,41 391,41 5,44 0,03
2088,59 72,02
2480,00
Nls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
142,12 142,12 1,85 0,185
2232,59 76,99
2374,71
Pp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
1,15
1,15 0,01 0,909
2501,82 86,27
2502,97
Ls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
69,64 69,64 6,82 0,024
112,36 10,21
182,00
Nls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
8,97
8,97 0,67 0,430
147,33 13,39
156,31
Pp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
1,24
1,24 0,08 0,789
180,76 16,43
182,00
Appendix 8: Anova summary for various proboscidean species
The bold values indicate p values lower than 0.05. Abbreviations: f, degrees of freedom; SS,
sums of squares; MS, mean square; F, F-value; p, probability.
df
Species 4
Residuals 40
Total
44
df
Species 4
Residuals 40
Total
44
df
Species 4
Residuals 40
Total
44
df
Species 4
Residuals 34
Total
38
df
Species 4
Residuals 34
Total
38
df
Species 4
Residuals 34
Total
38
SHEARING
Ns (ranked data)
Ls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
3532,53 883,13 8,80 <0,001 63,74 15,94 0,08 0,987
4014,67 100,37
7526,26 188,16
7547,20
7590,00
Np (ranked data)
Nws (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
3694,22 923,55 9,38 <0,001 2604,08 651,02 8,74 <0,001
3939,70 98,49
2979,12 74,48
7633,91
5583,20
Nlp (ranked data)
Pp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
3928,28 982,07 11,79 <0,001 4396,45 1099,11 13,77 <0,001
3332,70 83,32
3193,55 79,84
7260,98
7590,00
GRINDING
Ns (ranked data)
Ls (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
1121,51 280,38 2,53 0,006 1499,17 374,79 3,70 0,013
3774,80 111,02
3440,83 101,20
4896,31
4940,00
Np (ranked data)
Nws (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
2227,30 556,83 7,00 <0,001 584,60 146,15 1,20 0,327
2704,60 79,55
4130,32 121,48
4931,90
4714,92
Nlp (ranked data)
Pp (ranked data)
SS
MS
F
p
SS
MS
F
p
2059,77 514,94 7,03 <0,001 1654,89 413,72 4,28 0,007
2492,13 73,30
3285,11 96,62
4551,90
4940,00
16
Appendix S9: Post hoc HSD Test
Post hoc HSD test among the adult specimens of the various proboscidean species.
SHEARING
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
D. giganteum
G. steinheimense
G. subtapiroideum
GRINDING
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
D. giganteum
G. steinheimense
G. subtapiroideum
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
D. giganteum G. steinheimense G. subtapiroideum
Np, Nws, Nlp, Pp Np, Nws, Nlp, Pp
Np, Nws, Pp
Np, Nws, Pp
Ns
Np, Pp
Ns, Np, Pp
Ns, Nlp
C. anatolicus
C. pentelici
D. giganteum G. steinheimense G. subtapiroideum
Nlp
Np, Pp
Ns, Np
Np, Nlp, Pp
Np, Nlp, Pp
Np, Nlp
17
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Appendix S2: Specimens used in this study