Experiment 6.1
Exploring Properties of Gases (4)
Lab Report =
(5) Introduction:
Because atmospheric gases are generally
colorless, odorless, and tasteless, you might
doubt that they are forms of matter; they appear
to be “nothing.” However, gases have definite
physical and chemical properties, just as
materials in the other two states of matter –
solids and liquid – do. In this laboratory activity,
you will perform a variety of experiments that
illustrate some properties of air.
Before you start this activity, carefully read
through the procedure. Decide what you think
will happen at each of the nice laboratory
stations, and complete your predictions on Angel
(2) Objectives:
1. Explore different gas laws
3. Explore the properties of gases.
2. Predict outcomes of each experiment
relating to gases
water bottle
centigram balance
250 mL beaker
Empty 2-L soda bottle
laboratory apron
(5) Reagents:
ammonium chloride
sodium bicarbonate
calcium carbonate chips
sodium hydroxide pellets
0.1 M lead(II) nitrate solution
0.1 M potassium iodide solution
1.0 M acetic acid solution
0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution
0.1 M sodium carbonate
0.1 M calcium chloride
1% phenolphthalein solution
1. Adorn your safety glasses and lab apron.
2. In this experiment you will be asked to make
observations. While you are making
observations, think about how they might be
quantified. Be careful to note the phase of
matter you are asked to use.
3. Using the 13 X 100 mm test tubes, mix the
following pairs of reagents in the quantities
listed. Mix each concoction by stirring with
stirring rod. Use a microspoon to add each
solid. Rinse and dry between each use. To
make sure you feel a temperature change, hold
the test tube near the top.
a. ≈1 gram ammonium chloride + ≈5 mL water
b. ≈1 pellet sodium hydroxide + ≈5 mL water
Experiment 3-1
c. ≈1 gram sodium hydrogen carbonate + 5 mL
acetic acid
d. ≈1 gram calcium carbonate + 5 mL acetic
4. Using a spot plate, mix the following reagents in
the amounts listed.
a. 5 drops sodium hydroxide solution + 1 drop
phenolphthalein solution.
b. 5 drops acetic acid solution + 1 drop
phenolphthalein solution.
c. 5 drops of sodium carbonate + 5 drops of
calcium chloride.
e. 5 drops lead nitrate solution + 5 drops
potassium iodide solution.
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5. Record all observations on the data table.
7. Clean up all materials and wash your hands
6. If in doubt on any part, repeat that part.
Data and Observations: (20)
Data Table
Chemicals Used
ammonium chloride and
Sodium hydroxide pellets
and water
sodium hydrogen carbonate
and acetic acid
Calcium carbonate and
acetic acid
Stamp for 4
sodium hydroxide and
acetic acid and
Sodium carbonate +
Calcium chloride
Lead(II) nitrate + potassium
Stamp for 5
(18) Analysis and Conclusions:
(8) 1. Describe in clear terms how each step of the
procedure could be repeated to collect
quantified data.
a. ammonium chloride + water
b. sodium hydroxide and water
c. sodium hydrogen carbonate and acetic
d. calcium carbonate and acetic acid
e. sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein
f. acetic acid and phenolphthalein
g. sodium carbonate + calcium chloride
h. lead(II) nitrate + potassium iodide
(3) 2. Describe any temperature changes you
(2) 3. Describe any color changes you observed.
(2) 4. Which combinations produced a gas?
(2) 5. Which combinations produced a precipitate?
(1) 6. Which combinations resulted in no reaction?
(18) Synthesis:
1. Based on your observations, predict the results
of mixing the following pairs of chemicals.
Explain why you are making a particular
prediction. If you cannot make a particular
prediction, tell why.
Experiment 3-1
(4) a. magnesium carbonate + acetic acid
i. prediction
ii. explanation
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(4) b. ammonium hydroxide + phenolphthalein
i. prediction
ii. explanation
(2) 2. Suppose you wanted to collect and find the
mass of a gas produced in a chemical reaction.
How would you do it?
(4) c. lead nitrate + sodium chloride
i. prediction
ii. explanation
Extra Credit: (10)
(4) d. hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide
i. prediction
ii. explanation
Write and balance the complete reaction between
sodium hydrogen carbonate and acetic acid, calcium
carbonate and acetic acid, sodium carbonate and
calcium chloride, and lead(II) nitrate and potassium
Experiment 3-1
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6.1 Explore Gas Prop..