Appendix 1. List of zoonotic pathogens of wildlife origin, which emerged in human populations between the years 1940-2004 as
defined by Jones et al. 2008; Host type – host in which pathogen was detected at the time of emergence (0 = detection in humans only;
1 = detection in non-human hosts prior to or concurrent with emergence in humans); Detectability – morbidity or mortality detection
in infected non-human hosts (N/U = infection is asymptomatic or there is insufficient information to support pathogenicity in nonhuman host; Y = infection causes morbidity and/or mortality in non-human hosts); Species – species of non-human hosts in which
pathogens have been reported to produce signs of morbidity/mortality.
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Andes virus
0
Detectability Species
Laboratory animals (syrian hamsters,
Reference
1
(Mesocricetus auratus)
Y
Angiostrongylus cantonensis
0
Anisakis simplex
0
N/U
None found
Marine mammals (harbour porpoises,
Y
Phocoena phocoena; minks
2, 3
Australian bat lyssavirus
0
Y
Flying foxes (Pteropus alecto), bats, pigs
4, 5, 6
Babesia microti
0
Y
Domestic animals
7
2
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Babesia microti-like
0
Y
8
Babesia microti-like WA1-type
0
N/U
Bacillus anthracis
1
Domestic animals (dogs)
9
Domestic animals (sheep), wild ungulates,
Y
hippopotamus
Non-human primates (captive)
10, 11, 12
Balamuthia mandrillaris
0
Y
Barmah forest virus
0
N/U
14
Bartonella elizabethae
0
N/U
15
Borellia burgdorferi
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs, cats)
16
Brucella melitensis
0
Y
Domestic animals (goats), wild ungulates
17, 18
Burkholderia pseudomallei
0
Y
Non-human primates
19
Californian encephalitis
0
Y
Snowshoe hare, laboratory animals
20, 21
Campylobacter fetus
0
Y
Domestic animals (livestock)
22
Campylobacter jejuni
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs, cats)
23, 24
Campylobacter jejuni
0
fluoroquinolone-res
13
25, 26
N/U
3
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Chikungunya
0
N/U
27
Clostridium botulinum
0
Y
Fish
28
Coccidioides immitis
0
Y
Marine mammals, wild felines & ungulates
29, 30, 31
Coxiella burnetii
0
Y
Domestic animals
32
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever
0
N/U
Cryptococcus neoformans
0
33, 34
Captive wild birds; koalas (Phascolarctos
Y
35, 36
cinereus)
Dengue
0
N/U
None found
Ebola (Sudan)
0
Y
37, 38
Echinococcus granulosus
0
N/U
39, 40
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs, cats)
41
Ehrlichia equi
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs, cats); horses
41, 42
Ehrlichia ewingii
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs, cats)
41
Ehrlichia phagocytophila
0
Y
Livestock (goats, sheep, cattle)
43
Encephalitozoon cuniculi
0
Y
Lagomorphs (rabbits)
44
4
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Encephalitozoon hellem
0
Y
Wild birds
45
Escherichia coli non-O157:H7
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
46
Escherichia coli O103:H2
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O104:H2
0
N/U
None found
Escherichia coli O104:H21
0
N/U
None found
Escherichia coli 0111:H-
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli 0111:H_
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O111:H2
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O111:H8
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O118:H12
0
N/U
*Not isolated in cattle
47
Escherichia coli O118:H16
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O118:H2
0
N/U
*Not isolated in cattle
47
Escherichia coli O118:H30
0
N/U
*Not isolated in cattle
47
Escherichia coli O145:H-
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
47
Escherichia coli O145:H5
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy cattle
48
5
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Escherichia coli O153:H25
0
N/U
47
Escherichia coli O157:H7
0
N/U
Escherichia coli O163:H19
0
N/U
*Isolated in healthy cattle
51
Escherichia coli O26:H- (nonmotile) 0
N/U
*Diarrhoeic calves
48
Escherichia coli O26:H11
0
Y
*Mostly isolated from sick cattle
47, 48
Escherichia coli O4:H-
0
N/U
*Mostly isolated from healthy sheep
52
Escherichia coli O4:H5
0
N/U
Escherichia coli O45:H2
0
N/U
*Isolated in healthy cattle
51
Escherichia coli O5:H-
0
Y
*Isolated from sick cattle
47
Escherichia coli O55:H7
0
N/U
*Not isolated in cattle
53
Escherichia coli O91:H-
0
N/U
Mostly isolated from healthy sheep
47
European tick-borne encephalitis
0
Y
Non-human primates; domestic animals
54, 55, 56
Far eastern tick-borne encephalitis
0
Y
Domestic animals
54, 55
Francisella tularensis
1
Y
Small rodents
57
Guama
0
N/U
*Isolated in healthy cattle only
49, 50
None found
55
6
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Guanarito
0
N/U
58
Hantaan
0
N/U
59
Hendra
1
Y
Hepatitis E
0
N/U
Histoplasma capsulatum
0
Y
Some bat species (Tadaria brasiliensis)
62, 63
Human immunodeficiency virus
0
Y
Non-human primates
64
Influenza A virus; H5N1
1
Y
Birds; domestic animals (cats)
65, 66
Jamestown Canyon virus
0
N/U
Japanese encephalitis virus
0
Y
Domestic animals (pigs)
69, 54, 70
Kunjin virus
0
Y
Domestic animals (calves, horses)
71, 72
Kyasanur forest disease virus
1
Y
Wild non-human primates
73, 74
LaCrosse virus
0
N/U
75
Laguna Negra virus
0
N/U
76
Lassa virus
0
Horses
60
61
67, 68
Laboratory animals (rodents and non-human 77, 78
Y
primate)
7
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Leishmania donovani
0
Y
Laboratory animals (non-human primates)
79
Leishmania infantum
0
Y
Laboratory animals (non-human primates)
79
Leishmania tropica
0
N/U
Leptospira interrogans
0
Y
Leptospira weilii
0
N/U
83
Lysteria monocytogene
0
N/U
84
Machupo virus
0
Y
Rodents
59
Malassezia pachydermatis
0
Y
Domestic animals (dogs)
85
Marburg virus
0
Y
Wild non-human primates
86, 87
Mayaro virus
0
N/U
Menangle virus
1
Y
Domestic animals (pigs)
89, 90
Metorchis conjunctus
0
Y
Wild canines (wolves)
91
Monkeypox virus
0
Y
Wild rodents; domestic animals
92, 93
Murray valley encephalitis virus
0
N/U
Mycobacterium asiaticum
0
Y
80
Domestic animals
81, 82
88
94
Laboratory animals (guinea pigs), non-
95, 96
8
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
human primates
Mycobacterium bovis
0
Y
Domestic animals (cattle); wildlife
Mycobacterium kansasii
0
N/U
Mycobacterium marinum
0
Y
Fish (farm & captive)
99, 100
Mycobacterium simiae
0
Y
Non-human primates
101
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
0
Y
Wild mammals
102
Nipah virus
0
Y
Domestic animals (pigs)
103
Ockelbo virus
0
N/U
Omsk virus
0
98
104
Wild mammals (muskrats); Laboratory
Y
97
105, 106
animals
O'nyong-nyong virus
0
N/U
107
Oropouche virus
0
N/U
108
Orungo virus
0
N/U
109, 110
Penicilium marneffei
0
Y
Picobirnavirus
0
N/U
Laboratory animals (hamsters)
111
112
9
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Rabies virus
0
Y
Wild and domestic animals
113
Rhodococcus equi
0
Y
Domestic animals (foals)
114
Rickettsia africae
0
N/U
Rickettsia akari
0
Y
Laboratory animals
116, 117
Rickettsia felis
0
Y
Domestic animals (cats)
118
Rickettsia helvetica
0
N/U
119
Rickettsia honei
0
N/U
120, 121
Rickettsia japonica
0
N/U
121
Rickettsia mongolotimonae
0
N/U
121, 122
Rickettsia prowazekii
0
115
Laboratory animals (in natural host flying
Y
123
squirrel, Glaucomys volans)
Rickettsia typhi
0
N/U
55
Rift valley fever virus
0
Y
Domestic animals (sheep, dogs, cats)
55
Rotavirus A
0
Y
Domestic animals
54, 55
Sabia virus Brazilian Hemorrhagic
0
N/U
54, 55
10
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Salmonella enteritidis
0
N/U
124
Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4
0
Y
Salmonella typhimurium drug-res
1
fever
Domestic animals (chickens)
125
Domestic animals (calves)
126, 127,
Y
Salmonella typhimurium multidrug-
1
res
128
Domestic animals (calves)
126, 127,
Y
128
129
SARS coronavirus
0
N/U
Schistosoma japonicum
0
Y
Schistosoma mansoni
0
N/U
132, 133
Seoul virus
1
N/U
59
Serratia odorifera biogroup 1
0
N/U
134, 135
Sin nombre virus
0
N/U
1
Sindbis virus
0
Y
Laboratory animals (mice)
136
Staphylococcus lugdunensis
0
Y
Laboratory animals (mice)
137
Laboratory animals, domestic animals (pigs) 130, 131
11
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
Reference
Tahyna virus
0
N/U
138, 55
Trichinella spiralis
0
N/U
139
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
0
N/U
140
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiensis
0
Y
Trypanosoma cruzi
0
N/U
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
1
virus
Domestic (cattle) and wild animals
140
141
Domestic animals (horses)
Y
142, 143,
144
Vibrio damsela
0
Y
Fish, turtles
145, 146
Vibrio vulnificus
0
Y
Wild fish (eels)
147, 148
West Nile virus
0
Y
Wild and domestic birds
149, 150
Whitewater Arroyo virus
1
N/U
Yellow fever virus
0
Y
Yersinia pestis
1
Yersinia pestis multiple drug-res
1
151, 152
Non-human primates
153, 154
Wild mammals (prarie dogs, Cynomys
155
Y
gunnisoni)
Y
Wild rodents (rats, Rattus rattus, Asiatic
156, 157
12
Zoonotic Pathogen
Host type
Detectability Species
shrews, Suncus murinus)
Reference
13
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Appendix 1. List of zoonotic pathogens of wildlife origin, which