POST-GRADUATE SCIENCE BOTANY – QUESTION BANK
1ST SEMESTER -PG-BOT- PAPER-01:
Long questions:
1. What are the components of cytoskeleton? Describe how are they involved in a variety
of cell movement?
2. . Enumerate, in brief, the genome organization in Mitochondria.
3. Describe the process of protein targeting to different organelles.
4. . Describe the mechanism of transcription in eukaryotes.
5. Give an account of the mechanism of cell cycle regulation.
6. Describe the functions of plasma membrane with reference to transport of different
molecules.
7. . Describe, with neat labeled diagrams the structure, genome organization and function
of chloroplast.
8. . Describe the structure and functions of ribosome.
9. Give an account of the structure of nucleolus. Add a note on RNA biosynthesis.
10. Describe the mechanism of programmed cell death.
11. What is cytoskeleton? Describe the structure organization and role of microfilaments.
12. Describe with neat labeled diagrams the structure, genome organization and function of
mitochondria.
13. Describe the structure and role of RNA in protein synthesis.
14. . Describe the structure of A,B and Z forms of DNA.
15. Describe the details of cell cycle and control mechanisms.
16. Discuss the mechanism of recombination at molecular level.
17. Give an account of transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Describe their
roles in mutation.
Write notes on:
(a) Ion carriers
(b) Plasmodesmata
(c) Nucleochloroplastic interactions
(d) Dictyosomes
(e) T-RNA
(f) Plant vacuole
(g) Structures of DNA
(h) MRNA transport
(i) Cytokinesis
(j) IN situ hybridization
(k) Structure and function of cell wall
(l) Motor movements
(m) RNA Editing
(n) Endoplasmic Reticulum
(o) Mechanism of translation
(p) Transporters
(q) Nucleosome organization
(r) RNA splicing
(s) Apoptosis
(t) Microsscopy
u) Different types of cell junctions
v) Plasmodesmata
w) Nucleo-chloroplastic interaction
x) Dictyosome
y) Protein sorting
z) Targeting of proteins to organelles
i) Transcription
ii) Structure of nucleus
iii) Immunotechniques
iv) In situ hybridization to locate transcripts in cell types.
v) Cis-uans test
vi) Transduction in bacteria
vii) Restriction end nuclease
viii) Site specific recombination
ix) Physical & Chemical Mutagens
x) Chromosome micro dissection and micro cloning
1st SEMESTER -PG-BOT- PAPER-02:
Long questions:
1. What is nucleosome? Discuss the organization of different histone molecules in a
nucleosome to give rise to a solenoid.
2. Discuss the mechanism of recombination at molecular level
3. How could it be demonstrated that cytoplasmic male sterility in higher plants is
controlled by mitochondrial DNA?
4. . Discuss different types of aneuploids and their effect on phenotype of plants.
5. . Give an account of transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Describe
their roles in mutation.
6. Describe, with illustrations, the origin, meiotic behavior and significance of inversion.
7. . What is heterosis? Discuss, with examples, the importance of hybrid vigour in plant
breeding .
8. Briefly describe bacterial conjugation. Hoe the process is used in mapping bacterial
genes?
9. Recombination frequencies between three gene pairs segregating in a single experiment
can be used for mapping genes in diploids. Justify with a suitable examples.
10. Mutations that alter the genes in the somatic cells which regulate cell growth and
division eventually lead to cancer. Explain?
11. . Distinguish between euchromatin and heterochromatin. Give an account of the
ultrastructure of eukaryotic chromosome
12. What are aneuploids? Discuss the origin, cytological behavior and genetic significance
monosomics.
13. Write an essay on regulation of gene expression in Prokaryotes.
14. (a) Genetic recombination in phage
15. . Describe the mechanism of recombination at molecular level. What role do Rec A and
Rec BCD play in the process?
16. Discuss on the molecular mechanism of gene mutation.
Write notes on:
a) Robertsonian translocations
b) Lampbrush chromosome
c) Hybrid vigour
d) Chromosome mapping
e) Transduction in bacteria
f) Site specific recombination
g) Physical & Chemical Mutagens
h) Chromosome microdissection and microcloning
i)Molecular Organisation of centromere
j) Karyo-type Analysis
k) Trisomics
l) Alien gene transfer
m) Chloroplast genome
n) Split gene
o)Genetic markers
p) Restriction mapping
q) C-value paradox
r) Multigene families
s) Duplication
t) Autopolyploids
u) Methods of detecting alien chromatin
v) Genetic basis of inbreeding
w) Cytoplasmic male sterility
x) Linkage groups
y) Construction of molecular maps
z) Site directed mutagenesis
(i) Flow Cytometry
2nd SEMESTER P.G. BOTANY PAPER-04
Long questions:
1. Give the ultrsdtructure, chemical nature and replication of t. even bacteriophages.
2. . Discuss the heterothallism in fungi.
3. Classify the bryophytes upto the order level. Give the salient features of each.
4. Give an account of the range of thallus organization in algae.
5. Give an account of heterospory and origin of seed habit in pteridophytes.
6. Describe the different mode of reproduction in eubacteria. Add a note to their
economic importance.
7. Describe different types of life cycle of Phaeophyta with suitable examples.
8. Discuss the pattern of sexual reproduction on basidiomycotina with suitable diagrams.
Add a note the formation of basidiocarp.
9. Give a detailed account of the evolution of sporophytes in bryophytes.
10. Give a general account of fossil pteridophyta.
11. . What are cyanobacteria ? How are they different from true bacteria ? Add a note to
their biological importance.
12. Enumerate role of fungi in industry, medicine as food and biocontrol agents
13. Give an account of evolution of gametophytes in bryophytes.
14. Give a detailed account of stellar evolution in pteridophytes.
15. . Describe thallus organization in Algae.
Short type questions:
a) Phytoplasms and plant diseases
b) Nutrition of bacteria
c) Algae blooms
d) Pigments of algae
e) Fungal diseases in humans
f) Deuteromycotina
g) Ecological importance of bryophytes
h) Mechanism of spore dispersal in bryophytes
i) Siphonostele and its origin
j) Strobilus of sphenopsida
k) Ultrastructure of bacteriophage
l) Chemolithotroph
m) Biological importance of Cyanobacteria
n) Bacillariophyta
o) Algal biofertilizers
p) Algae as food and feed
q) Cell wall composition in Fungi
r) Mycorrhyzae
s) Fungi as biocontrol agents
t) Gametophytes of sphagnales
u) Sporophytes of Funariales
v) Classification of bryophytes
w) Heterospory
x) Stele in Lycopsida
y) Gametophyte of pteropsida
z) Ultrastructure of a bacterial cell
(b) Replication of viruses
i) Heterocyst
ii) Xanthophyta
iii) Algal blooms
iv) Uses of Algae in industry
v) Nutrition in fungi
vi) Heterothallism
vii) Parasexuality
vii) Sporophytes of Anthocerotales
ix) Gemetophytes of jungermaniales
x) Economic and ecological importance of bryophytes
xi) Sporophyte of psilopsida
xii) Clasification of pteridophytes
2nd SEMESTER P.G. BOTANY PAPER-05
Long questions:
1. What do you mean by ecosystem stability? How does it work through resistance and
resilience mechanism? Discuss.
2. What is biome? Explain major biomes of the world.
3. What do you mean by pollution? Give an account of sources of air pollution. Describe
the parameters used to measure air pollution. Explain the effects of air pollutant on
plant community.
4. . Describe the general structure and function of ecosystem. Explain the characteristic
structure of pond ecosystem.
5. Why there is a need of conservation of plants? Give an account of ex situ
conservation of plants.
6. Give an account of origin, evolution, botany, cultivation and uses of rice.
What is a Community? Describe the gradient analysis approach to study community.
7. Explain the distribution of population of dominant trees within a continuum type of
community along a hypothetical gradient. Give some useful coefficient of species structure
in a community
8. What are the evidances of climate change? Explain. Give an account of projectile of
consequences of climate changes.
9. Give an account of origin, evolution, botany, cultivation and uses of groundnut
10. What are the principles of biodiversity conservation? Explain. Describe the in site
conservation strategies.
11. Describe the different factors that influence the ecosystem stability and sustainable
development.
12. Give an account for the vegetation patterns of the world.
13. What are the hot spots of biodiversity? Describe the concept, threats and hot spots of
terrestrial biodiversity.
14 . Give an account of origin, evolution, botany, cultivation and uses of turmeric
15.. Give an account of ex situ conservation strategies to maintain the natural resources.
a) Measurement of primary productivity
b) Nitrogen cycle
c) Concept of ecological niche
d) Analytical characters of community
e) Biological diversity in spatial scale
f) Primary centers of origin
g) Timber yielding plants
h) Plants used as avenue trees
i) Mangroves
j) ICAR and NBPGR
k) Environmental Impact Assessment
l) Mechanism of litter decomposition
m) Interspecific associations
n) Cyclic temporal changes
o) Sources and effect of water pollution
p) IUCN categories of threats to biodiversity
q) Plants used for paper making
r) Plants used for pollution control
s) Nonformal conservation efforts
t) Accounts of activities of DBT for conservation of biodiversity.
u) Biogeochemical cycle
v) Energy flow pathways
w) Ecological niche
x) Ecological succession mechanism
y) Global warming
z) Consequences of air pollution
i) Avenue plantation trees.
ii) Minor forest products
iv) National Parks
v) Mangroves of India
3rd SEMESTER P.G BOTANY PAPER-07
1. Discuss the distribution of Gymnosperms in India.
2. 2. Give an account the primitive characters in morphology and reproduction of
Ginkgoales.
3. Give an account of takhtajan’s system of classification
4. Discuss cytological and molecular analysis of shoot apical meristem.
5. . Discuss the distribution of Gymnosperms in India
6. Describe the development of different types of endosperms.
7. Give an account the primitive characters in morphology and reproduction of
Ginkgoales .
8. Describe the development of different types of endosperms.
9. Discuss cytological and molecular analysis of shoot apical meristem
10. 3. Give an account of takhtajan’s system of classification .
11. 1. Mention the characteristics features of reproductive structure of cycadeoideales
and point out its affinities.
12. Describe the floral characters of Gnetales. Add a note on their advance features.
13. Write the salient features of ICBN.
14. . What are Homeotic Genes? Write the mechanism of floral organ differentiation in
Arabidopsis.
15. Give a brief account on the organization of root apical meristem.
(a) Mesophyll differentiation
(a) Form genus
(b) Flower of Cycadeoidea
(a) Coralloid root
(b) Structure of Ephedrales
(a) Molecular techniques in solving taxonomic problems
(b) Taxonomic hierarchy
(a) Leaf growth and differentiation
(b) Vascular tissue differentiation
(a) Microspore tetrad
(b) Incompatibility
Ovule of Ginkgoales
(a) Form genus
(b) Flower of Cycadeoidea
(a) Coralloid root
(b) Structure of Ephedrales
(a) Molecular techniques in solving taxonomic problems
(b) Taxonomic hierarchy
(a) Leaf growth and differentiation
(b) Vascular tissue differentiation
(a) Microspore tetrad
(b) Incompatibility
(a) Distribution of gymnosperms in India
(b) Medullosaceae
(b) Wood of Conifereles
(a) Cytotaxonomy
(b) Takhtajan and Cronquist system of classification.
(b) Root-microbe interactions
(a) Male sterility
(b) Pollen-pistill interaction
3rd SEMESTER P.G BOTANY PAPER-08
1. What are redox reactions? Give structure and functions of ATP.
2. 2. Give an account of the mechanism of water absorption in plants.
3. Derive Michaelis-Menten equation. Transform the equation to Lineweaver Burk
equation. Add a note on its significance.
4. Give an account of seed dormancy, its importance and mechanism to overcome it.
5. Describe the photoperiodism and its regulation. Add a note on the significance
6. What are the phytohormones? Describe their properties.
7. Describe solute transport processes in plant cells.
8. What are photo morphogenetic receptors? Describe molecular mechanism of action of
these receptors.
9. . Give an account of mobilization of food reserve during seed germination.
10. What do you mean by Senescence? Describe the types of senescence. Dicuss the
metabolic responses associated with it. How can it be regulated?
11. Give an account of allosteric enzymes studied by you and their mechanism of action.
Draw the kinetics of such catalysis.
12. Describe the mechanism of water transport through Xylem. Discuss the most plausible
mechanism of water transport in tallest gymnosperms.
13. Give an account of the photochemical and biochemical properties of phytochromes.
Discuss phytochrome function domains.
14. What are Gibberellins? Describe the mechanism of their action. Explain physiological
effects of gibberellins. Add a note on the commercial applications. ]
15. What is photoperiodism and it’s significance? Discuss endogenous and exogenous
regulations of floral induction.
Short type questions:
a) Diversity of Protein Kineses
b) Enzyme inhibition
c) Water potential
d) Cohesion theory
e.) Endogenous clock and its regulation
f) Photomorphogenic receptors
g) Cytochromes
h) Hormonal control of seedling growth
i) Steroids
j) Salinity stress
k) Regulation of senescence
l) Mechanism of chymotrypsin
m) Phospholipid signaling
n) Levitt’s feed back mechanism of stomata movement
o) Phloem loading
p) Localization of phytochrome in tissue and cells
q) Light fluence response
r) Hormonal control of seedling growth
s) Physiological effects and mechanism of action of jasmonic acied
t) Oxidative stress
u) Enzyme inhibitions
v) Calcium-calmodulin cascade system.
w) Water potential and it’s components
x) Pressure flow models
y) Phytochrome and gene expressions
z) Bacterical phytochrome.
i) Bioassay for cytokinin
ii) Seed dormancy
iii) Water deficit and drought resistance
iv) Vernalization
4th SEMESTER P.G BOTANY PAPER-10
1. Give an illustrated account of the electron transport system coupled with oxidative
phosphorylation.
2. What are fatty acids? Write the process of their oxidation.
3. . What is dispersion? Write different measures of dispersion and their biological
examples discuss the method of single factor analysis of variance.
4. What is analysis of variance? With the help of a suitable biological example discuss the
methods of single factor analysis of variance.
5. Explain the principle behind electrophoresis. Describe the process of separation of
proteins by SDS-PAGE technique.
6. Describe the mechanism of electron transport in light reaction of Photosynthesis. How
does it work to generate proton motive force? Explain
7. What are the components of lipids? Give an account of fatty acid biosynthesis. Outline
the synthesis of membrane lipids.
8. What is a t-distribution? Explain the properties of t-distribution. The length of leaves of
two varieties of Tradescantia shows the following measurements:
Variety
A
Length (cm)
14,15,19,18,21,19,20,16,18,13,21,19,18,20,17
B
12,20,11,13,11,12,16,14,12,13
9. Can it be concluded that the mean length of leaves of two populations belonging to two
varieties are different? (Ask for t-table)
10. What is a normal distribution? Explain the features of this distribution. The mean length
of bamboo leaves showing normal distribution was 19.0 cm with a standard deviation of
3.0. Find the probability that a leaf taken at random from a branch will have the length
between 12.0 to 22.0 cm.(Ask for table showing areas under standard normal curve)
11. What are the general principles of chromatography? Explain. What are the main
components of GLC? Describe the working principle of GLC.
12. . Write the mechanism of photorespiration in plants. Add a note on its significance
13. Describe the process of nitrogen in root nodules of leguminous plants
14. . Describe different measures of central tendency. Discuss their biological significances.
15. . Describe the principles of electrophoresis. Give a detailed account of separation of
proteins by SDS-PAGE technique.
16. What are chi-square distribution and chi-square test for goodness of fit? In an F2
population of peas, 1456 plants with smooth yellow seeds, 464 plants with smooth
green seeds, 518 plants with wrinkled yellow seeds and 162 plants with wrinkled green
seeds were observed. Test whether this is in agreement with Mendel’s dihybrid cross.
Short answer type questions:
(a) C4 Cycle
(b) Light harvesting complex
c ) Nitrate uptake and reduction in plants
d ) Sulphur metabolism
e ) Binomial distribution
f ) Probability
g ) t-Test
h ) Chi-square test
i) Spectrophotometry
j ) Electroblotting
k ) TCA Cycle
l ) Pentose Phosphate Pathway
m ) Non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation
n) Mechanism of ammonium uptake
o ) Histogram
p) Poisson distribution
q ) Hypothesis testing
r) Standard error of means
s ) Isoelectric focusing
t) Density gradient centrifugation
u) Light harvesting complex
v) Glyoxilate cycle
w) β-oxidation
x) Mechanism of sulfate uptake and transport
y ) Variance
z ) Bionomial distribution
i )Test of significance
ii ) Analysis of variance
iii ) Beer-Lambart Law
iv ) TLC
4th SEMESTER P.G.BOTANY PAPER-11
Long answer type questions:
1. What is DNA sequencing? Describe different methods of sequencing DNA?
2. Describe the methods of isolation and purification of protoplast.
3. . What are monoclonal antibodies? Describe their methods of production and
applications
4. Give an illustrated account of role of biotechnology in fertility control
5. Describe briefly the intellectual property rights in biotechnology.
6. Briefly describe the method of production of haploids through another culture. Discuss
its importance.
7. Explain the mechanism of PCR technology. Add a note on its applications.
8. Describe the general protocols for animal tissue culture.
9. Give a brief account of forensic uses of biotechnology.
10. Write the methods of protoplast fusion leading to production of somatic hybrids
11. Plasmids play a pivotal role in genetic engineering. Justify the statement with suitable
examples.
12. What do you mean by intellectual property rights? Mention the patents for microbes,
plants and transgenic organisms
13. What is molecular farming? Justify that transgenic animals are now a days being used as
pharmaceutical industries.
14. . Briefly describe about intellectual property rights in biotechnology. Comment on their
advantages and disadvantages
15. Discuss the production and uses of genetically engineered vaccines.
Short answer type questions:
a) pBR322
b) Restriction endonucleases
c) Molecular probes
d) Ti plasmid
e) Suspension culture
f) Stem cell culture
g) Transgenic animals in pharmaceuticals
(a) Genetically engineered vaccines
h) DNA finger printing
i) Patenting of genes and DNA sequencing
j) International conventions relating to patents for genetically modified organisms.
k ) Northern blotting
l ) Somaclonal variation
m) Agrobacterium
n) Transfection
o) Hybridoma technology
p) Skin grafting
q) Genetic counseling
r) Copy rights
) Rights for farmers
s ) Molecular probe
t) Sanger’s method of gene sequencing
u) Morphogenesis in tissue culture
v) Transgenic Bt plants
w) Disaggregation of animal tissue
x) Stem cell culture
y) Embryo therapy
z) DNA finger printing
i) Ethics of biotechnology
ii) Patenting of genes