1
Water Services Trust Fund
Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
PART II: Definitions of Adequate Access and Coverage
Table of Contents
1.
Sources/Outlets of Safe Water........................................................................................... 3
1.1
Identifying Rural and Urban Settings: Population Density ........................................ 3
1.2
Improved Urban & Rural Water Supply Options........................................................ 3
1.3
Improved Urban & Rural Sanitation Options ............................................................. 4
2.
Technical Standards ........................................................................................................... 4
2.1
Characteristics of an Improved Water Source/Outlet ............................................... 4
2.2
Design Requirements ................................................................................................. 5
2.2.1 Water Kiosks ........................................................................................................... 5
2.2.2 Yard Taps ................................................................................................................ 6
2.2.3 Public Sanitation Facility ........................................................................................ 6
2.3
3.
Technical Standards Prepared by the WSTF .............................................................. 7
Adequate Access & Service Delivery Criteria ..................................................................... 7
3.1
Service Delivery Criteria ............................................................................................. 7
3.2
Site Specific Criteria and Considerations ................................................................... 8
3.3
Site Specific Issues: When Improving Water is Not Advisable ................................... 9
4.
Water Supply & Sanitation Coverage (Urban) ................................................................... 9
4.1
Introduction: Operationalization of the Definition .................................................... 9
4.2
Water Supply Coverage (Urban) ................................................................................ 9
4.3
Sanitation Coverage (Urban) .................................................................................... 11
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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4.3.1 Household and Plot-Level Sanitation Facilities .................................................... 11
4.3.2 Public Sanitation (Facilities) ................................................................................. 11
4.3.3 Sludge Management ............................................................................................ 12
List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 12
Appendices ............................................................................................................................... 13
Appendix1:
Technical Standards (WSTF) ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix 2:
Kiosk Calculation Sheet ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
Discussion Paper
PART II: Definitions of Adequate Access and Coverage
1. Sources/Outlets of Safe Water
1.1
Identifying Rural and Urban Settings: Population Density
An area is considered to be an urban setting if the local population density exceeds 400
persons per km2.
However, local conditions in rural settings – e.g. the water table, soil conditions, frequent
flooding and uneven distribution of the population resulting in high population densities in
micro settings – may render some water supply and sanitation options (e.g. hand pumps,
protected yard wells, improved pit latrines) to be unsuitable. In these settings the urban list
of improved options has to be adopted.
1.2
Improved Urban & Rural Water Supply Options
The following water supply options are considered to be improved water sources or outlets:
Improved facility (water supply)
Type of water source/outlet
WASREB
(X = improved facility)
JMP
Urban areas
Rural areas
All areas
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Public tap/standpipe, water provided by licensed ISP or community groups
X
X
Tubewell/borehole
X
X
Protected dug well
X
X
Protected spring
X
X
Rainwater collection
X
X
Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by licensed WSPs
(1)
Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by ISP or Cat. 2 WSPs
(2)
Public tap/standpipe, water provided by licensed WSPs
(1) (3)
X
Unprotected dug well
Unprotected spring
Cart with small tank/drum
Tanker truck
Bottled water 1
Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels)
1): Category I WSPs only; 2): Including the water kiosk; 3): Including the prepaid public stand post.
1
Bottled water is considered to be improved by JMP only when the household uses water from an improved
source for cooking and personal hygiene.
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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1.3
Improved Urban & Rural Sanitation Options
The following sanitation options are considered to be improved sanitation facilities:
Type of sanitation facility/practice
Improved facility (sanitation)
WASREB
(X = improved facility)
Urban areas
JMP
Rural areas
All areas
Flush or pour flush to piped sewer system (not shared)
X (4)
X
X
Flush or pour flush to septic tank (not shared)
X
X
X
Flush or pour flush to pit latrine (not shared)
X
X
X
Flush or pour-flush to piped sewer system (plot-level, shared by max. 10 persons)
X
X
Flush or pour flush to septic tank (plot-level, shared by max. 10 persons)
X
X
Flush or pour flush to pit latrine (plot-level, shared by max. 10 persons)
X
X
Public sanitation facility
Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP)
X
X
X
X
X
Pit latrine with slab
X
X
X
X
X
X
(1)
Composting toilet
Flush of pour flush to elsewhere
(2)
Pit latrine without slab
Bucket
Hanging toilet or hanging latrine
No facility or use of bush or field (3)
1): Only an improved sanitation facility in certain urban settings such as urban slums with very high population densities
(See also Part I; section 6.6.1).
2): E.g. excreta are flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location
3): In rural areas with very low population densities open defecation or “cat system” defecation may not pose a risk to
public health and to the environment.
4): The fact that a sanitation facility is improved does not imply that the sludge, excreta and/or compost are managed in a
sustainable and environmentally- and public health-friendly manner.
2. Technical Standards
2.1
Characteristics of an Improved Water Source/Outlet
An improved water or sanitation source or facility should:





Minimise health risks (e.g. allow for the safe delivery and use of safe water,
hygienically separate human excreta from human contact).
Be accessible and user-friendly.
Provide security to its users.
Reflect the needs and wishes (including of its customers, operators and owners) and
consider cultural and religious factors.
Not have a negative impact upon the environment.
The next sections present the main design requirements of:
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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


2.2
Water kiosks.
Yard taps.
Public sanitation facilities.
Design Requirements
2.2.1 Water Kiosks
A water kiosk which can be categorised as an improved water source should meet the
following main design requirements:

Elevated fetching bay. It helps to bring the water container near the taps which
facilitates water fetching, which can be kept clean and reduces the risk of water
contamination.

Drainage gloves. They helps to drain waste water away to soak away pit or to the
drainage channels hence reduces the chances of water contamination.

Wide bay window. A bay window helps to protect the taps from theft and vandalism.
Also it gives the operator a good view when serving the customer to avoid water
spring off the container, and facilitate communication between the kiosk operator
and the customer.

Reinforced concrete columns. The columns help to carry the load from the overhead
water tanks to avoid the structure from collapsing.

Plumbing works. Plumbing work should be of good quality to avoid leakages and
contamination.

Accessible fetching pillars which facilitate the lifting of 20-litre containers (on the
head or back).

Steel door. It should be strong enough to avoid thieves from breaking in the kiosk.
Picture 1: A prefabricated water kiosk in Athi River
Picture 2: An insitu water kiosk in Athi River
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March 2011
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2.2.2 Yard Taps
A yard tap which can be categorised as an improved water source should meet the following
design main requirements:

Water tap. It should be of good quality to avoid regular maintenance. Water taps
should be at a reasonable height to avoid water from spring off (when the tap is too
height) or being knocked by the mouth of container during lifting. (when the tap is
too low)

Yard tap pillar. It should be of strong material (reinforced concrete pillar or steel
stanchion) to prevent the up stand pipe from vandalism.

Elevated fetching platform. It helps to drain waste water away and also prevent the
storm water getting in the platform during the rainy seasons. This reduces the
chances of water contamination.
Pictures 3 & 4: Yard taps in Nakuru
2.2.3 Public Sanitation Facility
A public sanitation facility which can be categorised as an improved sanitation facility should
meet the following main design requirements:

Wide entry. The entry should be wide enough to avoid congestion and collision of the
users when getting in and out of the facility.

Spacious corridors and lobbies. This improves circulation inside the facility hence
avoiding congestions hence allowing free flow of the customers

Well ventilated. A public sanitation facility should be well ventilated to allow fresh air
inside the facility. This keeps dad smell off the facility.

Lighting. The facility should have wide opening to allow enough light to penetrate
inside. This helps the use to see where he/she is walking through.
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
Strong structural components. It is essential to have strong structural components
(columns, beams and slabs) to carry roof and water tanks loads to the ground.

Use of good quality and appropriate materials. It reduces the cost of maintenance.
They also facilitate the cleaning of the facility and reduce chances of accidents inside
the facility i.e. sliding (if floor tiles are smooth) etc.

Position of the operator. The operator room should be position in a way that he/she
can monitor all the activities happening inside and the outside of the facility.

Easy access for disabled persons and small children.

Easy access for emptying services (bowsers) and required maintenance and repair
works.
Pictures 5 & 6: Public sanitation facility (PSF) in Athi River
2.3
Technical Standards Prepared by the WSTF
Appendix 1 contains the technical drawings and bills of quantities of the improved:



Water kiosks (open and closed).
Yard tap.
Public sanitation facility.
3. Adequate Access & Service Delivery Criteria
3.1
Service Delivery Criteria
When defining adequate access the following service delivery criteria should be considered:



Number of persons per facility and daily quantities/person consumed.
Location, distance and accessibility (e.g. no need to cross a dangerous road, etc.) of
the infrastructure.
Waiting time (at the facility).
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







Business hours (access hours).
Water quality.
Quantity of water available (pressure & supply hours).
Tariff.
Technical standards (no. of taps, user-friendliness, security, ability to keep the facility
clean, etc.).
Technical conditions of the facility Security of access (technical standards) .
Quality of the service & customer care (provided by the WSP and the Operator)
Environmental impact.
The following table shows the criteria (1-8) that can be included in a national definition of
adequate access. The remaining criteria (9-14) are also important but are area/site specific
and, therefore, have to be used during the planning phase and during monitoring by the
WSP.
No.
Criterion
Unit
1
Persons/facility
2
Part of national
definition of
adequate access?
Mandate
/responsible
organisation
Remarks
No.
Yes
WASREB
Distance
Metres
Yes
WASREB
3
Water quality
G/F/P (*)
Yes
WASREB
4
Water pressure
Litres/min.
Yes
WASREB
5
Supply hours
Hours/day
Yes
WASREB
6
Business hours
Hours/day
Yes
WASREB
7
Tariff
KSh/22 litres
Yes
WASREB
Approved by WASREB
8
Technical standard
..
Yes
WASREB
Approved (WASREB & KBS) WSTF designs
9
Technical condition
G/F/P
No
WASREB
Monitoring of infrastructure
10
Hygienic condition
G/F/P
No
WASREB
Monitoring of infrastructure
11
Environmental impact
..
No
WSP/NEMA
12
Location & accessibility
G/F/P
No
WSP
Local assessment
13
Waiting time
Minutes
No
WSP
Data collected with customer survey
14
Quality of service
G/F/P
No
WSP/Operator
Data collected with customer survey
Monitored by WASREB/WHO standards
Local assessment/planning phase
*): G = Good; F = Fair; P = Poor
3.2
Site Specific Criteria and Considerations
The hygienic condition, for example, has to be assessed by the WSP, considering such factors
as cleanliness at the time of the visit, number of times the kiosk is cleaned, drainage, solid
waste near the kiosk, problems caused by water and rainwater.
The accessibility of a water kiosk or public sanitation facility is also determined by the local
topography. A kiosk may only be 500 metres away from a dwelling but if women are forced
to walk uphill with a heavy container….
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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A high water table may render a specific site unsuitable, from a public health and
environmental for the construction of a water kiosk.
Crime levels and the harassment of women, but also a busy and dangerous road may also
prevent adequate access to available water supply and sanitation facilities.
The importance of area and site specific conditions highlights the importance of paying
sufficient attention to the selection of sites for WSS infrastructure. This means giving
sufficient attention to the public health, social, financial/commercial, technical, legal
(availability of land, etc.) and environmental challenges and objectives of the WSS project or
scheme.
3.3
Site Specific Issues: When Improving Water is Not Advisable
Improving water supply and sanitation in urban low income areas is important. However,
there are more - related- public health risks such as high population densities, poor drainage
and the absence of a solid wastage collection/management system. In other words, when
addressing public health we have to adopt a more holistic approach by considering other
environmental factors.
In low income areas with a high water table or areas frequently exposed to flooding, the
improvement of the water supply situation alone will not necessarily result in an improved
public health situation. In fact, the improved water supply situation could attract more
people to an area which population, if the settlements cannot be made habitable by
improving drainage, should be resettled.
4. Water Supply & Sanitation Coverage (Urban)
4.1
Introduction: Operationalization of the Definition
A definition of adequate access has to meet the following objectives:

The definition should allow for the achievement of the service standards and
objectives set by the sector.

The definition should be applicable country-wide.

Compliance or non-compliance with the access criteria has to be measurable.

The definition should allow for the preparation of a definition (formula) of coverage
which can be used to calculate coverage figures at area, WSP, WSB and national
level.
Coverage means sustainable access to safe water and adequate sanitation.
4.2
Water Supply Coverage (Urban)
Assuming:

the distance between the dwellings and the public or communal water outlet (e.g.
kiosk) does not exceed 500 metres (walking distance),
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
water is supplied by a licensed WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision
Agreement (SPA)],

water quality is monitored and measured according to the frequency2 required by
the Regulator and if it meets the standards set by WASREB,

the water pressure measured at the tap is at least 17 litres per minute,

the area is supplied at least 6 days/week,

the kiosk is supplied and open to customers (business hours) at least 6 hours/day,

the tariff is pro-poor and approved by the Regulator,

the water outlet/facility meets the technical standards set by the sector (see
Appendix 1),
then the following number of persons can be said to have adequate access to safe water
supplied by the following water supply outlets/facilities:
Type of connection
Additional
characteristics
No. of Persons
adequately served
Remarks
1
Individual connection
Indoor plumbing
10
This is the estimated number of people using a
domestic connection
2
Plot-level connection
Yard tap (one tap)
30
Figure based on average plot population size
3
Public stand post
Equipped with 1 tap
400
Improved public stand posts only
4
Prepaid public stand post
Equipped with 1 tap
400
Improved prepaid public stand posts only
5
Water kiosk (closed or open)
Equipped with 3 taps
1,200
6
Non-domestic connection
Irrelevant
0
Assuming a consumption of 8l/c/d
A commercial or institutional connection (etc.)
If, considering water kiosks only:
 water pressure at the tap is 15 litres per minute,
 a kiosk is equipped with 3 taps and
 a full 20-litre container contains 22 litres of water.
If we assume the following:
 45 litres of water/minute can be supplied by the kiosk which amounts to 123 full 20-litre containers/hour
(approximately 2,706 litres).
 Water wastage is 3% (= 81 litres/hour), which means 2,625 litres of water/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (=
119 full 20-litre containers = 2 containers per minute).
 The time required to place and remove containers on the fetching bay is 10 seconds/container. This means
that approximately 90 containers/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (= 1,980 litres).
 Daily per capita consumption is 8 litres.
 There are no peak demand hours.
If a kiosk is to adequately serve 1,200 residents, then:
 248 persons can be served/hour.
 The kiosk needs to be open at least 4.8 hours/day to serve 1,200 customers (residents).
2
E.g. the number of samples per parameter in the network for an annual water production of < 240,000 m 3:
bacteriological 12/year, residual chlorine 48/year) (WASREB 2008: 14)
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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Appendix 2 contains a sheet which can be used to calculate the impact of pressure and per
daily capita consumption on the number of residents that can be served/hour and the
number of hours a water kiosk has to remain open.
4.3
Sanitation Coverage (Urban)
4.3.1 Household and Plot-Level Sanitation Facilities
One (1) improved (see section 1.3) household or plot-level sanitation unit (door) can
adequately provide sanitation access to 10 persons provided they are living on the same plot
(within the same yard or compound) or on the same floor (in case of a block of flats).
4.3.2 Public Sanitation (Facilities)
Assuming:

population density is such that the construction of dwelling or plot level sanitation is
not feasible.

the distance between the dwellings and the public sanitation facility or communal
water outlet (e.g. kiosk) does not exceed 500 metres (walking distance),

water is supplied by a licensed WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision
Agreement (SPA)],

the duration of a man’s short call (including entering the facility, hand washing,
paying and leaving the facility) is 5 minutes, and only a urinal is used,

the duration of a man’s long call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying
and leaving the facility) is 10 minutes.

the duration of a woman’s short & long call (including entering the facility, hand
washing, paying and leaving the facility) is 12 minutes.

the duration of a disabled person’s visit to the toilet facility is 15 minutes,

the toilet is open and operational (i.e. sufficient water of good quality is available) for
at least 8 hours.
then the following types of toilet can adequately serve:
Public sanitation facility
Short call
Long call
Type of toilet:
Persons/hour
Persons/hour
Men’s urinal
12
-
Women’s toilet
5
5
Men’s toilet
-
6
Disabled persons toilet
4
4
If we accept the above-mentioned assumptions, a public sanitation facility which is equipped
with 3 urinals, 2 men’s toilets 3 women’s toilets and one toilet for the disabled can
adequately serve (36 + 15 + 12 + 4) 67 persons/hour and 536 persons (customers) per day.
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Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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4.3.3 Sludge Management
When considering the environmental and public health objectives of (improved) sanitation,
the entire sanitation chain has to be analysed. In other words, a public sanitation facility can
only be considered an improved facility if such activities as emptying, transport, disposal and
sludge treatment do not cause harm to the environment and to public health.
List of Abbreviations
JMP:
Joint Monitoring Programme
l/c/d:
Litres per capita per day
MWI:
Ministry of Water and Irrigation
NEMA:
National Environmental Management Authority
SPA:
Service Provision Agreement
UfW:
Unaccounted for water
UNICEF:
United Nations Children’s Fund
WASREB:
Water Services Regulatory Board
WHO:
World Health Organisation
WSB:
Water Services Board
WSP:
Water Service Provider
WSTF:
Water Services Trust Fund
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WSTF
Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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Appendices
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WSTF
Adequate Access, Coverage and Technical Standards
March 2011
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3. Adequate Access, Coverage & Technical Standards (Part II)