Platoon Operations Order I. II. III. IV. V. Field Manuals a. FM 3-0 Operations b. FM 1-02 Operational terms and Graphics c. FM 5-0 Army Planning and Orders Production d. FM 3-21.8 The Infantry Platoon and Squad Combat Orders a. Capture the commander’s battlefield visualization, intent, and decisions. b. Focus on an end state operation (what the commander expects to achieve). c. Subordinate leaders must know i. How to interpret ii. Extract relevant information iii. Communicate plans to implement action to support mission accomplishment Definition of an order a. A written or an oral communication directing action b. Orders are based on i. Plans or receipt of mission Categories of Orders a. Administrative order i. Covers normal administrative operations in garrison or in the field. 1. General, specific, and memorandum orders 2. Court-martial orders 3. Bulletins, circulars, and other memoranda b. Combat order i. Means by which the Platoon leader receives and transmits information from the earliest notification that an operation will occur through the final steps of execution. ii. Critical to mission success Types of Orders a. Warning Order i. Preliminary notice of actions or orders that are to follow ii. Gives subordinates maximum time to prepare iii. Usually issued upon restatement of mission statement iv. Amount of detail depends on information and time available b. Operation Order i. Directives a commander issues to subordinate commanders to coordinate the execution of an operation. ii. Always specify an execution time and date. iii. Five paragraphs 1. Situation 2. Mission VI. VII. 3. Execution 4. Sustainment (service and support) 5. Command and Signal c. Fragmentary Order i. Provides timely changes to existing orders to subordinate and supporting commanders. ii. Provides notification to higher and adjacent commands iii. Only addresses those parts of the original OPORD that have changed. 1. All five-paragraph headings are used. 2. After each heading, state either “no change” or the new information a. This ensures the recipients know that have received that entire FRAGO. iv. Can be either oral or written d. Service and Support Order i. Directs service and support of operations 1. Includes administrative movements ii. Can be issued either with an OPORD or separately when the commander expects the CSS situation to apply to more than one operation plan or order. e. Movement Order i. A stand-alone order that facilitates an uncommitted unit’s movement. ii. Normally occur in the communication zone iii. Typically administrative 1. Troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement when no interference is expected except by air. Troop Leader Procedures a. Make a tentative plan is based on Estimate of the Situation i. Estimate of the Situation 1. Mission analysis 2. Analyze the situation develop courses of action a. METT-TC i. Mission, Enemy, Terrain (Weather) – Ocoka, Troops, Time, and Civilian considerations 3. Compare courses of action 4. Analyze COA 5. Decision b. Reconnaissance is conducted based on the tentative plan. c. Information discovered during the reconnaissance is plugged into METT-TC and Estimate the Situation. i. Can cause a change in plan or mission Task Organization of the Operations Order a. Annex “F” of FM 5-0 describes two formats i. Outlined format VIII. IX. 1. Lists all units under the headquarters to which they are allocated or they support. ii. Matrix format 1. Displays in terms of unit type and relationship to subordinate headquarters. 2. Advantages a. Displays and command and support relationships for subordinate units and the force as a whole. b. Conserves time and eliminates redundancy by not listing organic units of a parent organization. c. Show organization for combat of combat support and combat service support elements. Situation a. Enemy Forces ( Annex B, intelligence) i. Disposition ii. Composition iii. Most likely Course of Action b. Friendly Forces i. List mission ii. Commander’s intent iii. Concept of operation for HQ one and two levels up iv. Subparagraphs mission of flank units and other units having an effect on issue 1. Left and right units Course of Action (A step in -Estimate of the Situation- which is utilized form a tentative plan) a. COAs should be developed when time allows and after receiving i. Restated mission ii. Commander’s intent iii. Commander’s planning and guidance b. COAs should meet the following criteria i. Feasible 1. Accomplish the mission within available time, space, and resources ii. Acceptable 1. Tactical and operational advantage gained must justify the cost in resources. iii. Suitable 1. Accomplish the mission and comply with the commander’s planning and guidance. iv. Distinguishable 1. Differ significantly from others v. Complete 1. Must show how to a. Decisive op accomplishes the mission b. Shaping ops create and preserve conditions for success or decisive operations c. Sustaining ops enable shaping and decisive ops X. XI. Mission Statement a. Platoon leader uses mission statement to summarize the upcoming mission b. Written based on 5 Ws i. Who – unit ii. What – task (measurable) 1. Tactical task – specific activities performed by the unit while it is conducting a form of tactical operation or a choice maneuver. a. Examples i. Retain – Ensures a terrain feature controlled by friendly force remains free of enemy occupation. ii. Secure – Preventing a unit, facility, or geographical location from being damaged or destroyed as a result of enemy action. iii. Seize – tactical mission task involves taking possession of a designated area using overwhelming force. iv. Support-by-fire – a maneuver force moves to a position where it can engage the enemy by direct fire in support of another maneuvering force. iii. When – date-time group iv. Where – grid location or geographical reference for the AO or objective v. Why – purpose c. The platoon leader must ensure that the mission is understood one and two echelons down. Execution a. Commander’s intent i. Purpose and End State b. Concept of operation (Annex C, Operations Overlay) i. Maneuver (phases may be used to logically break mission) ii. Fires ( Annex F) 1. Priority of fires 2. Employment authority iii. Counter Air Ops (Annex G, Air Defense ) iv. Intelligence v. Others as needed c. Tasks to maneuver units i. Fire Support 1. Air support 2. Chemical Support 3. Field Artillery support XII. XIII. 4. Fire support coordinating measures ii. Engineer Support iii. Military Police iv. Chemical d. Tasks to combat support units e. Coordinating instructions i. Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) 1. Essential elements of friendly information 2. Friendly force information requirements 3. Priority intelligence requirements Service & Support a. Support concept b. Materials and services c. Medivac Plan d. Personnel e. Civil Military f. As required Command and Signal a. Command i. Location of commands posts ii. Succession of command b. Signal i. SOI index in effect (frequencies, call signs). ii. Method of communication by priority (usually FM and then runner) iii. Pyrotechnics and signals, to include arm and hand signals (go over all important signals like lift/shift fire, assault onto the OBJ, withdraw from OBJ, etc.) iv. Codewords (like red, white, and blue in the example in paragraph 3) v. Challenge and password (behind friendly lines) vi. Number combination (forward of friendly lines) vii. Running password. viii. Recognition signals (near/far, day/night). ix. Special instructions for RTOs. Army Organization I. II. III. IV. Preamble to the Constitution a. We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America. Continental Congress a. Created national Army on June 14, 1775 b. The congress under the Articles of Confederation provided the first roles and missions for the militia. i. Articles of Confederation 1. Made clear the intent to rely primarily on a militia to “provide for the common defense.” 2. Did not envision a requirement to establish a permanent standing army. a. The legal basis and framework for a military establishment charged with the “common defense” were set forth in subsequent sections of the Constitution after the Revolutionary War. 1787 – Constitution a. Established civilian control over armed forces b. Congress i. Exclusive power to raise and support armies (and provide for a Navy) ii. To declare war iii. To make rules concerning captures on land and water c. The President (Commander-in-Chief – stated in Article II Section 2) i. Authority to make treaties ii. Appoint federal officers to the armed forces d. Civilian officials in both the legislative and executive branches of the federal Government i. Constitutionally responsible for providing for the nation’s defense (common defense) through the armed forces of the United States. National Security Act of 1947 a. Prior to 1947 i. The Constitution recognized the need for armed forces to protect the nation ii. The Constitution did not establish a system or define how the nation is to be protected. iii. The only military departments were the Department of War and the Department of the Navy. b. The National Security Act of 1947 established the current structure for national defense c. The purpose was to promote unity coordination in the armed services d. Established i. ii. iii. iv. National Security Council (NSC) The Department of the Air Force The National Military Establishment (NME) The Secretary of National Defense (co-equal with secretaries of Army, Navy, and Air Force). v. The organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (OJCS) vi. Other organizations related to national security (including CIA) e. Amendments to National Security Act of 1947 i. 1949 created the position of the “Secretary of Defense” 1. Head of Department of Defense (DOD) 2. SECDEF is Principal assistant to the President in all matters pertaining to the (DOD) 3. SECDEF is positioned between the President and the war fighting commanders in the operational chain of command. 4. Department of Defense includes a. Department of the Army (formerly Dept. of War) b. Department of the Navy (includes Marine Corps) c. Department of Air Force ii. National Command Authorities (NCA) 1. The President and Secretary of Defense 2. Only the NCA not uniformed military officers may direct military action or military deployments. f. Historic Basis for Army Rules and Function – reflects the evolution of the roles and missions of the Army as the Nation’s historical distrust of a standing army was balanced against the need to defend the republic and support expansion. i. 1775 – Articles of Confederation 1. Established principal of “provide for common defense” ii. 1784 – Resolution to Articles of Confederation 1. Protec the Northwestern frontiers; guard stores iii. 1787 – Constitution 1. Ensure domestic tranquility 2. Provide for the common defense 3. Article I, Section 8: The militia would be used for a. Execution of law b. Suppression of insurrection c. Repelling of invasion iv. 1789 – Authority delegated to the President 1. Call Militia into federal service (to protect frontier inhabitants) v. 1824 – Nation building functions 1. Basis for Army Corps of Engineers 2. Harbor development 3. Improvement of river navigation V. VI. 4. Exploration vi. 1862 – Military government function 1. War Department General Order 100 to provide military government of occupied territories. 2. Basis of civil affairs function. vii. 1930 – Supervision of civil works projects 1. Organization and command of Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Roles, Functions, and Missions a. Historic progression of roles i. Began to get complicated when Army and Navy discovered the usefulness of air power. By WWII, both the Navy and Army had significant aviation elements. The Army had the Army Air Corps and the Navy had carrier-based aviation. ii. In 1958, services retained roles as established by law, but missions were assigned on a geographical or functional basis to field commanders. iii. In 1987, Congress established the new combatant command the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) – assumed role similar to other services. b. Roles ( Congress assigns ) – board enduring purposes for which the military services were established by law. i. Army 1. Organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land. ii. Navy 1. Organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on and from the sea. iii. Marine Corps 1. Organize, train, and equip forces for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases, and the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. iv. Air Force 1. Organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. v. Special Operations Command 1. Organize, train, and equip forces for special operations activities or missions involving special operations forces from all the services. c. Functions – Specific responsibilities assigned by the President and Secretary of Defense to enable the services to fulfill their legally established roles. d. Missions- Specific tasks assigned by the President or Secretary of Defense to combatant commanders in chief (CINCs). e. The services supply the forces to the Combatant Commanders in Chief (CINCs) who in turn, direct and employ the forces in war operations or operations other than war. National Command Structure a. 9 Unified Joint Commands VII. i. U.S. Pacific ii. U.S. European iii. U.S. Atlantic iv. U.S. Southern v. U.S. Central vi. U.S. Space vii. U.S. Special Operations viii. U.S. Strategic ix. U.S. Transportation b. Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff is not in the chain of command. c. Functions of the Department of Defense i. Support and Defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic ii. Ensure, by timely and effective military action, the security of the United States of America, its possessions, and areas vital to its interests. iii. Uphold and advance the national policies and interests of the United States d. Functions of Department of the Army i. Organize, train, and equip forces for the conduct of prompt sustained combat operations on land-specifically. Forces to defeat land forces and to seize, occupy, and defend land areas. ii. Develop airborne doctrine common to Army and Marines iii. Support and conduct special operations and psychological operations iv. Furnish forces for the occupation of territories abroad v. Conduct authorized civil works vi. Train forces to interdict enemy sea and air power and communications through operations on land The Army Staff a. Chief of Staff Army – the executive component of the Army i. Vision: The world’s best Army – a full spectrum force – trained and ready for victory. 1. Values based organization 2. Integral part of Joint team 3. Modern Weapons and equipment 4. Responds to nation’s needs 5. Changing to meet the challenges of today, tomorrow, and the 21st Century. b. Vice Chief of Staff – Director of the Army Staff c. Four primary staffs to chief of staff i. Deputy Chief of Staff Personnel (G1) 1. Man the total Army with quality people, provide and maintain a properly trained and motivated individual for each task. 2. Key functions – Sustain, distribute, separate, train, acquire, structure VIII. ii. Deputy Chief of Staff Intelligence (G2) 1. Policy formation, planning, programming, budgeting, management, staff supervision, evaluation, and oversight for intelligence activities of the Department of the Army. 2. Includes censorship, threat validation, security, meteorological activities, topographical activities. iii. Deputy Chief of Staff Operations and Planning (G3) 1. Advise the Chief of Staff Army (CSA) on Army strategy, political aspects of international affairs, Army position on joint matters, force integration and force development, mobilization and planning, training, and arms control policy. 2. Represent CSA as Army Operations Deputy to Joint Chief of Staff 3. Includes mobilization, readiness reporting, leader development, foreign area officer program. iv. Deputy Chief of Staff Logistics (G4) 1. Policy formation, planning, programming, budgeting, management, staff supervision, evaluation, oversight, and information system support for logistics activities of the Department of the Army 2. Key functions a. Supply, Maintenance, Readiness b. Material & integrated logistics support c. Troop Support & Energy d. Transportation and Mobility d. Six special staffs to chief officer i. Chief of Engineers ii. Chief of Chaplains iii. Chief National Guard Bureau iv. Chief Army Reserve v. Chief Army Surgeon General vi. Judge Advocate General e. Asst. Chief of Staff of Installation Management Total Army today a. 4 Corps, 18 Divisions, 15 Enhanced Brigades b. The Army’s size has decreased from 28 divisions in 1989 to 18 divisions in 1997 c. Twelve Major Commands (CONUS) i. Forces Command ii. Training and Doctrine Command iii. Army Material Command iv. Information Systems Command v. Corps of Engineers vi. Military Traffic Management Command vii. Special Operations Command IX. X. XI. XII. viii. Criminal Investigations Command ix. Medical Command x. Intelligence and Security Command xi. Military District of Washington xii. Space & Strategic Defense Command d. Four Major Army Overseas Commands – consist primarily of major forces assigned as the ground force components of the United States unified commands. These components are under the operational control of the Commanders in Chief of the unified commands who report to the Secretary of Defense i. US Army Europe (USAREUR) – European Command ii. US Army Pacific (USARPAC) – US Pacific Command iii. Eighth US Army(EUSA) –US Forces Korea (sub-unified command of U.S. Pacific Command) iv. US Army, South (USARSO) – US Southern Command e. Other key component commands i. Third US Army (USARCENT) – US Central Command ii. US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) – US Atlantic Command 1. HQ Fort McPherson, GA (no permanently assigned forces) Types of Forces a. Airborne b. Air Assault c. Light Infantry d. Armor e. Special Ops i. Special Forces, Army Rangers, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs, Special Operations. Three Major Army Commands a. Combat Arms (Infantry, Armor, Artillery) b. Combat Support (Engineering, Signal, Chemical) c. Combat Service Support (Medical, Transportation, Maintenance) Active Component (AC) a. Provides a variety of capabilities with which to tailor a rapidly deployable crisis response force. Reserve Component (RC) a. Provides essential capabilities not found in AC. Increasingly important role in peacekeeping, humanitarian work, and civil assistance operations, while continuing to respond to domestic emergencies. b. Organization i. Ready Reserve – Army National Guard, Army Reserve Units, Individual Mobilization Augmentees, Active Guard/Reservists, Individual Ready Reserve, and member of Inactive National Guard. XIII. XIV. ii. Standby Reserve – Individuals who have completed active duty and reserve training requirements, or are unable to maintain membership in units. iii. Retired Reserve- Individuals who have completed 20 years of qualifying service for retirement. Army National Guard a. Lineage traced to militias formed during the French and Indian Wars in 1700s b. Provides primarily Combat and Combat Support unit reinforcements as well as some combat service support for active Army. c. Provides combat reinforcement capability with 15 enhanced readiness brigades, trained and equipped to reinforce deployed AC forces within 90 days. d. Two roles i. Allegiance to the State Governor (State Mission) ii. Allegiance to the President (Federal Mission) Army Reserve a. Formed in 1908 b. After WWI the National Defense Act of 1920 established the Organized Reserve Corps. c. The Army Reserve is not under state control d. Provides the bulk of combat support and combat service support for the Total Army. Staff Organization I. II. III. IV. V. References a. FM 3-0 – Army Operations b. FM 1-02 Operational Terms and Graphics c. FM 5-0 Army Planning and Orders Production d. FM 3-21.20 The Infantry Battalion Command – the authoritative act of making decisions and ordering action Control – the act of monitoring and influencing the action Staff Organization and Responsibilities a. The activities of the staff focus on the function of assisting the Commander in making decisions. b. The Staff supports the commander by i. Coordinating plans, activities, and operations ii. Advising the Commander in professional, technical or functional areas iii. Continuously collecting, collating, analyzing, and disseminating information gathered from all available resources. iv. Preparing plans and orders and supervising the execution of orders issued by, or in the name of, the Commander. v. Provides the Commander (and subordinate Commanders) with “Situational Awareness.” c. Staff Officer common duties and responsibilities i. Advise and provide information ii. Prepare, update, and maintain estimates iii. Make recommendations iv. Prepare plans and orders v. Monitor Execution vi. Process, analyze and disseminate information vii. ID and analyze problems viii. Preform risk management The Battalion Staff a. Coordinating Staff – aid the Commander by coordinating the plans, activities, and operations of the command (Responsible directly to the BN XO). i. Battalion XO 1. Is 2nd in Command 2. XO coordinates and synchronizes the staff 3. During combat the XO synchronizes Battlefield Operating Systems (BOS) and anticipates problems. 4. Supervises Combat Service Support ii. S1 – Personnel (Adjutant) 1. Responsible for all personnel matters 2. Supervises medical, legal, safety, and civil affairs 3. Operates from the Combat Trains Command Post (CTCP) a. Shares supervision of logistics with the S4 iii. S2 – Intelligence 1. Responsible for intelligence collection and dissemination 2. Performs Intelligent Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) with the Commander. 3. Normally operates from the main Command Post (CP). iv. S3 – Operations and Training Officer 1. Commander’s primary assistant in coordinating and planning the battle. 2. Coordinates, plans for, and integrates all Battlefield Operating Systems (BOS) assets. 3. Prepares operations estimates and orders v. S4 – Logistics Officer 1. Determines Combat Service Support (CSS) requirements and priorities 2. Develops Combat Service Support plans in concert with the tactical plan 3. Officer in Charge (OIC) of the Battalion Combat Trains 4. Primary coordinator for logistical staff vi. S6 – Signal Officer 1. Advises the commander and staff on all communication matters including communication maintenance and Electronic Warfare (EW). 2. Assists S3 in determining locations for Command Posts. 3. Prepares, writes the signal annex of the OPORD. vii. (S5) – Civil Military Operations Officer b. Special Staff – Aids the Commander in professional, technical, or other functional areas. i. Headquarter Company (HHC) Commander ii. Fire Support Officer (FSO) iii. Chemical Officer iv. Recon Platoon Leader v. Mortar Platoon Leader vi. Anti-Armor Platoon Leader vii. Engineer viii. Air Defense Artillery (ADA) Platoon Leader ix. Surgeon x. Support Platoon Leader xi. Medical Platoon Leader xii. Forward Air Controller (FAC) / Air Liaison Officer (ALO) xiii. Commander of any Combat Support (CS) or Combat Service Support (CSS) unit that is attached, under operational control (OPCON), or that provides direct support to the battalion. c. Personal Staff i. Command Sergeant Major (CSM) ii. Chaplain Operational Terms and Graphics I. II. III. IV. FM 1-02 covers Operational Terms and Graphics Graphics information describes: who, where, what and how. a. When done properly, graphic overlays are stand-alone. Colors Blue / (Cyan computer generated) Friend Red Hostile Green Neutral Yellow Unknown Black Friendly Graphic Control Measures A unit symbol (who) is composed of a. Frame i. Basic symbol frames b. Color c. Icon, branch, or functional symbols d. Text of other graphic modifiers V. Location (Where) a. A headquarter unit has the location extension drawn on the bottom left side of the frame. A normal unit has the location extension drawn on the center of the frame. b. A unit with no location extension positions the frame center mass on the location. c. Unit locations can also be grouped within a bracket or joined via the location line to show a common location for all indicated units. VI. Weapons and Obstacles (What)VV VII. Control Measures, Boundaries, Lines, Areas, Routes, Fire Planning, and other actions (HOW) a. Control Measures (Points) i. Directives given graphically or orally by the Commander to subordinates commands to assign responsibilities, coordinate fires and maneuver, and control combat operations. ii. In general all control measures should be easily identified from the ground. b. Boundaries i. A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and to resolve confliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. ii. The following example shows boundaries separating 1st and 2nd PLT, A and B Company, and 1-11th Battalion and 2-502nd Battalion respectively. c. Lines i. Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT) – Indicates the most forward positions of friendly troops at a specific time. Indicated by line that makes contiguous sideways humps. Top of the humps face the enemy. i. Phase Line (PL)- A line used for control & coordination of military operations, usually an easily defined feature in the operational area. ii. Limit of Advance (LOA) – A phase line used to control forward progress of the attack. The limit of advance for 6th Infantry Division (Light), 7th Infantry Division, and 10th Mountain Division is phase line Glass. iii. Line of Contact (LC) - A general trace delineating the locations where friendly and enemy forces are engaged. Phase line Tin is the line of contact for 101st Air Assault Division, 2nd MAR Division, and 2nd Armor Division. iv. Line of Departure (LD) – A line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. Phase line paper is the Line of Departure for 3rd Armor Division, 1st Cavalry Division, and 82nd Airborne Division. v. Probable Line of Deployment (PLD) - Phase line that a CDR designates as the location where he intends to completely deploy his unit into assault formation before he begins the assault. Indicated by a dotted line. Phase line lead is the probable line of deployment for 1st Armor Division, 9th Infantry Division, and 5th Infantry Division Mechanized.