Supporting Information for:
Annual water, sediment, nutrient and organic carbon fluxes in river basins: a global
meta-analysis as a function of scale
M. Mutema1*, V. Chaplot2 G. Jewitt1, P. Chivenge1 and G. Blöschl3
1 SAEES, CWRR, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PB X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, RSA, [email protected]
2 Institut de Recherché pour le Développement (IRD), Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat (LOCEAN), Université
Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
3 Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
* Corresponding author : [email protected] (Macdex Mutema)
Water Resources Research Journal
Introduction
The data set provided in the separate Excel file contains data obtained from the journal
articles consulted for the literature review. The papers include work done in different
locations of the world over a period spanning several decades back and literature review
papers. It also contains secondary data obtained through our calculations using known
formulae to generate data relevant for our purposes.
1. Column “ID No.”, identification number of paper for purposes of our review.
2. Column “Author”, author(s) of paper and year paper was published.
3. Column “Country”, country where work reported was done or where the information
came.
4. Column “Climate”, climate of the site where work was done as indicated in paper or,
when not indicated in paper, from other papers research articles reporting on work
done on same site or other sources.
5. Column “POS”, position of the particular data sources as indicated in paper e.g. plot
name or number, and position on the slope.
6. Column “Yrs”, length of study period in years for which the data was generated.
7. Column “Size”, m2, size of plot or catchment or river basin.
8. Column “Llength”, m, slope length or characteristic slope length calculated as squareroot of area provided by paper.
9. Column “Rmm”, mm, total annual runoff recorded or calculated.
10. Column “Rf”, runoff coefficient as a fraction calculated through dividing the total
annual runoff by total annual precipitation.
11. Column “RC”, %, runoff coefficient as a percent.
12. Column “SC”, g L-1, level of concentration of sediments in the runoff water as
indicated by paper or calculated.
13. Column “SL (g m-2)”, g m-2, amount of sediment loss per unit area from a plot or
catchment or river basin, as indicated by paper or obtained by multiplying SC × Rmm.
14. Column “SL (g m-2 yr-1)”, g m-2 yr-1, amount of sediment loss per unit area from a plot
or catchment or river basin in one year, as indicated by paper or calculated.
15. Column “POCC (g kg-1)”, g kg-1, average concentration of organic carbon in the
sediments as given by paper or calculated.
16. Column “DOCC (mg L-1)”, mg L-1, average concentration of dissolved organic carbon
in the runoff as given by paper or calculated.
17. Column “POCL”, g m-2, annual particulate organic carbon export in sediments as
given by paper or calculated.
18. Column “DOCL”, g m-2, annual dissolved organic carbon export in runoff as given by
paper or calculated.
19. Column “TOCL (gm-2 yr-1)”, gm-2 yr-1, total annual organic carbon export per unit area
of plot or catchment or basin as given by paper or calculated.
20. Column “PNC (g kg-1)”, g kg-1, average concentration of nitrogen content in sediments
as given by paper or calculated.
21. Column “DNC (mg L-1)”, mg L-1, average concentration of nitrogen content in the
runoff as given by paper or calculated.
22. Column “PNL”, mg m-2, annual nitrogen export in sediments as given by paper or
calculated.
23. Column “DNL”, mg m-2, annual nitrogen export in runoff as given by paper or
calculated.
24. Column “TNL (mg m-2 yr-1)”, mg m-2 yr-1, total annual nitrogen export per unit area of
plot or catchment or river basin as given by paper or calculated.
25. Column “PPC (g kg-1)”, g kg-1, average concentration of phosphorus in the sediments
as given by paper or calculated.
26. Column “DPC (mg L-1)”, mg L-1, average concentration of phosphorus in the runoff as
given by paper or calculated.
27. Column “PPL”, mg m-2, annual phosphorus export in sediments as given by paper or
calculated.
28. Column “DPL”, mg m-2, annual phosphorus export in runoff as given by paper or
calculated.
29. Column “TPL (mg m-2 yr-1)”, mg m-2 yr-1, total annual phosphorus export per unit area
of plot or catchment or basin as given by paper or calculated.
30. Column “Total Rainfall”, mm, annual precipitation recorded during the trial period.
31. Column “MAP”, mm yr-1, long-term or 30-year average precipitation for trial site as
given by paper of obtained from the WORLDCLIM Database.
32. Column “MAT”, degrees Celcius, long-term or 30-year average temperature for trial
site as given by paper or obtained from WORLDCLIM Database.
33. Column “Z”, m, altitude of observation point/site or average of altitudes given by
paper.
34. Column “LONG”, degrees, longitudinal position of plot or catchment or river basin
outlet.
35. Column “LAT”, degrees, latitudinal position of plot or catchment or river basin outlet
as given by paper.
36. Column “LU”, the most dominant land use in terms of fractional area covered as
reported by paper.
37. Column “BD”, g cm-3, soil bulk density as given by paper or average of given values
for the plot or catchment or river basin.
38. Column “S”, %, slope gradient of plot or average slope gradient of catchment or river
basin as given by paper.
39. Column “Cov”, %, average soil cover by vegetation of the plot or catchment or river
basin as derived from information provided by paper.
40. Column “CLAY”, %, soil clay content of the plot or average soil clay content of
catchment or river basin derived from information provided by paper.
41. Column “SOCC”, %, organic carbon content of soil from the plot or average soil
organic carbon content of soils from the catchment or river basin as supplied by
paper.
Table S1. Erosion variables: Author(s) and year paper was published, temporal scale (Yrs),
and selected erosion variables (RC: runoff coefficients; SL: sediment loads and TOCL: total
organic carbon losses) at different spatial scales (m: microplot; p: plot; mc: microcatchment;
sc: subcatchment and c: catchment)
Author(s) & Year
Alberts et al. 1978
Alfaro et al. 2008
Amegashie et al. 2011
Andreu et al. 1998
Avnimelech & McHenry. 1984
Barthès et al. 2006
Bellanger et al. 2004
Bernal & Sabater. 2012
Bilgo et al. 2004
Bilgo et al. 2006
Boeglin et al. 2005
Boix-Fayos et al. 2009
Brunet et al. 2006a
Brunet et al. 2006b
Cerdan et al. 2004
Chaplot & Poesen. 2012
Chaplot et al. 2005
Chaplot et al. 2006
Chaplot et al. 2007
Cogle et al. 2002
Correll et al. 1992
Deasy et al. 2011
Deelstra et al. 2009
Dlamini et al. 2011
Drissa et al. 2004
Esteves & Lapetite. 2003
Feng & Li. 2008
Feyen et al. 1996
Gabrielli et al. 2012
Gachene et al. 1997
Gao et al. 2012
Girmay et al. 2009
Hagedorn et al. 2001
Hammad et al. 2006
Han et al. 2012
Hashim et al. 1995
Holko & Kostka. 2008
Inamdar & Mitchell. 2007
Jacinthe et al. 2004
Juarez et l. 2011
Kaushal & Lewis. 2005
Kronvang et al. 1999
Kuusemets & Mander. 2002
Le Bissonnais et al. 1998
Lewis & Saunders. 1989
Lin & Wang. 2010
Lopez-Tarazon et al. 2010
Lucas et al. 2002
Martinez-Mena et al. 2002
Martinez-Mena et al. 2008
Martinez-Mena et al. 2011
Mayor et al. 2011
McGlynn & McDonnell. 2003
Mchunu et al. 2011
Moreno-de las Heras et al. 2010
Morsli et al. 2006
Moyo. 1998
Munodawafa. 2007
Oakes et al. 2012
Ollesch et al. 2008
Onderka et al. 2012
Orchard et al. 2013
Panagopoulos et al. 2007
Parsons et al. 2006
Penna et al. 2011
Peterjohn & Correll. 1984
Petrone et al. 2006
Phan Ha et al. 2012
Polyakov & Lal. 2008
Puustinen et al. 2007
Quinton et al. 2006
Richardson et al. 2012
Rodriguez-Blanco et al. 2013
Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2004
Roose. 1978
Roose. 1980
Rubio et al. 1997
Rumpel et al. 2006
Sadeghi et al. 2013
Sawa et al. 2011
Seylers et al. 2005a
Seylers et al. 2005b
Strohmeier et al. 2012
Stutter et al. 2008
Zillgens et al. 2007
------------------------------- RC% --------------------------m
p
mc
sc
c
6.0
42.1
------------------------SL (g m-2 yr-1) -----------------------m
p
mc
sc
c
904.3
---------------------- TOCL (g m-2 yr-1) -------------------m
p
mc
sc
c
6474.2
1.9
794.4
16.0
7.4
17.1
11.5
21.2
470.8
1.7
619.7
0.1
9.8
524.1
400.0
3.2
0.5
12.2
0.6
22.1
19.1
5.2
13.0
0.2
1.7
1.7
5.0
4.9
4.0
0.5
1.2
898.5
76.7
44.9
40.8
17.0
50.0
0.2
0.2
1.8
22.7
274.0
8.0
11.5
11.5
212.5
5.1
170.0
160.1
56.9
54.0
18.3
2.0
1.6
37.8
304.6
6.4
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.9
0.1
5.5
0.1
0.1
7.3
30.7
23.0
10.9
6.0
77.7
774.0
14.7
5.4
17.7
0.9
590.5
0.5
3.2
12.9
28.4
20.8
27.1
0.1
11.4
20.8
19.1
50.5
28.6
36.7
23.0
4.0
4.1
58.0
31.0
9.9
1069.3
18.3
45.0
58.7
1.6
1.9
1.2
2.1
4119.9
27.2
60.6
297.0
1.0
154.7
53.9
94.6
81.8
60.0
70.8
46.1
24.4
9.7
23.9
4.7
50.6
43.1
15.6
0.7
15.6
0.8
58.3
5238.3
35.4
11.9
0.9
12115
17654
4038.2
52.4
12.7
24.6
7.2
1738.0
47.3
222.3
0.3
243.5
0.7
199.2
191.3
12.0
0.1
55.0
37.0
3317
3852.3
3.2
3275
9.7
420.0
670.0
39.3
42.2
440.0
465.0
16.4
130.0
5.0
0.4
32.4
40.4
2.9
0.7
22.0
10.8
6.2
36.4
0.6
0.5
58.4
20.0
226.4
14.0
10.2
14.5
23.0
45.3
4.0
44.6
2.7
15.3
95.3
31.0
44.5
49.3
46.6
64.6
12.2
819.3
143.2
203.6
140.0
2.2
3564.8
14.1
30.8
5.1
1.0
9.2
109.2
38.6
4.6
0.7
123.1
57.7
15.7
25.0
39.3
8.6
46.3
13.4
33.0
11.3
13.4
18.5
30.3
8.2
97.6
0.2
8.3
8.4
0.5
1.1
0.4
8.6
1.6
4.9
Table S2. Environmental factors: Author(s) and year paper was published; number of
observations (N); Size of site (L), location (Long: longitude, Lat: latitude and Z: altitude),
slope gradient (S), soil cover by vegetation (Cov), climatic conditions (MAP: mean annual
precipitation and MAT: mean annual temperature), and soil properties (BD: bulk density;
CLAY, SILT, SAND and SOCC: soil organic carbon content)
Author(s) & Year
N
min
Alberts et al. 1978
Alfaro et al. 2008
Amegashie et al. 2011
Andreu et al. 1998
Avnimelech & McHenry. 1984
Barthès et al. 2006
Bellanger et al. 2004
Bernal & Sabater. 2012
Bilgo et al. 2004
Bilgo et al. 2006
Boeglin et al. 2005
Boix-Fayos et al. 2009
Brunet et al. 2006a
Brunet et al. 2006b
Cerdan et al. 2004
Chaplot & Poesen. 2012
Chaplot et al. 2005
Chaplot et al. 2006
Chaplot et al. 2007
Cogle et al. 2002
Correll et al. 1992
Deasy et al. 2011
Deelstra et al. 2009
Dlamini et al. 2011
Drissa et al. 2004
Esteves & Lapetite. 2003
Feng & Li. 2008
Feyen et al. 1996
Gabrielli et al. 2012
Gachene et al. 1997
Gao et al. 2012
Girmay et al. 2009
Hagedorn et al. 2001
Hammad et al. 2006
Han et al. 2012
Hashim et al. 1995
Holko & Kostka. 2008
Inamdar & Mitchell. 2007
Jacinthe et al. 2004
Juarez et l. 2011
Kaushal & Lewis. 2005
Kronvang et al. 1999
Kuusemets & Mander. 2002
Le Bissonnais et al. 1998
Lewis & Saunders. 1989
Lin & Wang. 2010
Lopez-Tarazon et al. 2010
Lucas et al. 2002
Martinez-Mena et al. 2002
Martinez-Mena et al. 2008
Martinez-Mena et al. 2011
Mayor et al. 2011
McGlynn & McDonnell. 2003
Mchunu et al. 2011
Moreno-de las Heras et al. 2010
Morsli et al. 2006
Moyo. 1998
Munodawafa. 2007
Oakes et al. 2012
Ollesch et al. 2008
Onderka et al. 2012
Orchard et al. 2013
Panagopoulos et al. 2007
Parsons et al. 2006
Penna et al. 2011
Peterjohn & Correll. 1984
Petrone et al. 2006
Phan Ha et al. 2012
Polyakov & Lal. 2008
Puustinen et al. 2007
Quinton et al. 2006
Richardson et al. 2012
Rodriguez-Blanco et al. 2013
Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2004
Roose. 1978
Roose. 1980
Rubio et al. 1997
Rumpel et al. 2006
Sadeghi et al. 2013
Sawa et al. 2011
Seylers et al. 2005a
Seylers et al. 2005b
Strohmeier et al. 2012
Stutter et al. 2008
Zillgens et al. 2007
21
6
5
4
41
3
3
4
4
4
5
7
3
3
3
12
7
3
5
18
4
4
4
5
6
12
7
2
2
2
4
4
4
2
3
5
4
4
5
5
6
1
3
4
1
4
1
7
2
3
2
3
7
2
20
8
1
4
10
3
24
5
1
8
4
1
3
8
3
3
10
12
10
9
1
2
6
6
13
6
3
9
1
6
3
L (m)
max
547.7
167.3
591.6
17.9
244.9
15.5
5.5
1870.8
12.6
12.6
24.5
281.4
1.0
1.0
21.2
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
28.0
247.0
137.8
2121.3
1.0
20.0
1.0
25020
3.2
50.0
591.6
4.5
38.1
2.0
40.0
5.0
4711.7
126.5
74.2
1.0
3598.6
774.6
189.7
1469.7
17.9
16568
15.5
5.5
3240.4
12.7
12.6
136051.5
1212.3
1.0
1.0
3316.6
3162.3
787.4
77.5
1.0
28.0
4781.2
553.2
3768.3
1.0
20.0
332.4
183575.6
38.7
125.0
591.6
4.5
836.7
2.0
1166.2
20.0
33090.8
2638.2
420.7
1.0
3981.2
10653.6
10653.6
131.5
1.0
1142.4
836.7
974679.4
974679.4
640.3
21095
673.1
15.0
8.0
8.0
2.0
7.4
10.0
1.0
8972.2
21095
1913.1
15.0
8.0
8.0
449.4
411.1
10.0
15.0
10.0
1.0
4335.9
685.6
1.0
10.0
5.0
4335.9
26267.9
26267.9
2.0
181.7
403.7
2280.4
1.0
10.0
100.0
35.0
3000.0
51.0
25.0
27.8
26590.2
3162.3
10440.3
403.7
3224.9
5.0
30.0
3924.3
35.0
14282.9
4000.0
25.0
3.3
1.0
2.0
2119.0
8185.4
5.8
787.4
100.0
9077.4
1870828.7
357770.9
2149127.7
2049.4
141.4
264.6
2049.4
42941.8
12247.4
Long
Lat
----- degrees ----99.6
-73.2
-1.0
-0.4
-96.8
2.3
-70.3
2.6
-3.8
-3.8
11.4
-2.2
-47.7
-47.7
-3.7
102.2
102.1
102.1
102.1
78.3
-75.6
-2.7
45.1
29.4
8.4
2.6
117.5
8.6
25.6
18.8
105.5
38.8
8.7
-80.6
117.4
101.2
48.7
42.4
-81.8
29.4
-106.0
9.8
25.0
0.8
-66.6
29.8
9.9
-82.9
-1.1
-1.8
-2.2
-0.6
171.8
29.4
40.8
16.3
30.2
30.8
29.4
37.6
6.0
29.4
10.9
-110.2
11.5
38.9
68.0
105.5
-83.0
23.2
-0.6
52.8
-8.9
-15.4
-3.1
-5.2
-0.4
102.2
60.3
37.0
12.5
12.5
11.9
-2.2
12.9
42.1
-40.6
10.3
39.5
35.8
6.4
9.0
41.7
11.8
11.8
4.5
38.1
-15.2
-15.2
48.6
19.9
19.8
19.8
19.8
17.5
38.9
52.0
55.8
28.8
12.1
13.5
40.9
47.3
43.0
5.0
31.3
9.0
47.1
37.7
33.2
5.8
18.0
78.9
40.4
-28.8
39.2
56.3
60.2
49.9
6.4
101.9
42.7
40.4
38.1
38.1
38.1
38.5
42.2
-28.8
0.8
35.5
-20.2
20.1
28.8
55.8
49.7
-28.8
59.5
31.7
46.9
76.6
46.9
21.0
40.0
60.6
52.0
-83.9
42.9
28.1
10.3
8.2
39.0
19.9
36.7
30.5
-6.1
-6.1
50.1
57.2
47.8
Z
m
328
520
300
220
645
53
1200
410
360
360
700
1200
1000
1000
136
841
719
550
580
516
17
56
69
1437
400
220
766
1200
110
1100
422
1500
1378
900
24
714
1141
297
400
1385
3725
78
54
63
177
3010
1685
299
800
700
800
697
125
1385
1100
332
1479
1200
1437
142
273
1385
150
1183
2214
39
149
102
673
66
85
5
379
1000
400
219
633
551
700
143
350
1000
786
337
1718
S
Cov
-------- % -------3.0
6.0
5.0
20.0
29.1
4.0
43.3
1.0
1.0
15.1
3.5
3.5
3.8
35.7
49.7
30.0
45.0
1.9
8.7
2.1
22.2
4.6
47.5
20.0
61.5
17.0
7.0
8.1
20.0
2.5
1.4
17.6
37.5
14.6
15.3
22.2
32.5
10.0
2.0
4.3
1.8
23.0
12.0
11.0
40.0
39.3
3.0
36.4
5.0
4.5
22.4
5.0
83.4
57.2
58.0
83.4
43.3
40.3
8
28.2
78.2
17.7
15.7
14.8
51.7
5.4
15.0
5.9
3.9
11.5
15.4
25.0
1.0
5.0
30.0
100.0
30.0
2.0
3.5
42.0
60
40
MAP
mm
MAT
o
C
861
1284
1000
425
799
1150
1600
750
900
804
1700
583
1200
1200
1098
1403
1403
1403
1403
784
963
660
671
684
1076
560
560
2300
2475
1000
826
543
2300
580
840
3000
1014
1006
950
700
432
770
638
800
4500
1940
767
1019
300
300
300
275
2600
684
466
476
500
550
684
560
900
684
810
312
1220
1085
400
960
932
956
621
691
1042
730
800
1725
533
1403
257
668
1550
3000
1150
1350
1400
8
15
29
17
15
27
21
14
29
29
25
13
22
22
12
25
25
25
25
27
14
7
6
13
25
30
4
6
12
23
10
27
6
17
15
28
4
9
10
17
2
13
6
11
27
10
11
10
17
17
17
18
7
13
11
23
26
18
13
-6
9
13
6
18
4
13
12
22
11
5
9
-3
13
15
29
27
21
25
15
6
26
27
5
9
11
BD
g m-3
0.57
1.59
1.59
1.00
1.00
1.80
CLAY
SAND
SILT
SOCC
--------------------- % ---------------------
5.8
7.1
21.9
14.7
26.0
5.3
5.2
5.2
50.0
15.3
53.4
53.4
12.3
86.2
47.9
1.23
0.93
1.36
1.00
1.17
1.00
1.58
1.58
1.30
1.04
0.90
0.90
7.9
45.9
7.5
21.8
5.4
155.4
4.5
3.4
3.4
15.0
16.5
71.0
52.7
60.0
34.4
71.9
39.0
26.6
14.3
21.3
34.0
18.0
23.0
11.0
58.1
28.9
26.3
13.4
59.3
24.2
47.8
53.5
48.1
30.0
16.1
11.4
14.7
60.0
35.7
35.1
36.0
10.0
22.0
22.6
22.2
8.6
35.9
20.2
30.0
40.4
20.8
80.0
23.8
58.9
2.4
10.3
0.5
0.5
1.00
45.0
32.5
22.5
16.7
1.31
33.7
46.2
23.1
36.5
8.2
19.9
29.8
44.8
57.1
18.5
20.0
45.0
60.0
37.0
23.8
30.6
60.0
0.0
1.5
1.11
1.1
20.0
1.36
1.00
20.0
18.0
15.0
1.59
0.63
1.00
35.0
25.5
25.5
22.0
32.7
32.6
43.0
41.9
41.9
35.5
8.8
18.2
18.0
35.7
33.4
5.0
5.0
36.0
45.0
35.4
24.9
90.0
37.0
28.9
41.4
5.0
13.0
1.29
1.39
16.0
21.5
70.3
40.8
13.7
37.8
13.0
0.92
1.30
45.0
30.0
30.0
25.0
29.1
107.4
1.00
10.0
75.0
15.0
11.0
22.3
5.0
15.0
14.1
48.2
6.3
90.0
70.0
53.3
16.2
71.4
5.0
15.0
32.2
35.6
50.0
50.0
39.0
39.0
11.0
11.0
0.80
1.17
1.40
1.37
1.00
1.50
0.50
1.00
1.00
1.16
1.16
10.7
5.0
7.5
134.5
4.3
9.2
16.3
16.3
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Annual water, sediment, nutrient and organic carbon fluxes