Page 84-85: 1-4, 11-18 1. Cleavage- when a mineral breaks along flat surfaces Fracture- when a mineral breaks along uneven surfaces 2. Crystal- one of 6 arrangements that the atoms in a mineral can take Mineral- solid, inorganic, naturally occurring, fixed composition with a crystalline structure 3. Luster- how a mineral reflects light (metallic or non-metallic) Streak- color of the mineral in powdered form 4. Magma- molten rock Crystal- can form from magma or from solution. *If magma cools quickly, small crystals form. If magma cools slowly, larger crystals can form. 11. d- not living 12. b- silicon and oxygen 13. b-hardness (Know how to use Moth’s hardness scale) 14. b- fracture- breaks on uneven surfaces 15. c- orderly arrangement of atoms 16. d- streak (can be different than the color of the mineral, is more consistent than mineral color) 17. c- diamond 18. water is only a mineral when it is frozen in sold form and has been formed naturally Page 114 11-18 11. d 12. d- minerals align into layers (gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock) 13. a- granite (has large mineral grains because it is intrusive and cools slowly underground) 14. c- intrusive (large mineral grains) 15. d- magma (igneous rocks form from magma underground or lava above ground) 16. b- breccia (both conglomerate and breccia are detrital sedimentary rocks, but conglomerate has rounded grains and breccia has angular ones) 17. c- breccia 18. b- lava Page 117 10-17 10. A rock is a mixture made up of minerals, volcanic glass, organic material. Mixtures must be elements or compounds. 11. Igneous rocks with course texture (large grains) form from magma underground and are known as intrusive. Examples of intrusive igneous rocks are granite, gabbro, and diorite. Igneous rocks with fine texture (small grains) form from lava on the surface and are known as extrusive. Examples of extrusive igneous rocks are andesite, basalt and rhyolite. 12. Foliation is seen in some metamorphic rocks when mineral grains align during metamorphosis. 13. Chemical sedimentary rocks form from solution. When a solution with dissolved minerals in it evaporates, the minerals are left behind and can form rocks. 14. Some sedimentary rocks contain fossils because the fossils were deposited, with other sediment in the rock, and then compacted and cemented into the rock. 15. Both chemical sedimentary rocks and cement in detrital rocks can form as dissolved mineral material precipitates out of solution. 16. Between 110-120 km. 17. The temperature increases as depth below the surface increases.