Page 84-85: 1-4, 11-18
1. Cleavage- when a mineral breaks along flat surfaces
Fracture- when a mineral breaks along uneven surfaces
2. Crystal- one of 6 arrangements that the atoms in a mineral can take
Mineral- solid, inorganic, naturally occurring, fixed composition with a crystalline structure
3. Luster- how a mineral reflects light (metallic or non-metallic)
Streak- color of the mineral in powdered form
4. Magma- molten rock
Crystal- can form from magma or from solution.
*If magma cools quickly, small crystals form. If magma cools slowly, larger crystals can form.
11. d- not living
12. b- silicon and oxygen
13. b-hardness (Know how to use Moth’s hardness scale)
14. b- fracture- breaks on uneven surfaces
15. c- orderly arrangement of atoms
16. d- streak (can be different than the color of the mineral, is more consistent than mineral color)
17. c- diamond
18. water is only a mineral when it is frozen in sold form and has been formed naturally
Page 114 11-18
11. d
12. d- minerals align into layers (gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock)
13. a- granite (has large mineral grains because it is intrusive and cools slowly underground)
14. c- intrusive (large mineral grains)
15. d- magma (igneous rocks form from magma underground or lava above ground)
16. b- breccia (both conglomerate and breccia are detrital sedimentary rocks, but conglomerate has
rounded grains and breccia has angular ones)
17. c- breccia
18. b- lava
Page 117 10-17
10. A rock is a mixture made up of minerals, volcanic glass, organic material. Mixtures must be elements
or compounds.
11. Igneous rocks with course texture (large grains) form from magma underground and are known as
intrusive. Examples of intrusive igneous rocks are granite, gabbro, and diorite. Igneous rocks with fine
texture (small grains) form from lava on the surface and are known as extrusive. Examples of extrusive
igneous rocks are andesite, basalt and rhyolite.
12. Foliation is seen in some metamorphic rocks when mineral grains align during metamorphosis.
13. Chemical sedimentary rocks form from solution. When a solution with dissolved minerals in it
evaporates, the minerals are left behind and can form rocks.
14. Some sedimentary rocks contain fossils because the fossils were deposited, with other sediment in
the rock, and then compacted and cemented into the rock.
15. Both chemical sedimentary rocks and cement in detrital rocks can form as dissolved mineral material
precipitates out of solution.
16. Between 110-120 km.
17. The temperature increases as depth below the surface increases.

Page 84-85: 1-4, 11-18 Cleavage- when a mineral breaks along flat