Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what is
happening in the chart above:
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Igneous rock
Metamorphic rock
Sedimentary rock
Permeable
Rock cycle
Sample answer: After magma erupts as lava, it cools to eventually form
igneous rock. If it cools quickly, air bubbles are trapped in the rock, making
it permeable. Through weathering and erosion, the rock is broken down
into sediment and deposited. Layer upon layer of sediment is piled up and
changed over time to form sedimentary rock. Over an extended period of
time, this sedimentary rock becomes buried. Heat and pressure may change
the original rock into a different type – metamorphic. As this rock becomes
buried deeper and deeper, it will become hot, melt and recycle back into
magma. This is all part of the rock cycle.
If you were to use the worksheet above to identify a mineral, how would
you find each of the properties listed? Describe what you would do to find
each, using all of the following vocabulary terms:
 Hardness: Scratch the mineral with a series of items based on the
Moh’s scale to determine the hardness.
 Streak: You can observe the streak by rubbing a mineral against a
piece of unglazed porcelain tile to observe the color of its powder.
 Luster: Observe the mineral to see how it reflects light.
 Color: Observe the mineral to see its color.
 Specific gravity: Determine the density by dividing mass by volume.
 Cleavage: Determine of the mineral splits easily along flat surfaces.
 Fracture: Determine how the mineral looks when it breaks apart in an
irregular way.
 Special properties: Determine if a mineral is magnetized, glows, or
reacts to acid.
Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what is
happening in the diagram above:
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Epicenter
Seismic waves
Energy
Convection currents
During an earthquake, seismic waves race out from the epicenter in all
directions, carrying energy with them. Seismic waves move away from the
focus, through the Earth’s interior, and across the surface, often causing
destruction in their path.
Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what is
happening in the chart above:
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Plate tectonics
Convergent boundaries
Transform boundaries
Divergent boundaries
Subduction
The theory of plate tectonics states that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in
slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle. This
explains the formation, movement and subduction of Earth’s plates. As the
plates move, they collide (at convergent boundaries), pull apart (at
divergent boundaries), or grind past each other (at transform boundaries)
causing spectacular changes in Earth’s surface.
Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what is
happening in the diagram above:
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Sedimentary rock
Fossil
Location
Age
Deposition
Fossils are remains of plants or animals that have been buried deep in
sediment to create a mold. As the sedimentary rock forms, an outline of
the plant or animal is permanently left in the rock – this is known as a
fossil. Through deposition, layers of sedimentary rock exist on top of one
another. The age of the fossil can be determined based on the location at
which it is found in the sedimentary rock. This diagram shows that fossils
can help to document how old the rock is.
Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what the
diagram above represents, even if some of the parts are not labeled:
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Crust
Mantle
Core, inner and outer
Crustal plates
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
The three main layers of the Earth are the crust, the mantle, and the core.
These layers vary greatly in size, composition, temperature, and pressure.
The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and the ocean
floor. The lithosphere is where the uppermost part of the mantle and the
crust meet. This is where crustal plates exist. Crustal plates float on the
asthenosphere, which is the soft layer just below the lithosphere. The
mantle is made up of rock that is very hot, but solid. The outer core is a
layer of molten material that surrounds the solid metal inner core.
Using all of the following vocabulary terms, please explain what the
diagram above represents, even if some of the parts are not labeled:
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Convection currents
Plate tectonics
Continental drift
Unequal heating
Pangaea
Plate Tectonics is the theory that Earth’s surface is broken into many
different parts called plates. These plates are pushed and pulled across
Earth’s surface by convection currents in the mantle. Convection currents
are set into motion because of the unequal heating of the asthenosphere.
This theory, which was called Continental Drift, was first developed by
Alfred Wegener when he noticed that the Earth’s continents fit together
like pieces of a puzzle. He concluded that the continents started together as
one giant supercontinent that he named Pangaea. Over time this continent
broke apart and drifted to their present day positions.
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Review stations part 2 – key