Target 11 Protected Areas Country Dossiers
In
decision
XI/24
(2012),
the
Conference of the Parties invited
Parties to undertake major efforts to
achieve
all
elements
of
Aichi
Biodiversity Target 11. The fourth
edition of the Global Biodiversity
Outlook (GBO-4) has reported varying
levels of progress for the different elements of Aichi
Biodiversity Target 11. While the quantitative elements (to
protect 17 per cent of terrestrial and 10 per cent of coastal
and marine areas) are on track to be achieved at the global
level by 2020 for both terrestrial and marine areas within
national jurisdiction, with only an additional area of 1.6
percent needed in each case, the other elements relating to
ecological representation, coverage of areas important for
biodiversity, management effectiveness, governance, and
integration of protected areas into wider land- and
seascapes, still need more attention in order to be achieved.
Status of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 Elements
At least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas are
conserved
At least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas are conserved
Percent of terrestrial and inland water areas and coastal and
marine (up to 200 nautical miles) areas conserved
30.0
20.0
15.4
16.0
14.8
15.0
10.0
Marine
Terrestrial
24.4
25.0
12.3
15.2
11.7
10.6
8.0
14.7
14.5
7.8
5.0
2.3
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.0
www.cbd.int/protected/dossiers/
In order to help Parties collect
and share information and data
on the status of the target, the
Secretariat of the CBD has
prepared 184 country dossiers
using
information
publicly
available
from
BirdLife
International,
the
Digital
Observatory
for
Protected
Areas, and the World Database
of Protected Areas. These
country dossiers were shared
with country representatives of
3 regional workshops to verify
and update the information. The
dossiers include:
World
Africa
Asia
Europe GRULAC Middle
North Oceania
East America
Areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem
services are conserved
Number of Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas and Alliance
for Zero Extinction Sites with a protection of more than 2%
8000
IBAs
6994
7000
AZEs
6000
5000
3778
4000
3000






Terrestrial and Marine Ecoregions (ER)
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)
Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites (AZEs)
Overlaps between unprotected and partially protected
IBAs and AZEs and candidate ER for further protection
Actions identified in their PoWPA Action Plan, Fifth
National Report, or NBSAP
Allocation and utilization of their Fifth and Sixth
replenishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
These country dossiers are in no way prescriptive: they are
intended to help Parties identify the status of different
elements of the target and actions they can undertake in the
next five years. To implement the identified actions, Parties
may consider making use of biodiversity allocations under
GEF-6, multilateral and bilateral aid as well as national
budgets as invited to do in decision XI/24. Dossiers have
helped to compile the regional, sub-regional and global-level
status of the target (see boxes on right).
2000
1375
1000
302
783
756
64
45
137
6
302 50
0
World
Africa
Asia
Europe
GRULAC
North
America
Protected areas are ecologically representative
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Number of marine and terrestrial ecological regions with a
protection of more than 10%
Marine
861
Terrestrial
212
12
World
Africa
213
195
83
11
Asia
137
25
Europe
104
18
GRULAC
17
North
America
Target 12 Threatened Species Country Dossiers
Threatened species include species classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered. The fourth edition
of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-4) has reported that multiple lines of evidence give high confidence that based
on our current trajectory, this target would not be met by 2020 as further extinctions are likely by 2020 and the trend
towards greater extinction risk for several taxonomic groups has not decelerated since 2010. The number of
threatened species listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species went from 15,000 species globally in 2004 to
more than 19,000 species in 2014, and a recent study assessed that a sixth mass extinction is already under way1.
In order to help Parties collect and share information and data on the status of Aichi Biodiversity Target 12,
the Secretariat of the CBD has prepared 53 country dossiers so far using information publicly available and
gathered by BirdLife International, the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas, and the IUCN Red List. These
country dossiers were shared with country representatives of 3 regional workshops to verify and update the
information. The dossiers include:



Threatened Species identified by the IUCN Red List for various taxonomic groups
Threatened Bird Species
Critically Endangered Endemic Species
Reducing the threat of human-induced extinction requires action to address the direct and indirect drivers of
change. For instance, imminent extinctions of known threatened species can in many cases be prevented by
www.cbd.int/protected/dossiers/
protecting important habitats (such as Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites) or by addressing the specific direct
causes of the decline of these species (such as overexploitation, invasive alien species, pollution and disease). Achievement of this target is
therefore highly dependent on most of the other Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These country dossiers are in no way prescriptive: they are
intended to help Parties identify the status of different elements of the target and actions they can undertake in the next five years.
Status of Aichi Biodiversity Target 12 Elements
Extinction of known threatened species
has been prevented
The conservation status of those species
most in decline has been improved and
sustained
Source: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; EX – Extinct,
EW – Extinct in the wild, CR – Critically Endangered, EN –
Endangered, VU – Vulnerable, NT – Near Threatened, DD –
Data Deficient, LC – Least Concern
Taxonomic
Group
Mammals
Birds
Reptiles
Amphibians
Plants
Number of
Species
Described
Globally
5,515
10,425
10,038
7,391
310,442
1
Number of
Critically
Endangered
(CR) Species
212
213
174
522
2,205
Number of
Endangered
(EN) Species
482
419
358
792
3,381
Number of
Vulnerable
(VU)
Species
506
741
399
647
5,310
Number of
Threatened
Species
(CR+EN+VU)
1,200
1,373
931
1,961
10,896
Number of
Endemic
Species
2,239
2,833
2,687
4,226
13,932
Number
of CR
Endemic
Species
175
165
149
457
1,976
Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P. R., Barnosky, A. D., García, A., Pringle, R. M., & Palmer, T. M. (2015). Accelerated modern
human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances, 1(5), e1400253.
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At least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas are conserved