Chapter 8
Cheese
Chapter Overview
Wines, sausages, dried foods, and cheeses are all the fruits of preservation practices known to
ancient humankind, then refined, recorded, and evolved over time. We know that cheeses were
enjoyed by the ancient Sumerians, whose writings about many aspects of daily life are believed
to date from 3000 B.C.E. This chapter explores the basic cheese-making process in order to
provide a better understanding of the special characteristics of the cheeses and why some special
cheeses are so highly prized. Also discussed are the basic cheese categories—fresh, rind-ripened,
semi-soft, blue cheeses, pasta filata, hard, and very hard—and the basic principles used to select
cheeses.
Chapter Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to:
 Trace a brief culinary history of cheese
 Explain the cheese-making process overall
 Identify classifications of cheese
 Discuss the new American cheese movement
 Discuss cheese service and storage
 Describe the cheese-making process in the kitchen for fresh cheeses
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Study Outline
Key Terms and Concepts
Cheese Making
Artisanal
Bacteria
Cheese
“Natural” cheeses
“Processed” cheeses
“Pure cultures”
Acid starter
Acidification
Aging
Chymosin
Coagulation
Curds
Curing
Enzyme starter
Heating
Homogenizing
Milk
Pasteurizing
Pretreatment
Rennet
Ripening
Salting
Separation
Shaping
Blue-veined cheese
Butterfat
Cheddaring
Dry-rind cheese
Eyes
Grana
Hard cheese
Overripe
Pasta filata cheeses
Rind-ripened cheese
Roquefort
Semisoft cheese
Smear
Soft fresh cheese
Soft ripened cheese
Accompaniments
Aromatization
Buffet
Cheese board
Cheese cart
Cheese plate
Contamination
Course
Flight of cheeses
The Cheese-Making Process
Whey
Cheese Classification
Very hard cheeses
Cheese Service
Living food
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Making Cheese in the Kitchen
Direct set cultures
Nonreactive materials
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Chapter Exercises
True/False
____ 1. The Egyptians were the first to mass produce cheese to be carried on long journeys and
be used by their armies as a convenient form of concentrated nutrition.
____ 2. The first real cheese factory was established in 1851 in Rome, New York.
____ 3. Cheese can be made from the milk of all of these animals: cow, goat, sheep, buffalo,
llama, camel, mare, and yak.
____ 4. Salt is usually added in the cheese-making process with the starter.
____ 5. Fresh, soft cheeses have a long shelf-life.
____ 6. It is believed that the mold in blue cheeses was first introduced when cheese came into
contact with moldy bread.
____ 7. Cheese is a potentially hazardous food; all food contact areas should be cleaned and
sanitized properly with hot soapy water and sanitizing solution to prevent crosscontamination.
____ 8. The yellow color of some Cheddars is achieved through the addition of annatto seed
paste and has nothing to do with the flavor.
Multiple Choice
1. The first cheeses were believed to be made from which animal’s milk?
a. Sheep.
b. Goat.
c. Cow.
d. Both a and b.
2. In pasteurization, milk is heated for which of the following reasons?
a. To kill bacteria.
b. To reduce the fat content.
c. To produce more lactic acid.
d. None of the above.
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3. Rennet, an enzyme started in cheese, comes from:
a. Animals’ stomachs.
b. Certain plants.
c. Chymosin.
d. All of these.
4. Cheeses may be ripened in:
a. Ashes.
b. Rinds.
c. Leaves.
d. All of these.
5. An example of a semi-soft cheese is:
a. Monterrey jack.
b. Brie.
c. Limburger.
d. Cheddar.
6. Stilton and Roquefort are two examples of:
a. Soft fresh cheese.
b. Waxed-ring cheese.
c. Blue-veined cheese.
d. Pasta filatta cheese.
7. Parmigiano Reggiano is a type of:
a. Pasta filata cheese.
b. Hard cheese.
c. Grating cheese.
d. A very hard cheese.
Fill in the Blank
1. Cheese is defined as a food product made from _________________________.
2. Since the early 1990s the number of artisan dairies in the U.S. has grown from
_______________ to _______________.
3. The _________________ portion of milk that is drained from a cheese curd is known as
_________________.
4. ___________________ is a fresh cheese made by curdling heavy cream with citric acid.
5. Rind-ripened cheeses can be broken into two categories: ____________ and _____________
cheeses.
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6. On a cheese board, cheese should be chosen based on: ______________, ________________,
_______________, ____________________, and ___________________.
Written/Short Answer
1. Describe the process of making pasta filata cheese. Include examples of pasta filata cheeses
and how they differ from each other.
2. Explain the role of salt in cheese-making.
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