Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Principles of Evolution
Study Guide A
Answer Key
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
SECTION 1. EARLY IDEAS ABOUT
EVOLUTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
d
a
b
c
b
a
a
gradualism, uniformitarianism,
catastrophism
fossil
evolution
catastrophism
uniformitarianism
E. Darwin
Lamarck
Linnaeus
Buffon
overproduction
variation
adaptation
descent with modification
d
c
b
a
increase
decrease
artificial selection
natural selection
fitness
heritability
population
Artificial
Natural
SECTION 4. EVIDENCE OF
EVOLUTION
1. fossils
2. geography
3. embryology
4. anatomy
5. c
6. a
7. homologous structure
8. analogous structure
9. analogous structure
10. vestigial structure
11. homologous structure
12. analogous structure
13. vestigial structure
Sketch It Out: Drawing should be of the bone
structure of a human hand.
SECTION 2. DARWIN’S
OBSERVATIONS
1. c
2. d
3. b
4. c
5. true
6. false
7. true
8. true
9. variation
10. adaptation
11. adaptation
12. variation
Be Creative: Sketches may vary.
SECTION 3. THEORY OF NATURAL
SELECTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
d
a
c
a
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
i
Principles of Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
SECTION 5. EVOLUTIONARY
BIOLOGY TODAY
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. DNA sequence analysis
5. pseudogenes
6. homeobox genes
7. protein comparisons
8. true
9. false
10. true
11. false
12. true
Sketch It Out: Sketches may vary but should
include one part of a whale’s skeleton.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
ii
Principles of Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Section 1: Early Ideas About Evolution
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin.
VOCABULARY
evolution
fossil
gradualism
species
catastrophism
uniformitarianism
MAIN IDEA: Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution.
Match each scientist with the statement that best reflects his ideas about
evolutionary theory.
1. Linnaeus
a. Species don’t become extinct but instead
evolve into different forms in response to
changes in the environment.
2. Lamarck
b. More complex forms of life evolved from
less complex forms.
3. Darwin (Erasmus)
c. Earth is much older than previously
thought.
4. Buffon
d. Organisms can be classified according to
their similarities.
Choose the best answer for the statement or question.
5. To be considered members of the same species, organisms must be able to
a. look alike.
b. reproduce together and have fertile offspring.
c. live in the same habitat.
d. eat the same types of food.
6. What is incorrect about Lamarck’s theory of how organisms evolve?
a. He did not explain how traits were passed on to offspring.
b. He did not explain why an animal would need to develop new traits.
c. He did not explain why changes in the environment caused an organism’s
behavior to change.
d. He did not explain how competition might help animals to develop traits.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
1
Principles of Evolution
Section 1: Early Ideas About Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
7. Which scientist developed a system for classifying organisms that is still
used today?
a. Carolus Linnaeus
b. Georges Louis LeClerc de Buffon
c. Erasmus Darwin
d. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
MAIN IDEA: Theories of geologic change set the stage for Darwin’s theory.
catastrophism
gradualism
uniformitarianism
8. Write the names of the theories next to their descriptions.
Geologic Theory
Description
The idea that changes on Earth occurred by small steps
over long periods of time
The idea that geologic processes add up over long periods
of time to produce great change
The idea that volcanoes, floods, earthquakes, and other
such events caused mass extinctions and the formation of
all landforms
Vocabulary Check
Fill in the blank with the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
9. A trace of an organism that existed in the past is called a
__________________________.
10. __________________________ is the process of biological change by which
descendants come to differ from their ancestors.
11. Events such as volcanoes, floods, and earthquakes are the basis of
___________________________________.
12. ____________________________ can be summarized by the phrase “the
present is the key to the past.”
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
2
Principles of Evolution
Section 1: Early Ideas About Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
Who’s Who?
Linnaeus
Lamarck
Buffon
E. Darwin
_________________ 13. Charles Darwin’s poetic grandfather
_________________ 14. Thought that a giraffe’s long neck evolved from
reaching high in trees
_________________ 15. Grouped living organisms into categories based
on what they looked like
_________________ 16. Wrote Histoire Naturelle (Natural History) in 1749
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
3
Principles of Evolution
Section 1: Early Ideas About Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Section 2: Darwin’s Observations
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Darwin’s voyage provided insights into evolution.
VOCABULARY
variation
adaptation
MAIN IDEA: Darwin observed differences among island species.
Choose the best answer for the question.
1. What is variation among members of different species called?
a. adaptation
b. geologic change
c. interspecific variation
d. intraspecific variation
2. What is variation among members of the same species called?
a. adaptation
b. geologic change
c. interspecific variation
d. intraspecific variation
3. What island chain in South America was the source of many of
Darwin’s insights?
a. The Antipodes Islands
b. The Galápagos Islands
c. The Falkland Islands
d. The Canary Islands
4. Darwin saw populations of various species that seemed well-suited to their
environment. What did this suggest?
a. The species Darwin saw were all related to each other.
b. Species had been introduced to particular areas by humans on purpose.
c. Species might be able to adapt to their surroundings over time.
d. Some environments rarely ever change.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
4
Principles of Evolution
Section 2: Darwin’s Observations
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Darwin observed fossil and geologic evidence supporting
an ancient Earth.
Choose whether the statement is true or false.
5. true / false Darwin theorized that the fossils of huge animals such as
Glyptodon, a giant armadillo, which looked similar to armadillos in Darwin’s
time, showed that living species were related to older ones.
6. true / false Darwin’s discovery of marine organisms high in the mountains led
him to think that ancient peoples had carried sea animals from the seaside up
into the mountains.
7. true / false Darwin thought that Earth must be much older than scientists
previously thought.
8. true / false If Earth was much older than previously thought, Darwin knew
there had been time for species to evolve gradually.
Vocabulary Check
Fill in the blank with the correct term from the box.
variation
_______________
adaptation
9. the difference in the physical traits of an individual from
those of other individuals in the group to which it belongs
_______________ 10. a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its
environment
_______________ 11. A tortoise population lives in an area with high grass.
These tortoises have longer necks than tortoises that live
in other areas. The long necks of the tortoises are an
example of ______.
_______________ 12. One bird in a population has a slightly thicker beak than
its relatives. The bird’s thicker beak is an example of
__________ in the population.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
5
Principles of Evolution
Section 2: Darwin’s Observations
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
Be Creative
In the space below, draw a sketch of a bird that may eat the food choice that is
given in the left column.
Food Choice
Sketch
Eats large,
hard-shelled nuts
Eats fruit and insects
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
6
Principles of Evolution
Section 2: Darwin’s Observations
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Section 3: Theory of Natural Selection
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolution.
VOCABULARY
artificial selection
natural selection
heritability
population
fitness
MAIN IDEA: Several key insights led to Darwin’s idea for natural selection.
Choose the best answer to the question.
1. Why did artificial selection interest Darwin?
a. He hoped that humans might be able to breed for certain characteristics
in animals.
b. He wondered whether artificial selection could explain differences in
species in nature.
c. He theorized that animal and plant breeders had once visited the
Galápagos Islands.
d. He had noticed that humans could breed for certain characteristics
in animals.
2. Why must selected traits be heritable?
a. If a selected trait is not heritable, it cannot be passed down to the
next generation.
b. Heritable traits are those traits that farmers and breeders consider
worth passing on.
c. Heritable traits are common in domesticated animals that are used
in breeding.
d. A selected trait that is heritable is likely to make an animal easier
to domesticate.
3. In natural selection, what must be true of traits that are passed down through
generations?
a. The trait must be one that members of the species like and enjoy.
b. The trait must be one that members of the species have chosen to reproduce.
c. The trait must be one that gives an advantage to certain individuals.
d. The trait must be one that does not give an advantage to any
particular individuals.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
7
Principles of Evolution
Section 3: Theory of Natural Selection
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
4. What important idea from Thomas Malthus inspired Darwin?
a. Disease and a limited food supply keep the population smaller.
b. The plants and animals that are strongest are the ones that will survive
adverse conditions.
c. Plants and animals are capable of inheriting characteristics from
their parents.
d. Species are more likely to adapt if they are subjected to
varying environments.
MAIN IDEA: Natural selection explains how evolution can occur.
Fill in the blank with the correct word or phrase from the box.
variation
overproduction
adaptation
descent with modification
______________ 5. producing many offspring, some of which may not survive
______________ 6. individual differences that may be heritable
______________ 7. a certain variation well-suited for the environment
______________ 8. a heritable trait becoming common in a population
Match the four principles of natural selection with the statements that
illustrate each.
9. overproduction
a. Large teeth and jaws become more
common in jaguars because they are
heritable characteristics.
10. variation
b. Jaguars with large teeth and jaws survive
longer because they can eat shelled reptiles.
11. adaptation
c. By chance, some jaguars are born with
slightly larger teeth and jaws.
12. descent with
modification
d. A jaguar may produce many offspring, but
because of competition, not all of them will
survive long enough to reproduce.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
8
Principles of Evolution
Section 3: Theory of Natural Selection
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Natural selection works on existing variation.
Circle the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
13. Peter and Rosemary Grant observed natural selection acting on traits within
a population of finches on the Galápagos Islands. A drought reduced the
number of small, soft seeds but left plenty of large, tough-shelled seeds
intact. The next year there was a(n) increase / decrease in the number of
large-beaked hatchlings.
14. After several years, the supply of large seeds went down after an unusually
wet period. The increase in small, soft seeds brought a(n) increase / decrease
in the number of large-beaked hatchlings the following year.
Vocabulary Check
Circle the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
15. Humans are the selective agent in artificial selection / natural selection.
16. The environment is the selective agent in artificial selection /
natural selection.
17. The measure of the ability to survive and produce more offspring relative
to other members of the population is called fitness / overproduction.
18. The ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next
is called adaptation / heritability.
19. All the individuals of a species that live in an area are called the
population / variation.
20. Artificial / Natural selection occurs when humans deliberately breed
for certain characteristics.
21. Artificial / Natural selection occurs when individuals with beneficial
adaptations produce more surviving offspring than other individuals
of the same species.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
9
Principles of Evolution
Section 3: Theory of Natural Selection
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Section 4: Evidence of Evolution
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
Evidence of common ancestry among species comes from many sources.
VOCABULARY
biogeography
analogous structure
homologous structure
vestigial structure
MAIN IDEA: Evidence for evolution in Darwin’s time came from several sources.
anatomy
embryology
fossils
geography
In the diagram below, fill in the type of evidence below the examples.
1. Traces of ancient animals are
found in rock layers.
______________________
2. Species in one area may match
species in another area that is
separate but still nearby.
______________________
Evidence for evolution
in Darwin’s time came
from several sources.
3. Two different species may have
larvae that are very similar.
______________________
4. The body parts of different
species may have
homologous structures.
______________________
MAIN IDEA: Structural patterns are clues to the history of a species.
Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence or answers
the question.
5. Pelvic bones in snakes are an example of a(n)
a. homologous structure.
b. analogous structure.
c. vestigial structure.
d. fossil.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
10
Principles of Evolution
Section 4: Evidence of Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
6. What conclusion can you draw from the fact that many modern whale species
have vestigial pelvic and leg bones?
a. The ancestors of whales may have been land mammals.
b. Whales could walk if they wanted to.
c. Whales are preparing to evolve into land mammals.
d. Some day whales will be able to walk and will have legs.
Vocabulary Check
Fill in the blank with the correct phrase from the box.
analogous structure
homologous structure
vestigial structure
_______________
7.Feature that is similar in structure in different organisms but has different func
_______________
8.Feature that performs a similar function in different organisms but is not simila
_______________
9. Feature that is not evidence of a common ancestor
_______________ 10. Remnant of an organ or structure that had a function in an
early ancestor
_______________ 11. Examples include the wing of a bat and the hand
of a human
_______________ 12. Examples include the wing of a bird and the wing of an
insect
_______________ 13. Examples include the wing of an ostrich and the appendix
of a human
Sketch it Out
Use Figure 4.4 to sketch a skeleton of a human hand next to the whale fin skeleton
shown below. Draw lines to match the groups of bones that are homologous for
these two structures.
A
B
C
D
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
11
Principles of Evolution
Section 4: Evidence of Evolution
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Section 5: Evolutionary Biology Today
Study Guide A
KEY CONCEPT
New technology is furthering our understanding of evolution.
VOCABULARY
paleontology
MAIN IDEA: Fossils provide a record of evolution.
Choose the best answer for the question.
1. What is the study of fossils and extinct organisms called?
a. paleontology
b. geology
c. biology
d. archeology
2. What is a “missing link” in the fossil record?
a. a fossil that contradicts the theory of evolution
b. a transitional fossil that shows how two species are connected
c. a fossil that is physically impossible and cannot exist
d. a fossil that shows a vestigial structure
3. Why are transitional fossils important?
a. They show that even very ancient fossils can be found in old seabeds.
b. They show that artificial selection was being practiced even in
ancient times.
c. They show that there are links between ancient and modern species.
d. They show that the fossil record is constantly growing and being updated.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
12
Principles of Evolution
Section 5: Evolutionary Biology Today
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
MAIN IDEA: Molecular and genetic evidence support fossil and anatomical
evidence.
Match each concept with its contribution to evolutionary theory.
DNA sequence analysis
protein comparisons
homeobox genes
pseudogenes
Molecular Evidence
Contribution to Evolutionary Theory
4.
The more related two organisms are, the more
similar their DNA will be.
5.
Vestigial genetic structures that are carried along
with functional DNA
6.
Sequences of genes that control the development of
specific structures
7.
The basis of molecular fingerprinting, which
compares proteins among cell types
MAIN IDEA: Evolution unites all fields of biology.
Choose whether the statement is true or false.
8. true / false Scientists are still actively studying evolution through
natural selection.
9. true / false Genetic evidence shows that whales never had ancestors
living on land.
10. true / false The principles of evolution also affect the fields of medicine,
geology, geography, chemistry, and ecology.
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Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
13
Principles of Evolution
Section 5: Evolutionary Biology Today
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Study Guide A continued
Vocabulary Check
Choose whether the statement is true or false.
11. true / false Paleontologists can never find out anything new.
12. true / false The study of fossils can help us to understand how
evolution occurs.
Sketch it Out
Look at the fossil evidence of whale evolution shown in Figure 5.3 in this section
or your textbook. Sketch one part of the skeletons (such as the skull, forelimbs,
hindlimbs, or ribcages) of each of the whale ancestors.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Biology
Study Guide A
14
Principles of Evolution
Section 5: Evolutionary Biology Today
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Chapter 10 study guide A