Chapter 10 – Enhancing Your Cardiovascular Health
Multiple Choice
1.
Of the following cardiovascular diseases, which causes the most deaths?
A)
stroke
B)
hypertensive disease
C)
congestive heart failure
D)
coronary heart disease
Answer:
Page:
2.
The term vascular refers to
A)
the heart.
B)
the skeleton.
C)
blood vessels.
D)
muscles in general.
Answer:
Page:
3.
B
271-272
Most of the heart’s pumping action occurs in the
A)
ventricles.
B)
septum.
C)
aorta.
D)
atria.
Answer:
Page:
5.
C
271
Which of the following BEST describes the role of capillaries? They
A)
distribute arterial blood to the main regions of the body.
B)
exchange oxygen, waste, and nutrients with cells.
C)
maintain blood pressure in the vascular system.
D)
return blood to the heart.
Answer:
Pages:
4.
D
270
A
272
The purpose of the coronary arteries is to
A)
supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood.
B)
conduct deoxygenated blood to the heart.
C)
conduct blood from the heart to the lungs.
D)
conduct oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
Answer:
Page:
A
272
6.
The heartbeat is triggered by
A)
blood pressure sensors connected to the heart valves.
B)
oxygen sensors within the lungs.
C)
signals from within the heart.
D)
signals from the brain.
Answer:
Page:
7.
About how many quarts of blood does the average-sized adult’s body contain?
A)
four
B)
five
C)
six
D)
seven
Answer:
Page:
8.
C
273-277 (specifically page 276 for cholesterol)
Which of the following cardiovascular risk factors CANNOT be changed?
A)
diabetes
B)
high blood pressure
C)
heredity
D)
high blood cholesterol
Answer:
Page:
11.
C
272
The six controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are smoking, physical activity, blood
pressure, obesity, diabetes, and
A)
age.
B)
stress.
C)
blood cholesterol.
D)
alcohol consumption.
Answer:
Pages:
10.
B
272
The heart’s electrical activity is measured by an instrument called an
A)
EEG.
B)
EKK.
C)
EKG.
D)
ECC.
Answer:
Page:
9.
C
272
C
273
Women over age 55 experience cardiovascular disease at a _________________ rate to men of
the same age.
A)
slightly lower
B)
much higher
C)
much lower
D)
similar
Answer:
Page:
12.
Of the following, which is a major risk factor in sudden cardiac death?
A)
diet
B)
stress
C)
inactivity
D)
smoking
Answer:
Pages:
13.
C
274
All of the following activities will produce a strong reduction in cardiovascular disease EXCEPT
A)
jogging.
B)
walking.
C)
swimming.
D)
stair climbing.
Answer:
Page:
16.
D
274
Ellen is thirty-five, inactive, overweight, a smoker, and takes oral contraceptives. The best single
thing she can do for her heart health is to
A)
stop oral contraceptives.
B)
start an exercise program.
C)
stop smoking.
D)
lose weight.
Answer:
Page:
15.
D
273, 274
The protective mechanism from heart disease women experience prior to menopause is due to
A)
a lower overall blood pressure.
B)
a lifestyle healthier than that of men.
C)
the hormone progesterone.
D)
the hormone estrogen.
Answer:
Page:
14.
D
273
B
275
The most beneficial way to lower blood cholesterol is to
A)
take cholesterol-reducing drugs and begin an exercise program.
B)
start an exercise program and eat a heart-healthy diet.
C)
eat a diet rich in phytochemicals and meditate.
D)
eat a low-fat diet and take a vitamin supplement.
Answer:
Pages:
B
274-275
17.
Tom had his blood cholesterol measured. Which of the following would be classified as a
desirable blood cholesterol level?
A)
less than 200mg/dl
B)
210-220 mg/dl
C)
230-250mg/dl
D)
greater than 240 mg/dl
Answer:
Page:
18.
According to a recent survey, what percentage of Americans is overweight?
A)
just under 26 percent
B)
a little over 43 percent
C)
a little over 65 percent
D)
a little over 55 percent
Answer:
Page:
19.
C
279
Which of the following is NOT a major form of cardiovascular disease?
A)
obesity
B)
stroke
C)
rheumatic heart disease
D)
congenital heart disease
Answer:
Page:
21.
C
277
Coronary heart disease is
A)
a weakening of the heart valves.
B)
a buildup of fluids in the pericardial sac.
C)
damage to the blood vessels that supply the heart.
D)
a generalized reduction in blood vessel diameter that causes the heart to work harder.
Answer:
Page:
20.
A
276
A
278
The buildup of fatty deposits in coronary arteries that leads to narrowed arteries and blockages is
called
A)
stroke.
B)
hypertension.
C)
atherosclerosis.
D)
myocardial infarction.
Answer:
Page:
C
279
22.
A heart attack occurs when
A)
the heart becomes unable to push blood through clogged arteries throughout the body.
B)
cardiac muscle loses its ability to conduct electrical stimuli.
C)
blockages develop in the aorta or pulmonary artery.
D)
heart muscle dies for lack of oxygen.
Answer:
Page:
23.
The death of part of the heart muscle as a result of blockage in one or more of the coronary
arteries is known as a
A)
myocardial inflammation.
B)
congestive heart infarction.
C)
myocardial refraction.
D)
myocardial infarction.
Answer:
Page:
24.
A
281
The most common symptom of a heart attack is
A)
shortness of breath.
B)
dizziness.
C)
chest pain lasting more than two minutes.
D)
sweating.
Answer:
Page:
26.
D
279
You and a friend are shopping with your teenagers at a mall. You return from a store to find your
friend seated stating she is feeling chest pain and dizziness. Despite sitting, these symptoms are
not going away. The best thing to do at this moment is to
A)
get emergency help.
B)
offer her an aspirin before taking other action.
C)
observe to see if the symptoms last two minutes.
D)
offer her something to eat to see if the symptoms go away.
Answer:
Page:
25.
D
279
C
282
Within the past five years, researchers have determined that a high level of which amino acid may
be related to an increased risk of coronary heart disease?
A)
histidine
B)
homocysteine
C)
proline
D)
cysteine
Answer:
Page:
B
279
27.
What role does cholesterol play in coronary heart disease?
A)
High cholesterol levels are associated with atherosclerosis, which causes coronary heart
disease.
B)
Cholesterol attaches itself to internal heart structures, eventually causing blockages.
C)
Excess cholesterol crowds out the “good” blood cells in coronary arteries.
D)
Excess cholesterol interferes with the normal functioning of the heart.
Answer:
Page:
28.
High-density lipoproteins are called “good cholesterol” because they
A)
coat artery walls with a substance that resists plaque buildup.
B)
reverse artery damage caused by low-density lipoproteins.
C)
help to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream.
D)
absorb low-density lipoproteins.
Answer:
Page:
29.
A
280
An angiogram is used to
A)
identify coronary artery blockages.
B)
gauge the progress of blood through the heart.
C)
measure the strength of the patient’s heartbeat.
D)
measure the resistance to blood flow within coronary arteries.
Answer:
Page:
32.
B
280-281
Which of the following is TRUE regarding low-density lipoproteins? They
A)
are a significant cause of atherosclerosis.
B)
carry cholesterol back to the liver.
C)
are related to a reduction in heart disease.
D)
are increased in the bloodstream by exercise and monounsaturated fats.
Answer:
Page:
31.
C
280
A painful condition caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries is called
A)
hypercholesterolemia.
B)
angina pectoris.
C)
hypertension.
D)
angioplasty.
Answer:
Pages:
30.
A
279
A
281
Rolanda’s doctor tells her that something needs to be done to treat life-threatening blockages of
several of her coronary arteries. Of the following, her doctor will most likely recommend
A)
drug therapy.
B)
bypass surgery.
C)
an aspirin a day.
D)
a heart transplant.
Answer:
Page:
33.
A procedure to open blocked arteries by squeezing a tiny “balloon” between plaque deposits is
called
A)
coronary occlusion.
B)
catheterization.
C)
percutaneous coronary intervention.
D)
bypass.
Answer:
Page:
34.
A
284
A new class of drugs to prevent the formation of blood clots is called
A)
calcium channel blockers.
B)
beta blockers.
C)
magnesium channel blockers.
D)
platelet inhibitors.
Answer:
Page:
37.
C
283
Aspirin’s effect on heart attack risk has traditionally been linked to its ability to
A)
reduce the blood’s clotting ability.
B)
reduce stress in people who take it.
C)
dilate the walls of coronary arteries.
D)
relax the muscular bands around artery walls.
Answer:
Page:
36.
C
283
In 2007, approximately _________ heart transplants were performed in the United States.
A)
200
B)
300
C)
2,000
D)
20,000
Answer:
Page:
35.
B
282
D
284
In a blood pressure reading, the systolic pressure measures pressure in the
A)
heart when the blood is moving its fastest.
B)
heart when blood vessels are fully dilated.
C)
blood vessels when the heart contracts.
D)
blood vessels when the heart relaxes.
Answer:
Page:
C
284
38.
Hypertension is a(n)
A)
consistently elevated blood pressure.
B)
abnormal acceleration of the heart rate.
C)
physiological reaction to a stressful environment.
D)
constriction of blood vessels due to excess levels of dietary fat.
Answer:
Page:
39.
Which of the following BEST describes the symptoms of hypertension?
A)
a pain that begins in the chest or groin and radiates into the limbs
B)
a feeling of dizziness when under stress
C)
lack of noticeable symptoms
D)
excessive fatigue and intermittent dizziness
Answer:
Page:
40.
D
285-286
Which of the following is a form of cardiovascular disease?
A)
stroke
B)
obesity
C)
diabetes
D)
menopause
Answer:
Page:
43.
B
285
Through a combination of weight loss, a low-fat diet, prescription drugs, and an exercise
program, your mother has reduced her high blood pressure. When can she consider herself
cured?
A)
when she maintains a normal weight and a normal blood pressure for six months
B)
when her blood pressure stays at 120/80 for more than six months
C)
when prescription drugs are no longer needed
D)
never
Answer:
Pages:
42.
C
285
Reducing dietary salt is an effective way to reduce hypertension for
A)
about one in twenty Americans.
B)
about one in four Americans.
C)
about one in ten Americans.
D)
most Americans.
Answer:
Page:
41.
A
285
A
286
The most common type of stroke is
A)
cerebral hemorrhage.
B)
cerebrovascular occlusion.
C)
cerebral aneurysm.
D)
cerebral ischemic attack.
Answer:
Page:
44.
Which of the following characterizes all strokes?
A)
Blood vessels break.
B)
Blood flow is blocked.
C)
They occur in the brain.
D)
They are preceded by hypertension.
Answer:
Page:
45.
A
288
A transient ischemic attack is considered to be a warning sign for
A)
congestive heart failure.
B)
hypertension.
C)
heart attack.
D)
stroke.
Answer:
Page:
48.
B
287
Your father, who began to feel ill yesterday, found when he woke up this morning that he could
barely move his right leg or arm. Of the following, he is most likely suffering from
A)
a stroke.
B)
hypertension.
C)
a heart attack.
D)
an arrhythmia.
Answer:
Page:
47.
C
286
A condition called an aneurysm occurs when a
A)
clot completely blocks blood flow through a cerebral artery.
B)
weakened artery wall bulges out at the weak point.
C)
section of brain tissue dies as the result of a stroke.
D)
weakened artery begins to leak.
Answer:
Page:
46.
B
286
D
287
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate about the best available drug treatments for
stroke? They can
A)
do little to affect the long-term outcome.
B)
minimize the severity of a stroke.
C)
restore most damaged brain cells within two years.
D)
relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient until the stroke has run its course.
Answer:
Page:
B
287
49.
If a friend or family member has a stroke, it is important to get emergency medical help as soon
as possible because
A)
strokes are usually fatal.
B)
prompt treatment can limit the damage.
C)
heart attacks are more likely to occur after strokes.
D)
rehabilitation should begin as soon as the stroke ends.
Answer:
Pages:
50.
Rubella can cause congenital defects in unborn children when
A)
the mother contracts it during the last three months of her pregnancy.
B)
the mother contracts it early in her pregnancy.
C)
it occurs in conjunction with strep throat.
D)
it develops into rheumatic fever.
Answer:
Page:
51.
C
288
The bacteria responsible for rheumatic fever tend to attack the
A)
muscular walls of the heart.
B)
coronary arteries.
C)
pulmonary artery.
D)
heart valves.
Answer:
Page:
54.
A
288
Which of the following begins as a streptococcal infection?
A)
peripheral artery disease
B)
congenital heart disease
C)
rheumatic heart disease
D)
congestive heart failure
Answer:
Page:
53.
B
288
The most common treatment for congenital heart defects is
A)
surgery.
B)
drug therapy.
C)
diet modification.
D)
a program of limited activity.
Answer:
Page:
52.
B
287-288
D
288
During a physical examination, your doctor tells you that you may have had a bout of rheumatic
fever during childhood. Your doctor probably detected
A)
an arrhythmia.
B)
a heart murmur.
C)
D)
evidence of heart wall damage.
a minor weakness in the left ventricle.
Answer:
Page:
55.
A condition in which blood flow to the legs, feet, and hands is restricted by damaged blood
vessels is called
A)
peripheral artery disease.
B)
transient ischemia
C)
rheumatic fever.
D)
stenosis.
Answer:
Page:
56.
B
289
Your father is suffering from the early stages of congestive heart failure. Which of the following
is recommended?
A)
restrict all activity
B)
implant a pacemaker
C)
dietary modifications
D)
strict bed rest for two weeks
Answer:
Page:
59.
C
289
The term that describes any of several disorders of the heart’s normal beating pattern is
A)
fibrillation.
B)
arrhythmia.
C)
tachycardia.
D)
bradycardia.
Answer:
Page:
58.
A
289
Congestive heart failure occurs when
A)
excess blood pressure triggers an arrhythmia.
B)
the ventricles lose their ability to maintain a pumping action.
C)
the heart lacks sufficient power to maintain adequate circulation.
D)
the resistance from damaged vessels overstresses the heart, resulting in a heart attack.
Answer:
Page:
57.
B
288
C
289
The greatest danger from an arrhythmia is that the
A)
heart will be unable to deliver enough oxygen to tissues.
B)
accelerated heart rate of tachycardia will burst brittle arteries.
C)
heart muscle will suddenly lose its ability to conduct electrical impulses.
D)
resulting irregular flow of blood will accelerate the blockage of vital arteries.
Answer:
A
Page:
60.
Excessive rapid heartbeat is known as
A)
bradycardia.
B)
pradycardia.
C)
rapacardia.
D)
tachycardia.
Answer:
Page:
61.
D
289
Semone has been diagnosed with peripheral artery disease. Which of the following is NOT
considered a treatment?
A)
stress management techniques
B)
diet modification
C)
exercise
D)
drug therapy
Answer:
Page:
62.
289
A
289
The research suggests that moderate consumption of alcohol
A)
appears to lower levels of HDL cholesterol.
B)
appears to increase levels of LDL cholesterol.
C)
appears to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
D)
has no effect on the risk of coronary heart disease.
Answer:
Page:
C
285
True/False
63.
Cardiovascular disease claims more lives than cancer, accidents, and HIV/AIDS combined.
Answer:
Page:
64.
The ventricles are the heart’s pumping chambers.
Answer:
Page:
65.
True
272
The coronary arteries route blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Answer:
Page:
66.
True
270
False
272
One of the functions of blood is to maintain proper body temperature.
Answer:
True
Page:
67.
High blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that cannot be controlled.
Answer:
Page:
68.
True
277
The deposits on artery walls caused by atherosclerosis are called plaque.
Answer:
Page:
75.
False
276
High blood pressure damages the heart by causing it to enlarge over time.
Answer:
Page:
74.
True
274-275
A cholesterol level of 240 mg/dl is considered borderline high.
Answer:
Page:
73.
True
274
Recent findings support the contention that physical activity is closely associated with a
decreased risk of coronary heart disease.
Answer:
Pages:
72.
False
273, 275
Quitting smoking will rapidly reduce your risk of developing heart disease.
Answer:
Page:
71.
True
274
Race is not a factor in determining a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease.
Answer:
Pages:
70.
False
277
The American Heart Association now recommends that estrogen replacement therapy should not
be used for the purpose of preventing cardiovascular disease.
Answer:
Page:
69.
272
True
279
High levels of C-reactive protein are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease.
Answer:
Page:
False
279
76.
If you are over age 20, you should be concerned if your cholesterol level is 230 mg/dl.
Answer:
Page:
77.
Most people can lower their serum cholesterol by 75 mg/dl with dietary changes.
Answer:
Page:
78.
False
285
The risk of retinal hemorrhage (uncontrolled bleeding of retinal arteries) increases when
hypertension develops.
Answer:
Page:
85.
False
286
The incidence of hypertension is about the same in all ethnic groups.
Answer:
Page:
84.
False
283
The AHA states that there is no cardiovascular benefit to consuming one to two drinks per day.
Answer:
Page:
83.
True
282
Angioplasty is used only for blocked arteries in the heart.
Answer:
Page:
82.
True
280-281
The purpose of coronary artery bypass surgery is to increase blood supply to the heart muscle.
Answer:
Page:
81.
True
280
Angina pectoris is caused by a lack of oxygen to the heart tissue.
Answer:
Page:
80.
False
280
High HDL cholesterol readings are associated with a reduction in heart disease.
Answer:
Page:
79.
True
280
True
285
Several drug treatments are available to reduce the outward physical symptoms of hypertension.
Answer:
Pages:
False
285-286
86.
A type of stroke that results from an artery that bursts is called a cerebral hemorrhage.
Answer:
Page:
87.
A risk factor for rheumatic heart disease is streptococcal infection.
Answer:
Page:
88.
True
288
Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is so squeezed by surrounding fatty tissues that
blood intake is hampered.
Answer:
Page:
89.
True
287
False
289
The person most prone to arrhythmia is one with some form of heart disease.
Answer:
Page:
True
289
Essay
90.
List the ten risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and indicate whether they are controllable,
uncontrollable, or contributing.
Answer:
Controllable: hypertension, inactivity, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity
Uncontrollable: age, gender, heredity
Contributing: stress
Pages:
91.
273-277 (see Table 10.2, page 273)
List and explain the surgical treatments for heart disease.
Answer:
1)
2)
3)
Pages:
The surgical treatments include:
coronary bypass surgery, in which the coronary obstruction is bypassed by grafting an
artery to the aorta to a location just beyond the coronary obstruction.
percutaneous coronary intervention (angioplasty), a procedure in which a coronary
catheter is inserted into the narrowed coronary artery and inflated. This inflation opens
up the artery by compressing plaque and fatty deposits against the artery wall.
heart transplantation, a procedure in which a person’s damaged heart is replaced with that
of another human being’s heart. In some instances, artificial hearts have been used as
temporary hearts until a suitable donor can be found.
282-283
92.
Briefly describe hypertension and the dangers associated with it.
Answer:
Hypertension is chronic high blood pressure. The reasons for its occurrence are
usually not known. It has no symptoms. Hypertension can weaken both the heart and the blood
vessels over time, increasing the risk of heart failure, strokes, and other hemorrhages.
Page:
93.
277
List the different kinds of cerebrovascular accidents that are called strokes.
Answer:
Both blockages (occlusions) and hemorrhages in cerebral arteries are called
strokes. Blockages are more common; they occur when a clot prevents blood from reaching an
area, causing brain cells to die. Hemorrhage can occur when an artery weakened by hypertension
ruptures or when an aneurysm bursts. A third form of stroke is a cerebral aneurysm. An
aneurysm is a ballooning or outpouching on a weakened area of an artery.
Pages:
94.
286-287
List the warning signs associated with stroke.
Answer:
Although many stroke victims have little warning of an impending incident, the
following are warning signs that should be attended to promptly to prevent death or disabling
consequences:
1)
sudden, temporary weakness or numbness in the face, arm, and leg on one side of the
body
2)
temporary loss of speech, trouble speaking or understanding speech
3)
temporary dimness or loss of vision, particularly in one eye
4)
unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, or sudden falls
5)
sudden, severe headache with no known cause
Page:
288