What is this thing?
Essential Learning: I can explain what a rock is.
Tell me what you know and what you want to know
about rocks!!! Come up with at least 5 things!!!
W
K
L
What you
What you
What you
want to Know.
Know.
Learned.
Cannot fill in yet.
Essential Learning: I can explain what a rock is.
p. 75-80
Rock- is a naturally
formed solid that is
usually made up of one or
more types of minerals.
Three types of rocks:
1. Igneous
2. Sedimentary
3. Metamorphic
Essential Learning: I can identify the three different
types of rocks.
Igneous rocks: forms when molten rock (magma/lava) cools and
becomes solid.
Sedimentary rocks: forms when pieces of older rocks, plants,
and other loose materials get pressed or cemented together.
Metamorphic rocks: formed when heat or pressure causes
older rocks to change into new types of rocks.
Rock Cycle: is the set of natural process that form, change,
break down, and re-form rocks.
“What’s a Rock?”
Essential Learning: I can identify the three different
types of rocks.
Goto your lab table. In each of the tubs, try to identify the
rock type: Do this for samples 1-7. Write this in your
notebook
1. Write the name down of the sample.
2. Do you see crystals or no crystals?
3. Do you see sediment, large or small or no sediment?
4. Do you see fossils?
5. Do you see bands or lines in the sample? Different colors?
6. Do you think it is Igneous, Sedimentary or Metamorphic?
Why do you think this?
Essential Learning: I can explain the rock cycle.
Igneous
Rock Cycle
Blue
rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Red
Sediment
Weathering/erosion
Green
Compaction/cementation
Magma
Melting
yellow
Cooling/crystallizing
purple
Heat and pressure
Essential Learning: I can explain how the rock cycle
works and how it has no end.
P. 75-80
Essential Learning:
I can identify different rock types.
On page 80 answer questions 1-6. Put these in your notebook. You need to finish during
class. Focus and get it done.
1. How are rocks and minerals different?
2. What are the three types of rocks?
3. Which rock types are most common within Earth’s crust? Which type is most common
at Earth’s surface?
4. Why is the set of natural processes by which rocks change into other types of rocks
called a cycle?
5. Which type of rock would you expect to be common on the floor of a large, deep lake?
Why?
6. Draw a diagram showing how an igneous rock could change into a metamorphic rock
and how a metamorphic rock could change into a sedimentary rock.
Essential Learning: I can explain how the rock cycle
works and how it has no end.
Crayon Lab
Igneous
rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Use all of the terms all of
these terms in summary.
Explain how your crayon
changed from one rock type
to another and how the rock
cycle can and will continue
forever and ever and ever
and ever and ever.
Metamorphic rocks
Sediment
Weathering/erosion
Compaction/cementation
Magma
Melting
Cooling/crystallizing
Heat and pressure
Essential Learning: I can explain how IGNEOUS rocks
form.
p. 82-87
IGNEOUS ROCK (Latin)
“From Fire”
Igneous rocks: forms when
molten rock cools and
becomes solid. (solidifies)
Form from Magma or Lava.
Essential Learning: I can explain how igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.
Texture of Igneous rock…
Intrusive Igneous rock
-Forms when magma cools within earth.
-High temp allows magma to cool slowly.
-Slow cooling allows time for LARGE mineral crystals to form.
-Examples: Granite, Diorite, Gabbro
Extrusive Igneous Rock
-Forms when lava cools on earths surface.
-The lower temp cause the lava to cool quick.
-No time for mineral crystals to form.
-Examples: Rhyolite, Pumice, Basalt, Obsidian
Which picture intrusive
and extrusive rock?
How do you know?
How could this be?
Essential Learning: I can explain how igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.
Intrusive
Granite
P. 84
Extrusive
Basalt
Essential Learning: I can explain how igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.
Composition of Igneous Rock
SILICA- a compound of silicon and oxygen. SiO2
Felsic Magma - Thick magma, high in SILICA.
-Contains very little calcium, iron or magnesium.
-Typically LIGHTER in color and less dense.
Mafic Magma - Thin magma, low in SILICA.
-Contains lots of iron, calcium and magnesium.
-Typically DARKER in color and denser.
p. 85
Essential Learning: I can explain how igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.
Igneous Rock Lab.
1. Name
2. Intrusive or Extrusive.
3. Texture: Glassy, Fine, Coarse or Very Coarse
4. Color: Light or Dark
5. Silica rich or Silica poor
6. Felsic or Mafic
7. Minerals found in it. Follow the lines down
Do this for all 7 samples. Please and thank you.
Essential Learning:
I can explain how Sedimentary Rocks form from
earlier rocks, minerals, animal and plant matter.
p. 89-95
Sedimentary Rock- rocks that
form when sediments become
pressed or cemented together
or when sediments precipitate
out of solution.
Sediments- Materials that
settle out of water or air. These
can be loose pieces of rock,
minerals, plant and animal
remains.
How do they form?
p. 90
From rock particles cementing together:
- Gravel, Sand, Silt/Clay
Examples:
-Sandstone, Conglomerate, Shale
•
Four common steps in this formation:
1.WEATHERING AND EROSION: Break it apart.
2.TRANSPORTATION: Move it along.
3.DEPOSITION: Stop moving man.
4.COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION: Squeeze and glue it.
•
From plants or shells cementing together:
p. 92
Examples:
-Coal, Limestone. FOSSILS found in these commonly.
Fossils of
DEAD things.
COOL MAN.
•
Dissolved minerals re-form from water.
p. 93
-Minerals that crystallized as water dried up.
Examples: Chemical Limestone, dolostone, rock salt
MONO LAKE, CA
Sedimentary rocks show the action of wind and water.
They tell us the story about past environments.
Example: Cross Beds- Wind or water movement.
Ripple Marks- Water movement commonly.
Mud Cracks- Dried up lake bed.
Essential Learning: I can explain how igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.
Sedimentary Rock Lab.
1. Name
2. Texture: Clastic, Crystalline, Bioclastic
3. Grain Size...
4. Composition category...
5. Comments category...
6. Fossils? Describe if present.
7. How do you think if formed?
Compaction Cementation, water solution, evaporation
8. Other observations?
Do this for all 7 samples. Please and thank you.
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
Metamorphic Rock p.96
Metamorphism- Process
by which existing rock
is changed by
heat/pressure or both!
The beginning rock
can be:
-Igneous
-Sedimentary
-Metamorphic
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
p.98-99
Recrystallization- Pressure
and heat breaking atoms
bonds and minerals
recrystallize.
Metamorphic changes
occur in different areas.
• Contact MetamorphismSmall areas.
- Cause Magma
• Regional
Metamorphism- Large
areas.
-Cause Plate
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
Metamorphic Rocks develop bands of
minerals. p. 100
Foliation- arrangement of minerals in
flat or wavy bands.
Foliated Rocks: when mineral grains
line-up in parallel bands it is said that
it has a "foliated texture".
Examples:
slate, phyllite, schist and gneiss
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
Non-Foliated Metamorphic
Rocks: a metamorphic rock
where no banding occurred.
The grains change, grow,
and rearrange but don’t
form bands.
Examples: quartzite, marble
(Sandstone = quartzite)
(Limestone = marble)
IF you were walking down the
streets of Shakopee and you
came across these rocks, what
could you tell a stranger about
them?
How did they form?
Use foliated and
nonfoliated in your
response.
One is a gneiss and
on is a quartzite.
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
Essential Learning: I can explain metamorphic rocks are
created.
Metamorphic Rock Lab.
1. Name
2. Texture: Foliated (mineral alignment or Banding) or Nonfoliated
3. Grain Size: Fine, Fine to Medium, Medium to Coarse or Coarse
4. Composition category…
5. Type of Metamorphism: Regional or Contact
6. Comments category...
7. Other observations?
Do this for all 7 samples. Please and thank you.