CAPTEX T2
EFFECT OF THE DIFFERENT MYCOTOXINS
IN ON THE DIFFERENT FARMED ANIMALS
SPECIES
• Poultry
1. Broilers
2. Layers
3. Breeder
• Sheep
• Goats
• Fish
• Shrimp
Mycotoxins
• Aflatoxin (AFB)
• Fumonisin (FB)
• Ochratoxin (OTA)
• T-2 Toxin (T-2)
• Zearalenone (ZEN)
• Vomitoxin or Deoxynivalenol (DON)
MYCOTOXIN CONCENTRATIONS IN
COMPLETE FEED IN EUROPE
(318 samples from 10 countries, 2012)
FEED
AF FUMONISI
N
OT
A
T2 DON ZEA
% positive samples
84
66
65
39
57
37
Av. Concentration
(ppb)
18
106
21
18
111
76
HOW DOES CAPTEX T2 DEACTIVATES
MYCOTOXINS (MODE OF ACTION)
3 different strategies to counteract a broad
spectrum of mycotoxins
1. Preventing further mold growth
2. Adsorption by minerals
3. Biotransformation by enzymatic activity
1. PREVENTING FURTHER MOLD
GROWTH
Sodium Propionate
acts as a mold inhibitor to prevent mold growth and
proliferation
minimizes risk of having mycotoxin-producing molds further
proliferating in feed.
has no activity against mycotoxins, but, always, when you
ascertain mycotoxins presence, there is still a residual
presence of molds.
1. PREVENTING FURTHER MOLD
GROWTH
Minimum inhibitory concentration of propionic
acid (g/kg diet) on bacteria and molds
Bacteria
Propionic
Molds
Propionic
Salmonella typhimurium
1.5
Aspergillus Niger
2.5
Pseudomonas aeroginosa
2.0
Penicillum expansum
1.3
Escherichia coli
2.0
Fusarium nivale
1.3
Staphylococcus aureus
2.5
Cladosporium sp.
2.5
Listeria monocytogenes
2.0
Campylobcter jejuni
2.0
Clostridum botulinum
2.5
Clostridum perfringes
2.5
2. ADSORPTION BY MINERALS
CAPTEX T2 contains 2 main aluminosilicates
1. Calcium Bentonite (montmorillonite)
2. Zeolite (clinoptilolite)
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
BENTONITE / MONTMORILLONITE
 originally created from the breakdown (weathering)
of volcanic ash.
 is a silicate with a layered polar crystalline
microstructure which adsorbs organic substances
either on its external surfaces or within its
interlaminar spaces.
 Used to bind mainly Aflatoxin.
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF BENTONITE
(MONTMORILLONITE)
2:1 clay structure: one octahedral sheet sandwiched
between two tetrahedral sheets
The mycotoxins that are bound by the
montmorillonite are those that can physically
enter into the interlayer space.
The width of the interlayer space is 0.25 to 0.7
nanometers in the dry state and 1 nanometer in the
hydrated state.
Aflatoxins and ochratoxins can enter into this space
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
ZEOLITES / CLINOPTILOLITE
 is of (sea or lake) sedimentation origin with a
unique, complex crystalline structure.
 honeycomb (tetrahedral) framework of cavities and
channels act like cages, trapping mycotoxins.
 Used to deactivate Zearalenone, Ochratoxin and
Fumonisin.
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF CLINOPTILOLITE
3-dimentional crystalline Structure
with an 8-ring and 10-ring channels
has a cage-like structure,
with pores and channels running
through the crystal.
The cage and surrounding mineral
carries a net negative charge, making
it one of the few negatively charged
minerals found in nature
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF BENTONITE
(CLINOPTILOLITE)
Because of its cage-like structure and
negative charge, clinoptilolite has the ability to
draw and trap within and on itself positively
charged toxic particles that fit into the pores
and channels of the cage
It acts as molecular sieves and absorb
substances of a low-molecular compounds
(mycotoxins)
Used to adsorb Zearalenone, Ochratoxin and
Fumonisin, Deoxynivalenol
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
CAPTEX
 Belongs to a new generation of mycotoxin deactivators, which
are classified as highly purified and activated clays.
 The minerals undergo a special process that involves;
 Physical treatment (Micronisation)
 Chemical treatment which greatly increases its adsorbent efficiency
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
PHYSICAL TREATMENT AND ACTIVE
SURFACE OF CAPTEX T2
 The high af finity of binding is due to the fact that the product
is modified by the micronisation process to be extremely fine,
150,000 particles/gram.
 This provides for a larger surface area that increases the
possibility of interacting with mycotoxins.
 Though extremely fine, caution is given not to have any
particles size of less than 5 microns in order to avoid
dustiness as well as inhalation issues with the people that are
handling the product.
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND CEC OF
CAPTEX T2
 CEC (Cationic Exchange Capacity) is important as it explains
the water absorption capacity of the product.
 The lower the CEC the better it is, as its water absorption
capacity decreases. In the other hand, if CEC is below of 35
then it starts losing its af finity to mycotoxins.
 CEC over 100, means that the product has high in water
absorption capacity and consequently some nutrients can be
trapped.
 CAPTEX T2 has a CEC of approximately 55. IDEAL!!
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
CAPTEX T2 DOES NOT BIND EITHER NUTRIENT OR DRUGS!
MAXIMUM SIZE OF CAPTEX T2 HOLES IS 50 MICRONS
Name of compound
Minimum
particle size
(microns)
Name of
mycotoxins
Maximum
particle
size
(microns)
VITAMIN A
350
VITAMIN D3
200
AFLATOXIN
1
VITAMIN B12
120
ZEARALENONE
1
FOLIC ACID
120
OCHRATOXIN
1
IRON SULFATE
250
FUMONISIN
1
ZINC SULFATE
160
T2
1
TYLOSINE
150
VOMITOXIN
1
AMOXYCILLIN
150
2. ABSORPTION BY MINERALS
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL
TREATMENT
These treatments enable the
minerals to form a stable
irreversible complex that
immobilizes the target
mycotoxins in the
gastrointestinal tract of animals
and by reducing their bioavailability, they are prevented
from being absorbed through
the gut and into the blood
circulation, so thus eliminated
through faeces.
3. BIOTRANSFORMATION
 is the enzymatic degradation of mycotoxins that leads to nontoxic metabolites. In this case, Chitinase is this hydrolytic
enzyme capable of deactivating mycotoxins by degrading their
molecules.
 Chitinase is incorporated into yeast cells by our patented
process and becomes active only at intestinal level when
yeast cells are lyzed by the intestinal enzymes and cell
content is released.
 Chitinase is able to form non toxic de -epoxy metabolite by
removing oxygen from the epoxide group of the trichothecene
mycotoxin.
 This action mimics the detoxifying process carried out by
carboxylesterase (a microsomal enzyme from liver) that
selectively hydrolyses the C -4 acetyl group of T-2 toxin.
3. BIOTRANSFORMATION
Molecule of T-2 and what happens to it after
Biotransformation by Chitinase
3. BIOTRANSFORMATION
BIOTRANSFORMATION
OF T-2 TOXIN
This action mimics the detoxifying
process carried out by
carboxylesterase
(a microsomal enzyme from liver) that
selectively hydrolyses the C-4 acetyl
group of T-2 toxin to yield HT-2 toxin
CAPTEX T2
Not all glucomannans are the same!
 Prior to their inclusion into CAPTEX-T2, Doxal’s
Esterified Glucomannans are treated by another
Chitinase, an enzyme which is able to reduce,
dramatically, their chitin content.
 Chitin content is supposed to increase the alkali
insolubility of β-glucans and to decrease the cell wall
flexibility, so that the toxin molecule has a restricted
access to the complexing chemical sites.
GLUCANS AND CHITIN CONTENTS OF
VARIOUS SOURCES OF
SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
Total
Glucans (%)
(1.3)glucans (%)
(1.3)glucans (%)
Chitin (%)
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 1
13.2
7.2
6.0
9.0
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 2
14.4
7.4
7.0
9.2
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 3
13.5
7.3
6.2
9.1
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 4
13.9
7.6
6.3
10.0
Doxal’s
S.C. 2234
18.2
7.6
10.6
2.7
Yeast Sources
Vopato I. Bizzini B. -1998 Italian Project M.S.T./09/96
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
Toxins binding capacity of three feed
additives in vitro
 Each mycotoxin was solved at the level of 50 µg into 200 ml of
methanol, and kept under gentle stirring throughout the test period,
in a 250 ml volumetric flask.
 100 mcg and 250 mcg aliquots of each Clay, Bentonite and CAPTEXT2 were solved into the flasks, and kept under gentle stirring for 20
minutes; one flask of each mycotoxins was left as blank.
 After 20 minutes, small aliquots were collected from each
volumetric flask and then assayed by High Performance Liquid
Chromathography.
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
Toxins binding capacity of three feed
additives in vitro
AFLATOXIN
CLAY AT 100 MCG
7.40
MCG
CLAY AT 250 MCG
BENTONITE AT 100 MCG
2.40
7.40
MCG
MCG
BENTONITE AT 250 MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 100 MCG
1.00
4.05
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 250 MCG
BLANK
0.00
49.90
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
Toxins binding capacity of three feed
additives in vitro
ZEARALENONE
CLAY AT 100 MCG
42.60
MCG
CLAY AT 250 MCG
BENTONITE AT 100 MCG
BENTONITE AT 250 MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 100 MCG
36.60
27.70
20.00
15.10
MCG
MCG
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 250 MCG
BLANK
9.90
49.70
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
Toxins binding capacity of three feed
additives in vitro
OCHRATOXIN
CLAY AT 100 MCG
6.90
MCG
CLAY AT 250 MCG
BENTONITE AT 100 MCG
BENTONITE AT 250 MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 100 MCG
3.10
7.00
2.95
3.60
MCG
MCG
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 250 MCG
BLANK
0.20
50.10
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
Toxins binding capacity of three feed
additives in vitro
FUMONISIN
CLAY AT 100 MCG
47.48
MCG
CLAY AT 250 MCG
BENTONITE AT 100 MCG
BENTONITE AT 250 MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 100 MCG
46.10
44.90
42.50
27.40
MCG
MCG
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 250 MCG
BLANK
15.05
49.30
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
TOXINS BINDING CAPACIT Y OF CAPTEX
ON T-2 TOXIN IN VITRO
T-2 TOXIN
Activated carbon AT 100 MCG
45.63 MCG
Activated carbon AT 250 MCG
42.14
22.42
15.21
49.20
CAPTEX-T2 AT 100 MCG
CAPTEX-T2 AT 250 MCG
BLANK
MCG
MCG
MCG
MCG
CAPTEX T2 TRIALS
TRIAL IN VIVO
POULTRY FIELD - RESULTS
Feed
consumption
Body
weight
mortality
Plasmatic
calcium
g/day
g
%
mM/L
group A
24,7
344
1,66
2,180 ± 0,16
group B
16,4
265,4
8,33
1,64 ± 0,66
group C
23,1
326,4
1,66
2,09 ± 0,22
THANKS FOR THE KIND
ATTENTION