Chapter 6.
Electronic Structure and
Chemical Periodicity
The Periodic Law states that when
elements are arranged in order of
increasing atomic number, elements
with similar chemical properties occur at
periodic (regularly spaced) intervals.
Tom Lehrer's Elements in Song
The Periodic Table
A Periodic Table is a tabular arrangement of the elements, in order of atomic
number, in which elements with similar
chemical properties are grouped in
columns.
Several attempts were made to group
elements in the mid-1800's. The one
that worked was developed in Russia,
by Dmitri Mendeleev, in 1869.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Mendeleev's Periodic Table
Mendeleev's Predictions for Undiscovered
Elements
Periodic Table of the Elements
The Periodic Table and
Electronic Structure of Atoms
The Periodic Law follows from the electronic
structures of atoms. The outermost electrons
in the atoms of an element are responsible its
properties.
Valence electrons, or distinguishing electrons,
are the outermost electrons in an atom.
Electron Energies are Quantized
They Occur in steps
Atomic Spectra of Elements
Steps Within the Steps
An Electron Shell is a region of space around
a nucleus that contains electrons that have
similar energies, and similar distances from the
nucleus.
An Electron Subshell is a subdivision of a shell,
in which all the electrons have exactly the
same energy and distance from the nucleus.
An Electron Orbital is a region of space in a
subshell where one or two electrons with a
specific energy are likely to be found.
Electron Shells and Subshells
Electron Shells and Subshells
Steps Within the Steps
An Electron shell contains 2(n2) electrons
Electron subshells have characteristic
numbers of orbitals and electrons.
Subshell
s
p
d
f
# of orbitals
1
3
5
7
# of electrons
2
6
10
14
Shapes of Orbitals
An Electron Orbital is a region of space in a
subshell where one or two electrons with a
specific energy are likely to be found.
How Three p Orbitals Make up a p Subshell
Energy Levels of Subshells Get a Bit Shuffled
Aufbau Diagram:
Order of Filling
for Subshells
Periodic Table, Showing Subshells That
Contains Valence Electrons for Various
Elements
Periodic Table, Showing Shell Number for
Valence Electrons
Periodic Table Showing How Inner Transition
Elements Fit into the Main Table
The modern Periodic Table. Elements with similar
chemical properties fall in the same vertical column.
P E R IO D IC T A B L E O F T H E E L E M E N T S
1
17
18
1A
7A
8A
1
1
2
H
H
He
H ydrogen
2
13
14
15
16
H ydrogen
H elium
1.00794
2A
3A
4A
5A
6A
1.00794
4.00260
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Lithium
B eryllium
B oron
C arbon
N itrogen
O xygen
F luorine
N eon
6.941
9.01218
10.81
12.011
14.0067
15.9994
18.998403
20.1797
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
S odium
M agnesium
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
A lum inum
S ilicon
P hosphorus
S ulfur
C hlorine
A rgon
22.98977
24.305
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B
8B
8B
8B
1B
2B
26.98154
28.0855
30.97376
32.066
35.453
39.948
25
26
29
30
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
P otassium
19
C alcium
S candium
T itanium
V anadium
C hrom ium
M anganese
Iron
C obalt
N ick el
C opper
Z inc
G allium
G erm anium
A rsenic
S elenium
B rom ine
K rypton
39.0983
40.078
44.9559
47.88
50.9415
51.996
54.9380
55.847
58.9332
58.69
63.546
65.39
69.72
72.61
74.9216
78.96
79.904
83.80
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
R ubidium
S trontium
Y ttrium
Z irconium
N iobium
M olybdenum
T echnetium
R uthenium
R hodium
P alladium
S ilver
C adm ium
Indium
T in
A ntim ony
T ellurium
Iodine
Xenon
85.4678
87.62
88.9059
91.224
92.9064
95.94
(98)
101.07
102.9055
106.42
107.8682
112.41
114.82
118.710
121.757
127.60
126.9045
131.29
55
20
56
21
22
57
72
23
73
24
74
75
76
27
77
28
32
33
78
79
81
82
Ba
*L a
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
At
Rn
Lanthanum
H afnium
T antalum
T ungsten
R henium
O sm ium
Iridium
P latinum
G old
M ercury
T hallium
Lead
B ism uth
P olonium
A statine
R adon
132.9054
137.33
138.9055
178.49
180.9479
183.85
186.207
190.2
192.22
195.08
196.9665
200.59
204.383
207.2
208.9804
(209)
(210)
(222)
87
88
89
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
114
116
118
Fr
Ra
**Ac
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
(271)
(272)
(277)
(289)
(289)
(293)
R adium
A ctinium
R utherfordium
D ubnium
S eaborgium
B ohrium
H assium
M eitnerium
227.0278
(261)
(262)
(266)
(264)
(269)
(268)
*L a n th a n id e S e rie s
86
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
C erium
P raesodym ium
N eodym ium
P rom ethium
S am arium
E uropium
G adolinium
T erbium
D ysprosium
H olm ium
E rbium
T hulium
Y tterbium
Lutetium
140.12
140.9077
144.24
(145)
150.36
151.96
157.25
158.9254
162.50
164.9304
167.26
168.9342
173.04
174.967
90
**Ac tin id e S e rie s
85
36
B arium
226.0254
84
35
Cs
(223)
83
34
C esium
F rancium
80
31
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr
T horium
P rotactinium
U ranium
N eptunium
P lutonium
A m ericium
C urium
B erk elium
C alifornium
E insteinium
F erm ium
M endelevium
N obelium
Law rencium
232.0381
231.0359
238.0289
237.048
(244)
(243)
(247)
(247)
(251)
(252)
(257)
(258)
(259)
(262)
Vocabulary of Periodic Table
Group (family) of elements--vertical column
Period (row) of elements--horizontal row
Group 1A: Alkali Metals
Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 7A: Halogens
Group 8A: Noble Gases
Groups 1A – 8A: Representative Elements
Groups 1B – 8B: Transition Metals
Vocabulary of Periodic Table
Pink:
Orange:
Yellow:
Purple:
Aqua:
Green:
Representative Metals
Transition Metals
Inner Transition Metals
Post-Transition Metals
Metalloids, a.k.a Semimetals
Nonmetals
Properties of Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals.
Metals
Metalloids (Semimetals)
Nonmetals
Conductors of Electricity
Semiconductors of
Electricity
Insulators of Electricity
Conduct Heat Well
Conduct Heat Poorly
Metallic Luster
Metallic Luster
No Metallic Luster
Solid at Room Temp
Solid at Room Temp
State Varies with Molar
Mass
Malleable and Ductile
Brittle
Brittle
Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)
Zeff is the charge actually felt by an electron
Outer electrons are shielded by inner electrons.
Relative Sizes of Main Group Atoms
Ionization Energy is the energy required to
pull an electron off an atom.
Electron Affinity is the energy released
when a neutral atom gains an electron.
Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons it is
sharing in a chemical bond.
Cations are positively charged atoms
that have lost electrons. They are
always smaller than the parent atom.
Anions are negatively charged atoms
that have gained electrons. They are
always larger than the parent atom.

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