核色动力学导论 ---用量子色动力学描绘 现代核物理的蓝图 何汉新 中国原子能科学研究院 An Introduction to Nuclear QCD --QCD and its applications to the systems of nucleon and nuclear structure He, Han-xin China Institute of Atomic Energy Contents 1. What is nuclear QCD? Why apply QCD to nucleonic and nuclear systems? 2. Bases of nuclear QCD: QCD and its properties 3. Nucleon and nuclei at high-energy scale 4. Nonperturbative QCD studies 5. Nucleon, nuclei at low-energy scale 6. Summery 1. What is nuclear QCD? *Why apply QCD to nucleonic and nuclear systems? • Traditional nuclear physics: nuclei are composed of point-like nucleons Dynamics: Quantum mechanics • DIS experiments: nucleon has structure • Quark model: Proton: uud Nutron: ddu • Strong interaction dynamics: QCD • Nuclear chromodynamics Quark Model of Hadrons Quark Model of Hadrons Baryon’s Quark Structure 2.Bases of Nuclear QCD (1)QCD Lagrangian BRST Symmetry of QCD Lagrangian QCD Symmetries, Conservation Laws and Identities • *BRST symmetry and Ward-Takahashi(Slavnov-Taylor) identities • *Glabor symmetries and conservation laws • *QCD energy-momentum tensor • *QCD angular momentum tensor PQCD, Feynman Diagram Basic Properties of QCD Effective quark freedom 3. Nucleon and Nuclei at High-Energy Scale * Theory bases and approaches QCD asymptotic freedom QCD perturbation theory Parton distributions, GPD, form factors • Experiment measures: Deep in-elastic scattering (DIS) Processes (1) Lepton-nucleon DIS and parton model Quark parton distributions(1) Quark parton distributions(2) Quark parton distribution(3) • Transversity distribution and tensor charge (2) Parton model sum rules Parton sum rules and quark-gluon distributions in nucleon • Spin-independent parton sum rules Adler sum rule, Gross-Llewellyn sum rule, Gottfried sum rule(GRS), Momentum sum rule • Spin-dependent parton sum rules Bjorken sum rule, GDH sum rule, Generalized GDH sum rule, Quark transversity sum rule and tensor charge Bjorken sum rule (3) Nucleon structure fromQCD *Spin structure of nucleon Perturbative Evolutions of QCD angular momentum operators Perturbative Evolutions of QCD angular momentum operators Perturbative Evolutions of QCD angular momentum operators In asymptotic limit, the quark spin contribution is less then 0.36 for 3-flavor case Quark spin contribution to nucleon spin Quark spin contribution to nucleon spin The measurement results are given at Q^2 =5 Gev^2 Effective theory analyses QCD at low-energy is equivalent to an effective quark theory Dynamically generated quark mass Axial charges of the proton and quark spin contribution to proton spin The current quark spin contribution is Which is exactly agreement with HERMES’s result. Tensor Charge of the Nucleon • QCD perturbative evolitions Note that gluons do not enter the evolution equation for transversity distributions due to the chiral-odd property. The evolution equation of tensor charge at leading order Theory estimates of tensor charges —model calculation results Effective theory analyses of tensor charges • Flavor singlet tensor charge of current quark contributions (in the asymptotic limit) Flavor singlet axial charge Flavor singlet tensor charge Isovector tensor charge Where m is dynamic mass of quark in the chiral limit Scale dependence of tensor & axial charges Flavor singlet tensor charge(green line) and axial charge(red line) with scale change * Origin of nucleon mass * Origin of nucleon mass *Nucleon form factor Form Factors of the Nucleon • • • • Perrturbative QCD analysis Lattice QCD calculations Parametrization model of GPD Light-cone sum rules Parametrization model of GPD (4) High-energy nucleon-nucleon collision: Drell-Yan processes (5) Lepton-nuclei DIS: EMC effect 4. Nonperturbative QCD *Study aim * Quark and gluon color confinement * Dynamically chiral symmetry breaking * How to form nucleon(hadrons) * Hadron states * N-N interactions and nuclei *Study approaches •QCD Nonperturbative Approachs •(a) Lattice QCD (1) •Lattice QCD (2) •(b) Dyson-Schwiner Equations (1) •Dyson-Schwinger Equations(2) •Dyson-Schwinger Equations(3) (c) QCD Sum Rules (1) •QCD Sum Rules (2) (d) Effective Field Theory (1) •Effective Field Theory (2) •Effective Field Theory (3) •Effective Field Theory (4) •Effective Field Theory (5) •Effective Field Theory (6) (1)Quark-gluon confinement studies *Confinement potential from lattice QCD Linear confinement potential from lattice QCD Color-confinement mechanism • QCD vacuum properties and color confinement --Magnetic monopoles and dual superconductivity • QCD nonperturbative interactions lead to color confinement (confinement dynamics) --Infrared slavery cased by the infrared divergences of QCD green’s functions *Color-confinement dynamics • Color confinement scenarios --- Infrared behaviors of gluon and ghost propagators • Dyson-Schwinger equations • Lattice QCD calculations • Quark-gluon vertex structure and quark color confinement Infrared behaviour of gluon and ghost propagators in Yang-Mills theory QCD quark-gluon vertex structure H.X.He, Phys.Rev.D80, 016004 (2009) (2) Low-energy effective models --Bridge • • • • • between QCD and phenomena GCM model Chiral soliton model NJL model Quark-meson coupling model Quark potential model(constitute quark model) 5. Nucleon, N-N interactions & Nuclei at Low-energy Scale (1) From QCD to constitute quark model(CQM) (2) The static properties of nucleon in CQM * nucleon mass * axial charge, tensor charge * nucleon magnetics * spin structure * strange contents of nucleon (3)Non-conventional (exotic) hadron states Glueballs * Tetraquark states * Quark-gluon hybrid states * Pentaquark states * Hexaquark states * Nucleon-anti-nucleon bound states * (4) Nucleon-nucleon interactions in quark model Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in Quark Model (5) Quark-meson coupling(QMC) model and nuclear many-body problems(a) Quark-meson coupling(QMC) model and nuclear many-body problems(b) Quark-meson coupling(QMC) model and nuclear many-body problems • QMC and QHD • QMC and Skyrme effective nuclear force • Saturation property and incompressibility of nuclear matter • Modefications of mass and properties of hadron • Finite nuclei in QMC model • The quark structure effects of nucleon in nuclear matter *Saturation property and incompressibility of nuclear matter Modefications of nucleon mass in nuclear matter(a) *Modefications of nucleon mass in nuclear matter(b) * QMC and Skyrme effective nuclear force(a) •QMC and Skyrme effective nuclear force(b) •Finite nuclei in QMC model(a) •Finite nuclei in QMC model(b) * Finite nuclei in QMC model(c) Summary QCD (quarks, gluons) Nucleons, mesons,… Nucleon-nucleon interactions Nuclear matter, nuclei

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# An Introduction to Nuclear QCD --QCD and its applications to the