Chapter 6 Approach Charts
§6.1
§6.2
§6.3
§6.4
§6.5
§6.6
Introduction
Layout and Information
Non-Precision Approaches
Precision Approach
Straight-In Approaches
Approaches with Reversals
§6.1 Introduction
The standards used in designing these instrument
approaches are governed by each country’s
controlling civil aviation administration (CAA):
• TERPS
• PANS-OPS
• JAR OPS
§6.2 Layout and Information
Jeppesen’s approach charts are designed by
pilots for pilots.
• The Heading
• The Plan View
• Profile View
• Landing Minimums
Heading
Plan View
Profile View
Landing Minimum
§6.2.1 Heading
The information in chart heading includes:
• Heading Border Data(图边信息)
• Communication Row(通信频率)
• Pre-Approach Briefing Strip & MSA
(进近简令条和最低扇区高度)
§6.2.1.1 Heading Border Data
• Location Name(机场地名)
• Procedure Identifier(程序名称)
• Chart Index Number(进近图索引号)
• Chart Date(进近图日期)
• Airport Identifier and Airport Name
(机场代码和名称)
Procedure Identifier
Location Name
Procedure Identifier
Chart Index Number
• The First Digit represents the airport
number and is an arbitrary assignment.
• The Second Digit represents the chart
type:
0-Area, DP, SID, STAR, Class B, etc.
1-ILS, LOC, MLS, LDA (Localizer-type Directional
Aid), SDF (Simplified Directional Facility)
2-RNAV
3-VOR, VOR/DME
4-TACAN
5-RESERVED
6-NDB
7-Reserved
8-PAR, ASR(airport/airfield surveillance radar),
Stand-Alone GPS
9-VOR DME RNAV, Charted Visual Flight
Procedures (CVFP)
Chart Date
Revision Date
Effective Date
The chart date may be used to ensure that the
chart selected is correct and current. Each chart
has a chart date and, additionally, may have an
effective date. Dates are expressed in the format
of day, month, year.
Airport Identifier and Name
Airport
Identifier
Airport Name
§6.2.1.2 Communications Row
§6.2.1.3 Pre-flight Approach
Briefing Strip &MSA








•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Primary navigation aid
Final approach course bearing
Check altitude box
Lowest minimum altitude. DA(H) or MDA(H)
Airport elevation
Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) graphic
Missed approach instructions
Additional notes/Altimeter setting information
Primary
Navigation Aid
Missed
Approach
Check
Altitude Box
Final Approach
Course Bearing
Lowest
Minimum
Altitude
Airport
Elevation
Additional Notes
MSA
Check Altitude Box
• On precision approaches, it provides the
crossing altitude of the glide slope at the OM.
• On non-precision approaches, it contains the
altitude at the FAF.
Lowest Minimum Altitude
• For a precision approach, this box contains the
lowest DA(H).
• For a non-precision approach, it contains the
lowest MDA(H) for the straight-in landing.
Airport Elevation
The airport elevation is the highest point of an
airport’s usable runways, while the TDZE is the
highest elevation in the first 3,000 feet of the
landing surface.
Terps
Pans-ops
MSA
The MSA indicates the minimum altitude you can
fly that will provide you with at least 1,000 feet
of obstruction clearance within the given radius
of the fix or facility designated below the MSA
circle (when not specified, the radius is 25
nautical miles).
The center of the MSA is normally the locator on
ILS or localizer approaches, the VOR on VOR or
VOR/DME approaches, and the NDB on NDB
approaches.
Missed Approach Instructions
Altimeter Setting Information
and Additional Notes
§6.2.2 Plan View
• Scale, Terrain(地形)and Elevation
symbols
• Navaid symbols
• Flight track symbols
• Airspace fix symbols
§6.2.2.1 Scale, Topographical, and
Elevation Symbols
Man-made structure Elevation
Elevation
Contour
Navaid
Symbology
Missed Approach
Track
latitude
Approach
Track
Scale
longitude
Fix
Prohibitive
Area
Scale
The plan view is depicted to scale. Normally,
this scale is one inch equals five nautical
miles (1inch=5 nm).
However, occasionally the length of the
approach may require a different scale
factor to be used.
Terrain Symbols
Airport Symbols
§6.2.2.2 Navaid Symbology
• Navaid facilities
• Marker beacons
• Facility information boxes
Navigation Facilities
Front Course
Back Course
Offset Facility
VOR & NDB
Marker Beacons
Facility Information Boxes
Information box (es) with shadow means
that it is used as the main navaid when
acting final approach.
§6.2.2.3 Flight Track Symbols
Approach procedure flight track
Missed approach track
Visual flight track
High level track
Magnetic Bearings and Courses
True Course
Magnetic Heading
(Routes without radio
aids guidance)
Magnetic Course
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Course Reversals and Procedure
Turns
Holding Pattern
§6.2.2.4 Airspace Fixes
• Fixes and Reporting Points
• Waypoints
• Computer Navigation Fixes (CNFs)
and Database Identifiers
There are basically two categories of fixes,
reporting points, and/or waypoints:
DME Fixes
Waypoints
Example 1
Non-precision Approach Chart
Example 2
Precision Approach Chart
Example 3
Base Turn Approach Procedures
Example 4
Racetrack pattern Approach Procedures
Example 5
Procedure Turn Approach Chart
§6.2.3 Profile View
The profile view schematically(直观地)
portrays a side view of the approach
procedure flight path. It begins at the
same location as the plan view and
contains many of the same symbols;
however, it is not drawn to scale.
The symbols in profile view include:
• Flight tracks, including bearings, distances,
times, course reversals,
• Airspace fixes, including FAF, stepdown fix,
MAP, visual descent points, and makers
• Altitudes, including the recommended
descent altitude/height
• Conversion table missed approach points,
• Lighting and missed approach icons
§6.2.3.1 Descent Flight Tracks
(non) Precision Approach
Glide Slope
MLS Glide Path
Non-precision Glide Slope
High level approach track
Visual flight track
Outbound limited
by DME
Outbound limited
by Time
§6.2.3.2 Airspace Fixes
The flight track from intermediate approach
course to final approach course is defined
by Marker Beacons, Fixes, Waypoints and
Navaids on the profile view.
MAP
FAF/FAP
Fix
Navaid
FAF/FAP
For a nonprecision approach procedure,
the FAF is indicated on the profile view
by a Maltese Cross(马耳他叉), if
specified by the state source.
Stepdown Fixes
After you overfly stepdown fixes, you can
further descend to a minimum descent
altitude. When you cannot identify a
stepdown fix, you must level off at the
minimum altitude specified for that fix.
Only one stepdown fix normally is permitted between the
final approach fix and the missed approach point.
MAP
The MAP (Missed Approach Point) is a point
prescribed in each instrument approach procedure
at which a missed approach procedure must be
executed if the required visual reference has not
been achieved.
Precision
Approach MAP
Nonprecision
Approach MAP
For precision approaches, the MAP is the
point where you reach the DA(H), while
descending on the glide slope.
For nonprecision approaches, the MAP
occurs either at a fix defined by a navaid,
The conversion table will specify the time at
various speeds from the FAF to the MAP.
VDP
A VDP (Visual descent point) depicted by the letter V
in the profile view, represents the point from which
you can make a normal descent to a landing,
provided you have the approach end of the runway
in sight and you are at the minimum descent
altitude (MDA) . A descent below the MDA should
not be started prior to reaching the VDP.
§6.2.3.3 Altitudes
The profile view shows minimum altitudes along
the flight track. All altitudes are given above
QNH in feet, followed by a parenthetical(放在括
号里的) number which represent height above
the airport elevation (HAA).
• TDZE is the highest elevation in the first 3,000
feet of the landing surface.
• TCH (Threshold Crossing Height) is a theoretical
height above the runway threshold when you
are established on the glide slope descent path.
§6.2.3.4 Conversion Tables
• For a precision approach, the table lists
the glide slope angle,groundspeed and the
rate of descent for the ILS glide slope
(descent in feet per minute).
• For nonprecision approaches, the table
relates groundspeed to the distance from
the FAF (the LOM or similar fix) and shows
the time in minutes and seconds to fly
from FAF or other specified fix to MAP.
• For combined ILS and LOC approaches,
only one descent table is provided when
the ILS glide slope angle and the descent
gradient of the LOC approach are
coincidental.
§6.2.3.5 Lighting Icons
PAPI: Precision Approach Path indicator
Standard 2-bar VASI
VASI: Visual approach slop indicator
Missed Approach Icons
§6.2.4 Landing Minimums
The landing minimums table, found at the
bottom of the Jeppesen approach chart,
contains two types of minimums that must
both be met in order to legally complete
the approach to landing:
• DA(H)/MDA(H)
• VIS/RVR
§6.2.4.1 Type of Procedure
Landing minimums are affected by any or all
of the following factors:
• Straight-in
• Sidestep(旁侧进近)
• Circle-to-Land
§6.2.4.2 Type of Approach
Another differentiation made in the landing
minimums table is the type of approach.
• Category I Precision
• Category II/III Precision
• Nonprecision
• Multiple Approach Types
Category III precision approaches typically
do not have a decision altitude and require
special certification for the operator and
the individual pilot.
Occasionally, a chart portrays more than one
type of approach procedure on the same
chart. In that case, multiple sets of
straight-in minimums are provided.
§6.2.4.3 Aircraft Approach Category
The type of aircraft affects the landing
minimums. The landing minimums table
includes divisions for each of four aircraft
categories.
Each aircraft is placed into an aircraft
approach category based on its computed
approach speed. This speed equals 130%
of the aircraft’s stall speed in the landing
configuration at the maximum certificated
landing weight.
§6.2.4.4 Inoperative Components
or Visual Aids
Landing minimums usually increase when a
required radio navigation component or visual
aid becomes inoperative.
Regulation permit you to make substitutions for
certain components when the component is
inoperative, or is not utilized during an approach.
For example, on an ILS approach, a compass
locator or precision approach radar may be
substituted for the outer marker where so
depicted in the profile view.
Glide Slope
When the ILS glide slope is inoperative, the
procedure becomes a nonprecision
localizer approach, raising the minimum
altitude to which you can descend, and
changing to a minimum descent altitude
rather than a decision altitude.
DME Fixes
Sometimes lower minimums are allowed when you
can identify a particular fix in a nonprecision
final approach segment.
Although DME may not be required to fly the
specific approach procedure, the ability to
identify a DME fix provides lower minimums.
Lighting
Whether or not certain lighting systems
(typically approach lights, centerline lights,
or touchdown zone lights) are working
affects the visibility requirements for the
approach procedure.
Middle Marker
Although in the U.S, the FAA has eliminated
the penalty(处罚) for an inoperative
middle marker, a few countries (such as
Brazil, Chain Taipei ) continue the penalty.
Altimeter Setting
When an altimeter setting is derived from a remote source
more than 5 miles from the airport reference point,
rather than a local altimeter, the DA(H) or MDA(H) is
increased by a factor that considers both the remote
altimeter as well as the elevation difference between the
landing airport and the remote altimeter airport.
§6.2.4.5 Airport Operating
Specifications
There are three primary specifications that Jeppesen applies
when determining minimums:
• ICAO Document 9365, Manual of All-Weather Operations
• Joint Aviation Regulations Operations (JAR OPS-1 Subpart
E)
• FAA Handbook 8260.3B TERPS
§6.2.4.6 Other Factors
In addition to those factors covered in this
lesson, many other factors may affect
landing minimums, especially those in the
circle-to-land column.
Frequently, these restrictions are due to
critical terrain or obstacles, prohibitions to
overfly nearby residence areas, or for
noise abatement.
Time of Day
Runway
Terrain
Direction
Example
Non-precision Approach Chart
Example
Precision Approach Chart
Example
Straight-in Approach Chart
Example
Procedure Turn Approach Chart
Example
Base Turn Approach Procedures
Example
Racetrack pattern Approach Procedures
§6.8 Circling Approach
A circling approach is a procedure that
involves executing an approach to one
runway and then landing on another.
Several situations any require you to
execute a circling approach.
§6.8.2 Restrictions of Circle-to-Land
Restricted by Direction
Restricted by Available
Equipment or Navaids
Restricted by Time or Weather
Restricted by Aircraft Categories
Limited Protected Area
Example
Missed Approach Procedures
Download

Precision Approach Chart

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