LEGIONELLA AWARENESS
COURSE
COURSE OBJECTIVES
To enable you to be aware of issues
associated with Legionella within the UoP &
be able to assist in the delivery of the
Management Plan.
LEGIONELLOSIS
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Legionella = water-borne bacteria
Naturally widespread in the environment
Over 50 different species identified
20 known to cause disease in man
Legionella pneumophila
– Legionnaire’s Disease
• Pontiac Fever / Lochgoilhead Fever
Legionella sp. under UV
illumination
Legionella
pneumophila
LEGIONELLA
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Temperature range 20 - 50°C
Proliferates at 37 °C
Requires nutrients
Slow moving / stagnant water
Poorly managed water system
= perfect environment
SYMPTOMS
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Head & muscle ache
Tightness in chest
Dry cough
Sickness & diarrhoea
Confusion / delirium
Coma
Death
‘AT RISK’ GROUPS
England & Wales Cases
250
200
150
Cases
Male
Female
100
50
0
0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+
Age in Years
CHAIN OF EVENTS
Bacteria present in water system
Slow moving / stagnant water
Adequate food source
Temperature range 20-50°C
Aerosol formed
People present
RISK AREAS
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Hot & Cold Water Systems
Cooling Towers & Air Conditioning
Storage Cisterns
Calorifiers
Deadlegs
Showers
Spa pools
LEV’s/ Fume Cupboards
Showers
Operate at desired
temps
Poor hygiene
Infrequently used
Prone to scaling
Create aerosol
Showers
Any Questions ?
Hot and cold water systems
Cause the most cases
Cold Water Storage Tanks
Dirty Tanks = clean & disinfection
Types of Water Heaters
Legionella Control
Regulation & Legislation
Legislation
• Health & Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSAWA)
• Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999
(MHSWR)
• Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
2002 (COSHH)
• The Notification of Cooling Towers and Evaporative
Condensers 1992
• The Control of Legionella Bacteria in Water Systems
Approved Code of Practice & Guidance 2001 ACoP L8
• Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
Approved Code of Practice
• Identification and assessment of risk
• Prepare a scheme for preventing or
controlling the risk
• Implement, manage and monitor
precautions
• Keep records
• Appoint a person to be managerially
responsible
Risk Assessment & Control Measures
Why does it matter ?
The HSE views Legionnaires’ Disease as
preventable
• To satisfy regulation and legislation
• To show due diligence
• To protect employees and public
When Should It Be Repeated?
• At least every 2 years or when NO longer
valid e.g.
– Changes to the use of the building.
– Availability of new information.
– Control measures are no longer effective.
– Case of LD associated with system.
– Changes to the system or its use.
Typical Written Scheme:
H & C Water Systems Checks
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Monthly – temperature checks
Quarterly - shower cleaning
Six monthly - CWS Tank temperatures
Annually - CWS Tank inspections, calorifier
checks
• Other systems as required
• Weekly - flushing little used outlets
Management & Training
• Inadequate management, lack of training and
poor communication have all been identified as
contributory factors in outbreaks of Legionnaires
Disease.
• Those who are appointed to carry out control
measures and strategies should be suitably
informed, instructed, properly trained and their
competency assessed.
Appropriate Records
• Responsible persons
• Significant findings of the risk assessment
• Written scheme of actions and control
measures
• Results of any monitoring, inspection, test or
check carried out
Typical Log Book Records
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Training records
Lines of communication
Current state of operation
Signature of person that did the work
Plans or schematic drawings
Visit log for engineers/contractors
Schematics Example
O LD S D
IE
CW ST 1
SECOND
F LOOR
ROOM 2
FR
I ST
F LOOR
ROOM 1
CW ST 2
ROOM 3
ROOM 8
GROUND
F LOOR
CW ST 3
ROOM 4
ROOM 9
ROOM 1 4 TO
ROOM 1 0
DS
I AB LED
TO ILET
CW ST 6
ROOM 1 7
ROOM 1 1
LAD E
IS
TO ILE T
ROOM 1 8
ROOM 1 2
MAN
I
KT
I CHEN
ROOM 2 0
ROOM 5
KT
I CHEN
S TAF F
GENTS
ROOM 2 1
S TA F F
BATHROOM
ROOM 6
KT
I CHEN
S TAF F
LAD E
IS
CW ST 5
ROOM 2 2
ROOM 2 3
ROOM 2 4
ROOM 7
OUTS D
IE
KEY :fol w o m
f a ni s w a et r
CA L 8
fol w o fc o dl w a et r
CA L 7
fol w o fh o tw a et r
MAN
I SW ATER
T TI LE
EXAM P LE H O TE L W A TER SC H EM A T CI , AS SEEN
kc
D A TE O
: C T 2003
R EF A
: BC H O TE L
H 2O C H EM CI A LS L TD
Why keep Records?
• To demonstrate compliance with the law
• Show what control measures are being taken
• Monitor water temperatures, system cleanliness,
bacteria levels (if appropriate)
• Show trend analysis learn more about the
systems
• Review performance
• Provide evidence of reducing the risk
Any Questions ?
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